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CHAPTER 1. Introductory i 

2. Skilfulness 30 

3. A Parable 60 

4. Disposition . ... 98 

5. On Plants 118 

6. Announcement of Future Destiny . . .142 

7. Ancient Devotion 153 

8. Announcement of the Future Destiny of the 

Five Hundred Monks . . . .191 
9. Announcement of the Future Destiny of 

Ananda, Rlhula, and the Two Thousand 

Monks 205 

10. The Preacher 213 

11. Apparition of a Stflpa 227 

12. Exertion 255 

; 13. Peaceful Life 262 

14. Issuing of Bodhisattvas from the Gaps of the 

Earth 281 

15. Duration of Life of the Tath&gata . . 298 

16. Of Piety 3^ 

17. Indication of the Meritoriousness of Joyful 

Acceptance 3 28 

18. The Advantages of a Religious Preacher . 336 

19. SadSpafibhfita 354 

20. Conception of the Transcendent Power of the 

TathSgatas 3 6 3 

21. Spells 37> 

22. Ancient Devotion of Bhaisha^yara^a . . 37^ 




Gadgadasvara ..... 



The All-sided One .... 

. 406 


Ancient Devotion .... 

. 419 


Encouragement of Samantabhadra 



The Period 

. 440 




Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East . . .451 


THE Saddharma-pu^nStTa is one of the nine Dhannas 
which arckngssarUy the titles of i. Ashtesahasriki Pra- 
^^>ari^5 a.Ga/w?a-vy<iha; 3. Dajabhftmfcvata ; 4. Sa- 
5. 4-ankavatara ; 6. Saddharma-pwafortka ; 

7- Tathigata-gUhyaka ; 8. Lalita-vistara ; o. Suvarwa-pra- 

1 1 A " 


These niae works, to which divine worship is offered, 
embrace (to use the words of the first investigator of 
Nepalese Buddhism 1 ) 'in the first, an abstract of the 
philosophy of Buddhism 2 ; in the seventh, a treatise on 
the esoteric doctrines; and in the seven remaining ones, 
a full illustration of every point of the ordinary doctrine 
and discipline, taught in the easy and effective way of 
example and anecdote, interspersed with occasional In- 
stances of dogmatic instruction. With the exception of 
the first, these works are therefore of a narrative kind ; but 
interwoven with much occasional speculative matter.' 

As to the form, it would seem that all the Dharmas may 
rank as narrative works, which, however, does not exclude in 
some of them a total difference in style of composition and 
character. The Lalita-vistara e.g. has the movement of a real 
epic, the Saddharma-puwdarJka has not. The latter bears 
the character of a dramatic performance, an undeveloped 
mystery play, in which the chief interlocutor, not the only 

1 B. H. Hodgson, Essays on the Language, Liteiature, and Religion of Nepal 
and Tibet, p. 13 ; cf. p, 49. 

a As the Perfect Pragma is she who has produced all Tathigatas, the mother 
of all Bodhisattvas, Pratyekabuddhas, and Disciples (see Cowell and Eggeling, 
Catalogue of Buddhist Sanskrit Manuscripts, Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, New Series, VIII, p 3), -we must infer that the work is chiefly intended 
to set foith the principia rerum. It begins with chaos (pra dh ana or ; 
and hence its place at the commencement of the list. We may, perhaps, "best 
designate it as an abstract of mystic-natural or materialistic philosophy. 


one, is Slkyamuni, the Lord. It consists of a series of 
dialogues, brightened by the magic effects of a would-be 
supernatural scenery. The phantasmagorical parts of ^ the 
whole are as clearly intended to impress us with the idea 
of the might and glory of the Buddha, as his speeches are 
to set forth his all-surpassing wisdom. Some affinity of its 
technical arrangement with that of the regular Indian drama 
is visible in the prologue or NidHna, where Ma%urrl at the 
end prepares the spectators and auditors both are the 
same for the beginning of the grand drama, by telling 
them that the Lord is about to awake from his mystic 
slumber and to display his infinite wisdom and power. 

In the book itself we find it termed a Sfttra or Stednta 
of the class called MaMvaipulya. In a highly instructive 
discussion on the peculiar characteristics and comparative 
age of the different kinds of Sfltras, Burnouf arrives at the 
conclusion that the Mahdvaipulya Sfitras are posterior to 
the simple Stitras in general 1 . As there are two categories 
of simple S&tras, i. those in which the events narrated are 
placed contemporary with the Buddha, 3. those which 
refer to persons living a considerable time after his reputed 
period, e.g. A-roka 2 , it follows that the composition of the 
Mah&vaipulya Stitras must be held to fall in a later time 
than the production of even the second category of simple 
Sfttras. Now in one of the latter, the Aroka-Avadina, we 
read of A-s-oka using the word dlnira 3 , which leads us to 
the conclusion that the said Avadina was composed, not 
only after the introduction of dinira from the West, in 
the first century of our. era or later, but at a still more 
modern time, when people had forgotten the foreign origin 
of the coin in question. 

The results arrived at by Burnouf may be right so far as 
any Mahivaipulya Sfttra, as a whole, is concerned ; they 
cannot be applied to all the component parts of such a 
work. Not to go further than the Saddharma-puwdartka 

1 Introduction k rhistoire du BuddJiisme indien, pp. 103-128. 
9 Bamouf, Introd p. 218 seq. 

* BnmoTi Introd. p. 423 ; cf. p. 431, where Pushyamitra is made to speak 
of Dtatos; Max Midler, History of Ancient Sanskiit Literature, p 245. 


and the Lalita-vistara, it can hardly be questioned that 
these works contain parts of very different dates, and derived 
from various sources. The material discrepancies between 
the version in prose and that in verse are occasionally too 
great to allow us to suppose them to have been made 
simultaneously or even by different authors conjointly at 
work 1 . Further it can be shown that the Mahvaipulya 
Stitras are partially made up of such materials as must be 
referred to the oldest period of Buddhism. Let me adduce 
some examples to render more clear what I mean. 

If we compare Lalita-vistara (Calc. ed.), p. 513, i3-p. 514, 
a, with MaMvagga (ed. Dr. Oldenberg) I, 5, 3, we perceive 
that the passages are to a great extent literally identical, 
and that the variations amount to little more than a 
varietas lectionis. 

The passage adduced is in prose ; now let us take some 
stanzas. In MaMvagga I, 5, 3, the Lord utters the follow- 
ing dokas : 

kiWzena me adhigata^ halaw dim pak&situm, 
r&gadosaparetehi n4ya*# dhammo susambudho. 
pa^sotag^mi nipuwaw gambhiram duddasa;^ a^um 
r&garatt& na dakkhanti tamokhandhena ivuti. 

This does not materially differ from Lalita-vistara, p. 515, 
16 seq.: 

pratisrotagclmiko mclrgo gambhiro durdmo mama, 
na ta#s drakshya(n)ti 2 rdgindh& ala#z tasmdt prak&ritum. 
pravhyante kmeshu patit^ pra^aA ; 

'yaw sampr&ptam(!) alam tasmit praklritum. 

Though there is some difference in the wording and 
arrangement of the verses, it is of such a kind as to exclude 
all idea of the compiler of the Lalita-vistara having 
composed the distichs himself, Even the words ay aw 
dhammo susambudho and nipu^aw of the Pli text 
were known to him, as appears from the passage in prose 
immediately preceding the j-lokas quoted: gambhlraA 

1 See e.g. the foot-note, p. 413. 

3 An erroneous Sauskritisation of the present tense dakkhanti. 


khalv aya#i, Mah&brahman 3 maya dharmo 'bhisam- 
buddha/zjftkshmo nipuwaA What follows, apl/6ame, 
Brahman, ime g&the abhiksh^a^ pratibhdsata// 1 , 
is but a slight, not very felicitous modification of what we 
read in the Mahdvagga 1. c. : api 'ssu bhagavantaw ima 
ana/^^ariyd gdthyo pa/ibha?;zsu pubbe assuta- 

Evidently from the same source are the verses in Trish- 
Aibh uttered by the god Brahma, MaMvagga I, 5, 7, and 
those found in Lalita-vistara, p. 517, 3 seq. The former text 


pdturahosi Magadhesu pubbe 

dhammo asuddho samalehi intito, 
apcipur 3 eta;# amatassa dvSra;^ 
su;/antu dhamma;;z vimalendnubuddha?^ 2 . 
The other runs thus : 

vddo babhiiva samalair vi>feintito 
dharmo hy 3 a^uddho Magadheshu plirvam; 
amrc'ta;;* mune tad vivritAshva. dvram 
jnnvanti* dharma vipula; 6 vimalena buddham. 
On comparing the two texts we may infer that the PAli 
version is purer, that v&do babhtiva is a corruption of 
pdft babhtiva or something like it, answering to a 
Sanskrit prddur babhftva, but we cannot deny that the 
stanzas have the same origin. 

In MaMvagga I, 5, 13, the Lord addresses the god 
Brahma with the following TrishAibh : 
apiruti tesam amatassa dv&r& 
ye sotavanto, pamu#antu c saddham. 

1 Obviously an unhappy attempt to Sanskntise a Pali or Prakiit pati- 
bha/nsu; it ought to have been pratyabMsislUam 

* The text is corrupt; we have either to read vimalaniabuddhaw, a 
Tatpurusha compound expressing the same as -tfhat the text exhibits, or vima- 
lena buddham. 

8 Hi is meaningless, and only a clumsy device to satisfy the exigency of 
Sanskrit phonetical rules, which are not applicable to Praknt. 

* Read jr/nrantm 

5 Read dharmaw vimalena. Vipula piobably owes its origin to a 

* I do- not understand this pamufiJantu, i. e. let them cast off, loose or emit, 
Perhaps we have to read payu?%antu, let them practise. 


vihifwsasat paguwa^ na bhisi 
dhammaw pa^fta;^ manu^esu, Brahma; ill 
Then in prose : Atha kho Brahm& Sahampati katavakiso 
kho 'mhi bhagavatd dhammadesaniy^l 'ti bhagavantam 
abhivddetva padakkhiwaaw katv tatth' ev' antaradhiyi. 

The parallel passage in Lalita-vistara, p. 520, 19 seq., 

apivrft&s teshim 1 amntasya dv&r& 
Brahmann iti 2 satatam ye srotavanta/z, 
pravkanfi jraddha na vihe^asa%-& 
srinvanti dharmam Magadheshu sattvi/e. 

Atha khalu ^ikhl Mahabrahmi Tath^atasy4dhivdsan4w 
viditva, tushda ndagra ^ttamanS, pramudita^ prttisauma- 
nasya^itas TatMgatasya pidau riras^bhivanditv^ tatrai- 

At the meeting of the A^fvaka monk Upaka and the 
Buddha, the latter is represented as having pronounced the 
following dokas (Mahdvagga I, 6, 8 and 9) : 

na me H^ariyo atthi, sadiso me na vi^g*ati, 
sadevakasmi^ lokasmiw n* atthi me paripuggalo. 
aha^ hi araM loke, aham satthi anuttaro, 
eko 5 mhi sammisambuddho, sttibMto 'smi nibbuto. 
mdisi ve Gin honti ye pattd isavakkhaya^, 
giti me ppaH dhammd tasmSham Upaka 3 ^ino. 

Materially the same dokas, albeit in somewhat different 
arrangement, occur Lalita-vistara, p. 536, 23 seq., as being 
spoken at the same meeting : 

d&ryo nahi me ka^it, sadn'-ro me na vidyate s 
eko 'ham asmi sambuddhaA, ^itibhiito nir&srava/z. 
aham ev&ha^ 4 loke ^dsti hy aham anuttara^, 
sadevisuragandharve nisti me pratipudgala^ 6 . 

1 Read tesliam, if not tesam, because a contraction of am and a following 
vowel into one syllable is as common as one of a m is nnaeard of. 

a These words do not suit the metre, and have undoubtedly been transposed 
from their original place, which they have kept in the Pali text. 

8 Rather Upaka, a common Prakrit form of the vocative case. See SukM- 
vatt-vyfiha, p. xi, in Anecdota Oxoniensia, Aryan Series, vol. i, part ii. 

* Read aham ev^rahaw (Sanskrit arhan). 

5 The Calc. ed. has wrongly dharvo and pungalaA. 


hi midwd^eya ye priptd 4srayakshaya^ 
me P pak4 dharmas tenopa(ka) Gmo [hy] aham. 
The following verses, taken from Mahivagga and Lalita- 
vistaral. c., have likewise the same origin, notwithstanding 
some variations : 

dhamma/&akka^ pavattetu^ ga^Hmi Kdsina^ pura^, 
andhabhdtasmi lokasmi^ Shaflhi amatadudrabhiw. 


V4raasto* gamishyimi gatvi vai KAjikfcw purfm, 
andhabhAtasya lokasya kartesmy asadnsf^ 1 prabhm. 
V4r&zasi* gamishy&mi gatvi vai Klrikto purim, 
^abdahtnasya lokasya t&/ayishye 2 'mntadundubhim. 
V^r^asl^ gamishy^mi gatv& vai Klrik&w purttn, 
dharmafetkra^ pravartishye lokeshv aprativartitam. 
An important passage on the divine sight of the Buddha 
in Lalita-vistara, p. 439 seq., almost literally occurs in the 
S4maMaphala-Sutta, as has been pointed out by Burnouf *. 
These few examples I have chosen will suffice to prove 
that the material of a Mah&vaipulya Sfttra is partly as old 
as that of any other sacred book of the Buddhists. The 
language of the prose part of those Sfttras does not differ 
from that used in the simple Stitras of the Northern canon. 
Should the Sanskrit text prove to be younger than the 
P&K text, then we may say that we do not possess the 
Northern tradition in its original shape. That result, 
however, affords no criterion for the distinction between 
the simple Stoas and the MaMvaipulya Stitras, for both are 
written in the very same Sanskritj if we except the G&th&s. 
It would lead me too far, were I to enter into the heart 
of the question which of the three idioms, Sanskrit, PAli, 
and the so-called G4th4 dialect, was the oldest scriptural 
language of the Buddhists, and I will therefore confine 
myself to a few remarks. In the first place it will be granted 

1 The reading ahawx sadr/stw of the Calc. ed. is clearly a corrupt reading. 

* This word, which spoils the metre, has manifestly replaced an older 
expression, not unlikely ahanhi, or a similar form of the future tense of &han 
(Sansk. ahanishye). 

8 Lotus de la bonne Lot, p. 864. 


that the same person cannot have uttered any speech or 
stanza in two languages at the same time, and, further, that 
he is not likely to have spoken Sanskrit, when expressing him- 
self in prose, and to have had recourse to a mere dialect, when 
speaking in poetry. One need not suppose that the common 
and every-day language of the god Brahma and the Buddha 
was Pili or Prakrit, in order to call it an absurdity that those 
persons would have spoken prose in Sanskrit and poetry in 
the G4th& dialect, such as we find in some passages already 
quoted and in many others. Nor is it absurd, even if we do 
not believe that Pili is the original language of scripture, 
to contend that the Sanskrit text of the canonical works is 
at any rate a translation from some dialect. If the Sanskrit 
text of the Northern Sfttras, in general, were the original one, 
it would be impossible to account for occasional mistrans- 
lations and for the fact that the most palpable dialect forms 
have been left untouched, whenever the passage by being 
Sanskritised would have been spoilt. A striking instance is 
afforded in Lalita-vistara, p. 145. There we read that the pro- 
nouncing of the letter th*. of the Indian alphabet is to be 
brought in connection with the word Mapanlyapra^na, i.e. 
a question that should be avoided, set aside, Pili Mapanl- 
yapa/tho. Here the context absolutely opposed itself to the 
Pili or Pr4krit ^apantya being rendered by the Sanskrit 
sthipantya, because the initial syllable of this form could 
not be made to agree with the letter th*.. On the same 
page of the Lalista-vlstara we also meet with a word 
airapatha 1 , the initial syllable of which must needs har- 
monise with the diphthong ai, so that airapatha did not 
admit of being Sanskritised into &r yap at ha. From the 
occurrence of this airapatha I infer that the original text 
was composed in some kind of Prakrit, and not in regular 
P&li, because the latter has lost both the primary and 
secondary diphthong ai, though it may be asked whether 
forms such as kayira (Sansk. kirya), payirup&sati 

1 Written airapatha, for the VnddM vowel denotes the sound of &i in 
Sanskrit, at least originally; from the same diphthong being used in the Aroka 
edicts in thaira (Sansk. sthavira), we must infer that the diphthong was, in 
the then Prakrit, sounded ai, not ai. 



(Sansk. paryupdsati), and the like are anything else but 
instances of inaccurate spelling 1 . This much is certain that 
thaira occurs in the inscriptions of A^roka, and in these 
the diphthong cannot but have the value of a short a fol- 
lowed by i. 

If we eliminate the Sanskrit, there remain two dialects, 
P41i and the Githi idiom. Which of the two can lay claim 
to being the original language of the Buddhist scriptures or 
is the nearest approach to it? P41i is intelligible in its 
phonetics, the G&th&s are not. Under ordinary circum- 
stances the comparatively greater regularity of Pili would 
tend to favour its claims ; the case before us is, however, so 
peculiar that it is not safe to draw inferences from the state 
in which the Githds have come to us. It seems to me that 
the verses in the Northern books in general, as well as the 
prose of the Mahivastu 2 , have been Sanskritised to a large 
extent, so that they ought to be restored, as much as 
possible, to a more primitive form, before a comparison with 
P&H can lead to satisfactory results. When we come across 
such words asheshtfMd (Sansk. adhast&d), gu;^cbhi/^ 
&c., we easily perceive that these forms are more primitive 
than Pili h e tth&> gu n eh i ; but what warrant have we of such 
forms being really in use at the time when the GcLthds were 
composed, if we observe that in a verse, Lalita-vistara 3, 
the syllable bhi/j is reckoned as a short one in the words 
gu^ebhi^ pratipiir^a? In short, in their present state 
the G&tMs afford no conclusive evidence that the language in 
which they were composed is older than P3IL 

Whatever may have been the phonetic aspect of the 
oldest standard dialect of the Buddhists, its vocabulary is 
unmistakably closely related to that of the Satapatha- 
brihma^a. The coincidences are so striking that the 

1 That is, kayira was probably pronounced kaira, which cannot be 
exactly expressed by ^, because those who were acquainted with the rules 
of Sanskrit grammar would pronounce this and similar words with the sound 

2 The able editor of this work, M. Senart, makes the following remarks on 
its Language (p. xii): 'Nous sommes ici en presence d'une langue irre'guliere 
et instable, melange singuher de formes diyerses d"ge et d'origine.' 


interval separating the younger parts of the Satapatha and 
the beginnings of Buddhist literature can hardly be sup- 
posed to have been very great. Among those coincidences 
I cite sarvivat, a word which as yet has not been dis- 
covered in the whole range of Sanskrit literature except 
.Satap. XIV, 7 i, 10, and in Northern Buddhist writings, as 
well as in P41i (sabbAva). The tiraf \cy6iww ekoti 
.Satap. XII, a, a, 4 recurs in ekoti-bhiva, Lalita-vistara, 
p. 147, 8' 5 p.439>; P41i ekodi-bh4va a . The expres- 
sion samirita in the sense of 'equipped, furnished with* 
occurs in Satapatha thrice 8 , in Atharva-veda once, in Sad- 
dharma-puiH/artka several times, e.g. in pattaghawrtsa- 
mlrita, chap. xxii. We may add the Pr4kritism ifig in 
sami^ayati, BTiad-4ra#yaka VI, 4, 33, the usual form 
in Buddhist works in Sanskrit, G4thA dialect, and Pili ; 
further maAku, .Satap. V, 5,4, u; ma*/a in the com- 
pound nauma*dTa, .Satap. II. 3, 3, 15; cf. bodhi-ma*rfa. 
An archaic trait in the stanzas is the expletive use of the 
partide u, e.g. in teno, yeno, tasyo, adyo, for tena, 
yena, tasya, adya. Both in prose and poetry* we meet 
with no, sometimes in the sense of Sansk. no, which etymo- 
logically of course is identical with it, at other times in that of 
Sansk. na. An analogous case is Sansk. atho, almost im- 
perceptibly differing from atha. Perhaps the most curious 
of similar forms in the G&th&s is ko> in meaning exactly 
coinciding with a ; this &o I take to be the older form of 
the Migadhf u in the Aroka edicts. 

From the occurrence of peculiar old words and forms we 
may draw inferences as to the age of certain compositions 
in ordinary cases ; but it is not safe to apply the same test, if 
there is sufficient rtfcra to suppose that the work, the iate 


1 Ekftbhibhftva of die Calc. text is a clerical blonder. 

1 See Guldens' Pill Diet. p. 134, where the Thero Sahbftti's etymology eko 
ndeti proves that he does not know the origin of th^wotd, nor is it likely that the 
writer of the Pfth passage cited by Ghflden knew more, for had he recognised 
the word, he would have written ekoti, because Pxfiknt d between two 
vowels, if answering to a Sanskrit t, wnaUy veqoim t in Pali, 

1 IH, 5, 1,31; VIII, a, (>; XXV,i,a.3i. 

* Also in the insaiptions of Aioka. 

pf which we wish to determine, has been carefully moulded 
upon time-honoured models. In such a case new words 
prove a good deal 1 , old ones next to nothing. Therefore it 
would be an abuse of the argument ex silentioto infer 
from the total absence of such new words in our Sad- 
dharma-pu^arika that the bulk of the Sutra must date 
from the earlier period of Buddhism. 

I had already occasion to notice that the two versions, 
the prose and the metrical one, in our Sutra show here 
and there material discrepancies. The question arises 
to which of the two we must award the palm of pri- 
ority. Repeatedly, both in prose and poetry, the Sutra 
is spoken of as consisting of stanzas ; e. g. chap, vii, st. 83 ; 
chapters x and xxii in the prose portion, several times. 
As the term of stanza (githi), for aught I know, is never 
used to denote a certain number of syllables, there is a 
strong presumption that the ancient text consisted of 
verses, with an admixture of short prose passages serving 
as introduction or to connect the more solemn poetical 
pieces. The idea to expand such passages into a regular 
prose version would especially recommend itself at a period 
when the poetical dialect began to become obsolete and 
obscure. Without being a formal commentary, the prose 
version would yet tend to elucidate the older holy text. 

It will not be objected that, because not all chapters in 
the Saddharma-pu^^arlka have a poetical version added, 
the original cannot have been a poem. For the chapters 
containing but one version, viz. xxi, xxii, xxiii, xxv, and 
xxvi, show decided traces of being later additions; and 
as to the final chapter, it may be held to be a moderate 
amplification of a short prose epilogue. 

In contending that the original text of our Sutra was pro- 
bably, in the main, a work in metrical form, I do not mean 
to say that the poetical version in all the chapters must be 

1 As e.g. tie word dlnSra in the Aoka Avad&ia j the passage on the Greeks 
Yona- s, in Assalayana Sutta (ed Pischel), p. 10 ; cf. toe editor's remark, p. 6 ; 
the word karama for kalama, calamus to write with, in 
(Calc.ed),p.6 9 , 


considered to be prior to the prose 1 . The G&thAs of the Sad- 
dharma-pufldarlka are nowhere very brilliant, but in some 
chapters they are so excessively clumsy and mechanically put 
together that involuntarily we are led to the assumption of 
their having been made by persons to whom the old dialect 
was no longer familiar. The stanzas, e. g. in chapters xi and 
xiv, are abominable in form, and unusually silly ; those in 
chap, xxiv are a pattern of mechanical verse-making, and 
give the impression as if they were intended rather to stul- 
tify than to edify the credulous reader. Now it is a curious 
fact that in a Chinese preface to the translation of our 
Sfttra by Cwinagupta and Dharmagupta, A.D. 6oi 2 , we 
meet with the following notice: 'The omission of the 
GdtMs in No. 134, chaps. 12 and 35 s , have since been filled 
in by some wise men, whose example I wish to follow*. 9 

Here we have a direct proof that the Gith&s of some 
chapters have been added In later times. Had we similar 
notices concerning all the chapters in which the Gathis are of 
a comparatively modern date, and could we. prove that the 
prose of such chapters belongs to a later period, then the 
supposition of the ancient text of the Saddharma-pwwferlka 
having been in the main a metrical one would seem to lose 
in strength. For, reasoning by analogy, one might say 
that just as some later chapters have notoriously been 
enriched with a metrical version in later time^, so the 
ancient parts also will have gradually received their Gth3.s. 
Still the fact remains that those chapters in which the me- 
trical portion is wanting clearly belong to a later period. *o 
that it is questionable whether their case is Entirely afli^ 
logous to that of the more ancient part of +he whole workr 

1 Isolated stanzas, as in chapters aodi, xxv, and elsewKfcw, ^re wholly left 
out of Question,, \ ? Yv 

a Catalogue of the Tripi/aka (Oxford), by Mr. Bunyiu Nanjidj^Sfora Pitoka, 

COL 4* r % - 

3 I '^ihe English translation chapters xi and xxiv. m 

* I; ^$ther notice in the above-mentioned Catalogue, ell. 44, runs thus : 'The 
port^ "ijjfof prose' (of chap, xxiv) was translated by Kutntragiva, of the Utter 
Tship .'(ynasty, A.D. ^4-417; and that of GAthfis by GnSnagupta, of the 
NortP, j[ii Zeu dynasty, A.D. 557-589.' So it seems that the G&to& have been 
addel, J ;jad, not unlikely, been composed, between 417 and 557 A.D. 



At present we are far from the ultimate end which critical 
research has to reach; we are not able to assign to each 
part of our Sfitra its proper place in the development of 
Buddhist literature. We may feel that compositions from 
different times have been collected into a not very har- 
monious whole ; we may even be able to prove that some 
passages are as decidedly ancient as others are modern, but 
any attempt to analyse the compound and lay bare its 
component parts would seem to be premature. Under 
these circumstances the inquiry after the date of the work 
resolves itself into the question at what time the book 
received its present shape. 

There exist, as it is well known, various Chinese trans- 
lations of the Saddharma-pu^darlka, or parts of it, the dates 
of which are well ascertained. The above-mentioned Cata- 
logue by Mr. Bunyiu Nanjio affords some valuable informa- 
tion about the subject, from which I borrow the following 
particulars 1 : 

The oldest Chinese translation, known by the title of 
^an-f&-hw&-in, is from -STu F&-hu (Dharmaraksha), of the 
Western Tsin dynasty, A.D. 365-316; in 38 chapters 2 . 

Equally old is an incomplete translation entitled S&-th4n- 
fan-tho-li-iii, of an unknown author. 

Next in time comes the Mi&o-fji-lien-hw4->6in, by Kumi- 
ra^iva, of the latter Tshin dynasty, A.D. 384-41 7 8 , It agrees 
with the Tibetan version, and contains 28 chapters. Of one 
chapter (xxiv in the Nepalese MSS. and the English 
translation) Kum4r^iva translated the prose only; the 
Gath&s were rendered by G/&nagupta, of the Northern 
JTeu dynasty, A.D. 557-589. 

The last translation in order of time, entitled Thien-phin^ 
mi4o-f4-lien-hwi-*in, is from /&nagupta and Dharma- 
gupta, A.D. 601, of the Sui dynasty ; in 27 chapters. 

We see that the older translations and, consequently, 
their originals counted one chapter more than our MSS. 

* Satxa Pi/aka, col. 44 seqq. 

* Jk & Beal, The Buddhist Tripiftka, p. 14, the name of the author A Fa- 
hn (dw&-hu) is identified with Dharmagupta. 

1 a Beal, Buddhist Tripifeka, p. 15, 


The difference, however, does not affect the contents of the 
whole, because the matter divided over chapters n and is 
of the older translations is contained in chap, xi of our 
texts and the latest Chinese version. The order of the 
chapters is the same in all the texts, both original and 
translated, up to chap. xx(=3i older division); the dis- 
crepancies first begin at chap, xxi, on Dhra#is. The 
subjoined comparative table, to begin with the chapter on 
Dhirawis, exhibits the order of the last seven chapters in 
the various texts. The first column refers to the Nepalese 
MSS. and the Chinese translation by ffflanagupta and 
Dharmagupta; the second to the oldest Chinese transla- 
tion ; the third to that of Kumira^va. 

3 .... % .... 3 

4 .... 3 .... 4 

5 . . - . 5 - 6 

6 .... 6 .... 7 

7 . . . . 7 * 

A glance at this table will suffice to convince us that 
chapters xxi-xxvi (1-6) are of later growth, if we bear 
in mind that the order of the chapters down to the Dhi- 
ra;rfs is the same in all sources. This result is quite in 
harmony with what we would have guessed upon internal 
grounds. The last chapter, entitled Dharmaparyaya, must, 
from its very nature, have been the close, the epilogue of 
the whole. In the Chinese translation of Kumdrqgiva it 
occr is the table shows, immediately after chap, xx, by 
itseEhiO^ear indication that xxi-xxvi are later additions. 
It is somewhat strange that in the older translation of 
KM Fi-hu the Dharmaparyya has already taken its place 
after the additional matter, but this may be explained on 
the supposition that Kumira^tva, though living in a later 
time, made use of ancient manuscripts 1 . However that 

1 The preface to the Chinese translation of G^nagupta and Dharmagupta 
says : ' The translations of Ku Fa-hu and Ktunlraglva are most probably made 
from two different texts.' 


may be, I think that the following facts may be held to 
be established, both from internal and external evidence : 
i. The more ancient text of the Saddharma-pufldarlka 
contained zi chapters and an epilogue, i.e. the matter of 
chaps, i-xx and of chap, xxvii ; 2. The later additions, 
excepting probably some verses, had been connected with 
the work, in the way of Parmshfes or Addenda, about 
250 A.D. or earlier. As the book, along with the ParLrish/as, 
already existed some time before 250 A,D., we may safely 
conclude that the more ancient text in 21 chapters, the 
epilogue included, dates some centuries earlier. Greater 
precision is for the present impossible. 

We know that a commentary on the Saddharma-pu#da- 
rika was composed by Vasubandhu 1 . The date of that 
work, not yet recovered, it seems, must fall between 550 
and 600 A. D., or at least not much earlier, for Vasubandhu's 
pupil Gu#aprabha became the Guru of the famous Sri- 
Harsha, alias .SMditya, king of Kanauj, the friend of 
Hiouen Thsang 2 . The latter often mentions Vasubandhu 
and some of that great doctor's writings, as well as Gu#a- 
prabha 3 . As both worthies at the time of Hiouen Thsang's 
visiting India had already departed this life, and Vasu- 
bandhu must have been at least one generation older than 
Gu^aprabha, we cannot be far amiss in assigning to Vasu- 
bandhu's commentary the date above specified. 

It appears from the above-mentioned preface to the 
Chinese translation of A.D, 6oi,that the text-differences in 
the MSS. current in those days were more important than 
such as we observe in the Nepalese MSS. from 1000 A.D. 
downward, with which the Tibetan closely agree. The 
Chinese preface is so interesting that it is worth while to 

1 Wassiljew, Buddhismus, p. 222. This was written before the publication 
of my Cambridge Lectures, India, what can it teach us ?' and affords valuable, 
because independent, confirmation of the chronological system contained in 
Note G, Renaissance of Sanskrit Literature,' pp. 281-366. The Editor, 
F. M. M. 

a Wassiljew, Buddhismus, p. 78 ; cf. pp. 64 and 219 ; Tdran&tha, Geschichte 
dfis Boddhismus (transL Schie&er), p. 126. 

* See especially Histoire de la vie de Hiouen Thsan& pp. 83, 93, 97, 1 14 ; 106. 


copy a passage from it as quoted in the Catalogue of the 
Tripi&ka 1 : 

'The translations of KM Fi-hu, No. 138, and Kumira- 
? iva, No. 134, are most probably made from two different 
texts. In the repository of the Canon, I (the author of the 
preface) have seen two texts (or copies of the text, of the 
Saddharma-pu#rfarika) ; one is written on the palm leaves, 
and the other in the letters of Kwei-tsz', or Khara^ar, 
Kumira^iva's maternal country. The former text exactly 
agrees with No. 138, and the latter with No. 134. No. 138 
omits only the Githis of the Samantamukha-parivarta, 
chap. 34. But No. 134 omits half of the Oshadhi- 
parivarta, chap, 5? the beginning of the Pa/7abhikshu.rata- 
vy&kara#a-parivarta, chap. 8, and that of the Saddhar- 
mabM^aka-parivarta, chap. 10, and the Githis of the 
Devadatta-parivarta, chap, is 2 , and those of the Saman- 
tamukha-parivarta, chap. 25. Moreover, No. 134 puts the 
Dharmapary&ya-parivarta (the last chapter of the Stitra) 
before the Bhaisha^yar^a-parivarta, chap, 33. Nos. 138 
and 134 both place the Dhctra^t-parivarta next to the 
Samantamukha-parivarta, chaps. 24 and 25 respectively. 
Beside these, there are minor differences between the text 

~d translation. The omission of the G4th&s in No. 134, 
*ps. 1 2 and 25, have since been filled in by some wise 
r, ;n, whose example I wish to follow. In the first year 
dT-the -Zan-sheu period, A.D. 601, I, together with <?#ina- 
gupta and Dharmagupta, have examined the palm-leaf text, 
at the request of a 6rama#a, >Shin-hhin, and found that the 
beginning of two chapters, 8th and loth, are also wanting 
in the text (though No. 138 contains them). Nevertheless 
we have increased a half of the 5th chapter, and put the 
I3th chapter into the nth, and restored the DMrai- 
parivarta and Dhannapary&ya-parivarta to their proper 
order, as chaps, zi and 27. There are also some words 
and passages which have been altered (while the greater 

1 Stitra Pi&ka, col. 45. 

8 In the Mepalese MSS. and the European translations the latter part of 
chap xi. 


part of No. 134 is retained). The reader is requested not 
to have any suspicion about these differences,' 

According to the opinion of an eminent Chinese scholar, 
the late Stanislas Julien, the translation of Kumdra^-iVa 
widely differs from Burnouf s. He gives utterance to that 
opinion in a letter dated June 13, 1866, and addressed to 
Professor Max Muller, to whose obliging kindness it is 
due that I am able to publish a specimen of Kumdra^Jva's 
version rendered into French by Stanislas Julien The 
fragment answers to the stanzas i-as of chap. iii. As 
it is too long to be inserted here, I give it hereafter on 
page xL 

On comparing the fragment with the corresponding 
passages in Burnouf s French translation and the English 
version in this volume, the reader cannot fail to perceive 
that the discrepancies between the two European versions 
are fewer and of less consequence than between each of 
them and Kumra<f rva's work. It is hardly to be supposed 
that the text used by Kumira^iva can have differed so 
much from ours, and it seems far more probable that 
he has taken the liberty, for clearness sake, to modify the 
construction of the verses, a literal rendering whereof, it 
must be owned, is impossible in any language. It is a pity 
that Stanislas Julien has chosen for his specimen a frag- 
ment exclusively consisting of Gdthis. A page in prose 
would have been far more useful as a test of the accuracy 
of the Chinese version. 

Proceeding to treat of the contents of our Sutra, I begin by 
quoting the passage where Burnouf, in his usual masterly 
way, describes the general character of the book and the 
prominent features of the central figure in it The illus- 
trious French scholar writes 1 : 

'Li, comme dans les Sfttras simples, c'est 4kya qui cst 
le plus important, le premier des 6tres ; et quoiquc I'ima- 
gination du compilateur Fait dou de toutes les perfections 
de science et de vertu admises chez les Buddhistes ; quoique 
revSte ddji un caractfere mythologique, quand il 

1 Introduction, p. 119, 


declare qu'il y a longtemps qu'il remplit les devoirs d'un 
Buddha, et qu'il doit les remplir longtemps encore, malgr 
sa mort prochaine, laquelle ne ddtruit pas son 6ternit ; 
quoiqu'enfin on le reprekente creant de son corps des 
Buddhas qui sont comme les images et les reproductions 
id^ales de sa personne mortelle, nulle part ikyamuni 
n'est nomm Dieu ; nulle part il ne recoit le titre d'Adi- 
buddha. 1 

To this I have nothing to object, only something to add. 
It is perfectly true that 6kya does not receive the simple 
title of D eva ; why ? Because that title is far too poor for 
so exalted a personage who is the Devitideva, the para- 
mount god of gods. So he is called in the Lotus, chap, vii, 
st. 3 1 1 , and innumerable times in the whole range of Bud- 
dhist literature, both in Pslli and Sanskrit 2 . It is further 
undeniable that the title of Adibuddha does not occur in 
the Lotus, but it is intimated that Sdkya is identical with 
Adibuddha in the words : 'From the very beginning (ddita 
eva) have I roused, brought to maturity, fully developed them 
(the innumerable Bodhisattvas) to be fit for their Bodhisattva 
position V It is only by accommodation that he is called 
Adibuddha, he properly being anddi, i.e. existing from 
eternity, having no beginning. The Buddha most solemnly 
declares (chap, xv) that he reached Bodhi an immense 
time ago, not as people fancy, first at Gayi. From the 
whole manner in which .S&kya speaks of his existence in 
former times, it is perfectly clear that the author wished to 
convey the meaning that the Lord had existed from 
eternity, or, what comes to th^same, from the very begin- 
ning, from time immemorial, &c. 

Sdkya has not only lived an infinite number of ./Eons in 
the past, he is to live for ever. Common people fancy that 
he enters NirvS^a, but in reality he only makes a show of 
out of regard for the weakness of men. He, the 

1 Burnouf s rendering is ' De*va supeVieur anx Devas.' 

* Less frequent than de-/tideva is the synonymous devstdhideva, e g. 
Lalita-vistara, p 131 j essentially the same is the term sarvadevottama, the 
highest of all gods, ib p. 144. 

8 See chap, xiv, p. 295. 


Father of the world 1 , the Self-born One, the Chief and 
Saviour 2 of creatures, produces a semblance of Nirv#a, 
whenever he sees them given to error and folly 3 . In reality 
his being is not subject to complete Nirv#a ; it is only by 
a skilful device that he makes a show of it ; and repeatedly 
he appears in the world of the living, though his real abode 
is on the summit of the Gyzdhraktirfa 4 . All this is, in 
other \vords, the teaching of N&rcLya#a in Bhagavad-gM IV, 
6 seqq. : 

Ago 'pi sann avyayltmi bhftt,nm Isvaro 'pi san, 
prakrttim svm adhish/Aiya sambhavimy tmamiyay&. 
yadi-yadi hi dharmasya glnir bhavati, BMrata, 
abhyutthdnam adharmasya^ sr^glmy aham. 
paritr44ya s&.6h&nm vinlrfya a dushkn'tim, 
dharmasaw sthdpan&ilMya sambhavami yuge-yuge. 
The Buddha is anthropomorphic, of course; what god is 
not? The Lotus, far from giving prominence to the un- 
avoidable human traits, endeavours as much as possible to 
represent the Lord and his audience as superhuman beings. 
In chap, xiv there is a great pause, as in a drama, of no 
less than fifty intermediate kalpas, during which Sakya- 
muni and all his hearers keep silence 5 . A second pause 
of 1000, or according to a various reading, 100,000 years 
is held in chap. xx. Now it is difficult to conceive that 
any author, wilfully and ostentatiously, would mention 
such traits if he wished to impress the reader with the 
notion that the narrative refers to human beings. 

It will not be necessary to multiply examples. There 
is, to my comprehension, not the slightest doubt that the 

1 Cf. Knshwa declaring of himself in Bhagavad-gSta IX, 17 Pitaharo #agato 
mat* dhati pitamaha* Cf. XI, 43. The significant title of Pit&naha is given 
to Buddha in an inscription found at Doonya (Bitha) ; Cunningham, Archseol. 
Survey, vol. iii, pi xvm ; cf. p 48. 

8 Like Narayawa in Bhagavad-glta XII, 7: Tesham aham samuddharta- 

8 C h ap ; xv st 21. * Chap xv, st. 6, 10. 

5 One intermediate kalpa is, in the system, equal to 8 yugas. As 4 yugas 
number 4,320,000 years, it follows that the pause lasted 432 millions of years. 
Esolerically, kalpa has certainly denoted a short interval of tame, but even 
if we take the intermediate kalpa' to mean, in reality, a lapse of time equal 
to a few hours, the pause would not refer to an historical event. 


Saddharma-pu^arika intends to represent Sakya as the 
supreme being, as the god of gods, almighty and all- wise. 
But what have we to understand by the words * god ' and 
f god of gods?' that is the question. To find the answer 
let us recall to memory the theosophic notions prevailing 
in ancient India at certain periods. 

In general it may be said that the Upanishads recognise 
two supreme beings, which in a mystical way are somehow 
identified ; one is the great illuminator of the macrocosm, 
and is sometimes called the Sun, at other times Ether ; the 
other, the enlightener of the microcosm, is Mind or Reason \ 
As soon as the Sun ceased to be considered an animate 
being or to be represented as such, he might continue, for 
worship's sake, honoris caus, to be called the highest 
god; the really remaining deity was Reason, poetically 
termed the inward light. This idea is expressed by Ntla- 
ka;z//za in his commentary on Bhagavad-giti V, 14, in the 
following terms: Prabhuj iditm& surya ivdsmadi- 
df ndm praka,? aka/z, the Lord (is) the intelligent Self that 
like a sun is the illuminator of ourselves and others 2 . Now 
the same author, in his notes on Bhagavad-giti VI, 30, dis- 
tinctly states that our inward consciousness, or as he puts 
it, the pratyagitman, the individual Self, otherwise called 
*!va, is Niriya;za, i.e. the supreme being. At IX, 28 he 
paraphrases Nlr&ya#a by sarvesh&m pratyag&tman, 
theindividual consciousness of all (sentient beings); at 
XII, 14 he identifies Ndrya72a with nirgu^am brahma. 
Just as here and there NirSya^a is represented as clad in 
all the glory and majesty of a sovereign, as the illuminator, 
the vivifier of the world, in one word as the sun, so we find 
.Sakyamuni invested with all the grandeur and all the 
resources of a ruler of nature. Philosophically, both N&r&- 
yawa and his counterpart Sdkyamuni are purushottama, 
paramStman, the highest brahman, Mind. 

1 See e, g. JSTAandogya-upamshad III, 18 and 19 ; cf. Bhagavad-gM XV, 12. 

3 Cf. Bhagavad-gftd XIII, 33: yatha" prak&ayaty ekafc krttsnam lokam imam 
raviA, kshetram kshetr! tathi kr/tsnam prak&ayati, Bh^rata. The kshetra 
here is the body, the kshetrin is Mind, Reason, at man. Cf. Sankaia on 
KAandogya-upanishad, I. c. 


is, esoterically, the very same muni, the beholder of good 
and evil, the puyap4pekshit4 muni that is spoken of 
in Manu VIII, 91. It is acknowledged in Bhagavad-glta IX, 
14 seqq. that the supreme being may be conceived and re- 
spected in different ways according to the degree of intelli- 
gence of creatures. Some pay their worship by leading a 
virtuous life, others by pious devotion, others by contem- 
plation, others by confessing a strictly monistic philosophy 1 , 
others by acknowledging a personal god 2 . The Lord in 
the Saddharma-pu^arika admits of being viewed in all 
these various aspects. Whether the Bulddha-theory, such 
as we find it developed in the Sfttra, not in plain words, 
indeed, but by circumlocutions and ambiguities, should be 
called atheistic or not, is a matter of comparatively slight 
importance, about which opinions may differ. This much, 
however, may be asserted, that the Lotus and the Bhagavad- 
gitd are, in this respect, exactly on a par. 

The conclusion arrived at is that the ^Sikyamuni of the 
Lotus is an ideal, a personification, and not a person. Traits 
borrowed, or rather surviving, from an older cosmological 
mythology, and traces of ancient nature-worship abound 
both in the Lotus and the Bhagavad-git&, but in the 
highest sense of the word, paramdrthatas, the Purushot- 
tama in both is the centre of mental life. It is just possible 
that the ancient doctors of the Mah^yAna have believed 
that such an ideal once walked in the flesh here on earth, 
but the impression left by the spirit and the letter of the 
whole work does not favour that supposition. In later 
times fervent adherents of the Mahiyina really held that 
belief, as we know from the example of the pious Hiouen 
Thsang, who was evidently as earnest in his belief that the 
Lord once trod the soil of India as he was convinced of 
Ma^urrt, Maitreya, and Avalokite^vara existing as ani- 
mated beings. Whether the system of the Lotus can be 
said to agree with what is supposed to be ' genuine' Bud- 

1 The followers of the Upanishads, Aupanishadas, who say,' Myself am God,' 
or as Nllaka^z^a puts it, Myself am the Lord V&sudeva/ 

2 Accoidmg to KUakwia the common people, who think, 'He, the Lord, 
is my Master.' 


dhism, it is not here the place to discuss. So far as the 
Northern Church is concerned, the book must be acknow- 
ledged as the very cream of orthodoxy; it is the last, the 

supreme, the most sublime of tl 
Lord ; it is, so to say, the siroi 
all Sutras 1 . 

The contents of the separate 

Sutras exposed by the 
a#ij the crown jewel, of 

chapters into which the 

Sutra is divided may be describejd, summarily, as follows : 
J. Prologue. 

^. Awakening of the Lord from his mystic trance; 
display of his transcendent skilful ness, proved by the ap- 
parent trinity of vehicles, whereas in reality there is but 
one vehicle. 

3. Prophecy of the Lord regarding the future destiny of 
Sdriputra, his eldest son. Second turn of the wheel of the 
law on that occasion, with incidental commemoration of 
the first turn near Benares. Parable of the burning house, 
to exemplify the skill of the good father in saving his 
children from the burning pains of mundane existence. 

4. Another parable, exemplifying the skill of the wise 
father in leading a child that has gone astray and lost all 
self-respect back to a feeling of his innate nobility and to 

5. Parable of the plants and the rain, to exemplify the 
impartiality and equal care of the Lord for all creatures 2 . 
Parable of the blind man, to intimate that the phenomena 
have but an apparent reality, and that the ultimate goal of 
all endeavours must be to reach all-knowingness, which in 
fact is identical with complete nescience. 

6. Sundry predictions as proofs of the power of the 
Sugata to look into the future, 

7. He has an equal knowledge of the remotest past; his 
remembrance of the turning of the wheeLby the Tathigata 
Mahabhi^^anabhibhu. Edifying history of the sixteen 
sons of the said Tathigata. 

1 Chap, xiii, st. 53 seq. 

* Cf. Bhagavad-gM IX, 29, where Narayaa declares: * I am equal towards 
all creatures, none is hateful to me, noae beloved;' saino 'haw sarvabhate- 
shu, na me dveshyo *s 


8. Prophecy regarding five hundred Arhats. 

9. Prophecy concerning Ananda, Rlhula, and the two 
thousand monks. 

10. The Lord teaches how pious preachers of the law, 
who will come in after-times, ought to be duly honoured, 
and promises that he will always protect the ministers of 

1 1. Display of the miraculous power of Skyamuni shown 
in the appearance of a Stftpa, which, being opened by him, 
discloses to sight the frame of the expired Tathigata Pra- 
bhutaratna, who is desirous of hearing the exposition of the 
Lotus of the True Law. How Sdkyamuni in a former birth 
strove to acquire the Lotus. His great obligations to Deva- 
datta. Episode of the wise daughter of the Ocean and her 
change of sex. 

12. Prediction to Gautami, Ya^odhari, and the nuns in 
their train. Promise of the host of disciples and Bodhisat- 
tvas to take up the difficult task of preaching the holy 
word in days to come, after the Lord's Nirvdwa. 

13. Vocation of the ministers of religion, and practical 
rules for their conduct in and out of society. Parable of 
the king who rewards his valiant warriors; in the same 
manner the Buddha will reward those who struggle for his 
sake, by bestowing upon them all kinds of favours, at last 
the most valuable of his boons eternal rest. 

14. Splendid phantasmagory of innumerable Bodhisat- 
tvas evoked by the creative power of the Lord. Long 
pause, during which the Tathigata and the four classes of 
hearers are silent. Perplexity of Maitreya on hearing that 
the innumerable Bodhisattvas have all been the pupils of the 

15. The Buddha explains the fact by revealing the 
immense duration of his lifetime, in the past and the 

16. Meritoriousness of the belief in the immense duration 
of the Tathdgatas and all those who have once become 

17. The Lord details the great merit attending a ready 
acceptance of the preaching of the law. 


1 8. Exposition of the advantages, worldly and spiritual, 
enjoyed by the ministers of religion. 

19. Story of Sadaparibhtita, exemplifying the superiority 
of simple-mindedness and pure-heartedness to worldly 
wisdom and scepticism. 

so. Grand show exhibited by the two TathSgatas 4kya- 
muni and Prabhdtaratna conjointly 1 . Pause after the 
performance. After the pause a great stir amongst gods, 
celestial and infernal beings, men, &c. 2 The TatMgata 
extols the Sfttra of the Lotus in which 'all Buddha-laws 
are succinctly taught,' as well as the keepers of this most 
eminent of Sfttras. 

Immediately after this chapter may have followed, in the 
oldest version, the epilogue entitled 'Period of the Law;' 
the reasons for this opinion have been already stated above. 
The supposed additional chapters contain the following 
topics, briefly indicated : 

ai. Efficacy of talismanic spells (Dh&ra#!s). 
3. Self-sacrifice of the Bodhisattva Sarvasattvapriyadar- 
, otherwise called Bhaisha^yar^a. Glorification of the 
Lotus as the most eminent of Sfttras. 

23. Visit of the Bodhisattva Gadgadasvara to the Saha- 
world. Extraordinary qualities and achievements of this 
worthy, incidentally narrated by the Tathdgata. Return 
of the Bodhisattva to whence he came. 

34. Grandeur and ubiquitousness of Avalokitewara. 

35, Wonderful and edifying story of the conversion of 
the king Subhavytiha through the instrumentality of his 
two sons Vimalagarbha and Vimalanetra, al. Bhaishajgyar^ 
and Bhaisha^yasamudgata. 

26. The Bodhisattva Samantabhadra charges himself 
with the task of being a protector to the preachers of 
religion in after-times after the Lord's Nirv&raa 3 . 

1 Both stretch their flaming tongues as far as the Brahma-world. In the 
Bhagavad-gtta XI, 30 it is said of NMyaa, when at the request of Argnna he 
shows himself in his fall grandeur lehhyase grasamanafc samantal lok&n 
samagr&n vadanair valadbhi&, te^obhir gpurya #agat samagram bhsas tavo- 
gr& piapatanti, Vishao * 

a Cf. Bhagavad-gfta XI, 15- 

* There is some incongruity between this chapter and chapter x, because 


This summary, however meagre, will be sufficient to show 
that there is no lack of variety In our Stitra. We may, indeed, 
be satisfied that the compilers of it intended giving an ex- 
position of the principal truths of their religion in general, 
and of the peculiar tenets of their own system 1 in parti- 
cular, the whole with anxious care arranged in such a form 
that the Stitra admitted of an exoterical and esoterical 
interpretation. It contains a revelation of the state of 
things in the present, as well as in the past and the future, 
a revelation derived from a virtually eternal source, so that 
the doctrine taught in it must be deemed valid not only for 
a certain spiritual brotherhood or church, but for the human 
race at large. The highest authority to whom the doctrine 
is referred, is not a certain individual having lived a short 
span of time somewhere in India, but the sublime being who 
has his constant abode on the Gmlhrakiltfa, i.e. he who is 
the terminology of other Indian creeds is called Kti/astha. 

As a general rule it may be said that in such works of 
ancient Indian literature as are anonymous, we must distin- 
guish between the authority and the author. In the Lotus 
we meet after the invocation in some MSS. the following 
distich : 

VaipulyasfttrarSg-am paramdrthanayivatdranirdeyam I 
Saddharmapu#<farikajw sattvdya mahdpatha;# vakshye n 
I. e. e I shall proclaim the king of the Vaipulya-stitras, that 
teacheth how one arrives at the (right) method of attaining 
the highest truth ; the Saddharma-pu^artka, the great road 
(leading) to substantiality (being in abstracto). 3 The 
person here speaking is not the Buddha, who is neither 
the author nor the writer of the work. Have we then to 
ascribe the distich to one of the ancient copyists? Burnouf 2 
decidedly thinks so, and his opinion is corroborated by the 
fact that the verses do not occur in all MSS. I must con- 
in the latter it is the Lord himself who promises to be in future the protector 
of the preachers. 

1 I e. of the Mahyna, which according to- Tlranitha, Geschichte des 
Buddhismus, p. 274, stands above the division of the Bauddhas into various 

a Lotus, p. 285. 


fc that I am not so sure of it As the Sutra, like other 
compositions of the kind, begins with the solemn 'Thus 
have I heard, &c.,' it is at least possible that the distich 
belongs to the compiler. I am not aware that the scribes 
were in the habit of using such expressions as va or 
synonymous terms instead of likh, to write; and as we 
find in the Mahfivastu similar futures as vakshye, viz. 
ud J ray i shy a #7 and upavaiv/ayishyami 1 , where they 
can hardly be imputed to the scribe, it is safer to leave 
the question, whether the opening distich of the Lotus is 
the work of a compiler or of a copyist, undecided, the 
more so because the parallel phrase athfito vy&khyS,- 
yd inn//, frequently found immediately after the invoca- 
tion, in non-Iiiuklhistlc writings, must be held to refer to 
the author or authors, compilers* 

The Lotus being one of the standard works of the Mahd- 
yina, the study of it cannot but be useful for the right 
appreciation of that remarkable system, A perusal of the 
book will convince the reader that a statement of Professor 
WassiljewV- can only be accepted with some restrictions, 
when this scholar, so profoundly versed in the history and 
development of Northern Huddhtam, says that the Buddha 
of the Mahftyftna is * neither the creator nor the ruler of 
the world; he remains the same cold, indifferent egoist, 
absorbed in Nothingness.' The Tath&gata of the Lotus 
is passionless, indeed, but that does not involve his being 
an egoist In general it may be said that the spirit of the 
Mah&yna is more universal, its ideal less monaslical than 
the Hinayftna'ft. According to Professor Rhys Davids we 
must not seek the superior vital power which enabled the 
Great Vehicle to outlive the earlier teaching in certain meta- 
physical subtleties, but in the idea of a desire to save all 
living creatures; 'the idea,' to quote his own words V as 
summarised in the theory of Bodisatship, is the key-note 
of the later school, just as Arahatship is the key-note of 

* Mohftvotttu (eel. Senart), p, x, with the remarks of the editor, ami p. 9* 
tt In hi* ttuddhfomtt*, p. uti, 

* In I^cturtm on the Origin ami Growth of Religion, p. 354. 


early Buddhism/ The Mah^na doctors said in effect : 
'We grant you all you say about the bliss of attaining 
Nirv4a in this life 1 . But it produces advantage only to 
yourselves ; and according to your own theory there will 
be a necessity for Buddhas in the future as much as there 
has been for Buddhas in the past. Greater, better, nobler 
then, than the attainment of Arahatship must be the at- 
tainment of Bodisatship from a desire to save all living 
creatures in the ages that will come,' The teaching of the 
Lotus, however, is different, and comes to this, that every 
one should try to become a Buddha. It admits that from 
a practical point of view one may distinguish three means, 
so-called Vehicles, y&nas, to attain the summum bonum, 
Nirva, although in a higher sense there is only one Vehicle. 
These means are, in plain language, piety, philosophy or 
rather Yogism, and striving for the enlightenment and weal 
of our fellow-creatures ; these means are designated by the 
terms of Vehicle of (obedient) hearers or disciples, of Pratye- 
kabuddhas, and of Bodhisattvas. Higher than piety is true 
and self-acquired knowledge of the eternal laws ; higher 
than knowledge is devoting oneself to the spiritual weal of 
others 2 . The higher unity embracing the three separate 
Vehicles is the Buddha-vehicle. 

The title of Bodhisattva is not always used in the same 
acceptation. Apart from a broad distinction we can draw 

1 It may "be observed that there is nothing peculiarly Buddhistic in the 
searching for Nirvana in this life, except in the sound of the word It is exactly 
the same as what other Indian enthusiasts or mystics called Gtvamnukti, the 
aim of Yogins in the fourth degree (answering to the Arhats of the Buddhists) 
and of the Bi&hmans or Dvufas in the fourth Asrama. 

8 See chap. 111, p. So. Something similar in Bhagavad-gSta* XII, 12 : sreyo hi 
gna&m abhyasa^ g$fa&& dhyinaw raishyate, dhy&iit karmaphalatya-gas 
tyaga& Mantii anantaram ; and IV, 5 : labhante brahmamrvnam nbhayafe ksht- 
TzakalmashaA, /tmnadvaidha yatatmanaA sarvabhutahite ralsU. Neither 
in these passages of the Bhagavad-gtta' nor in the three Vehicles is there 
anything new; abhy^sa, study, denotes the period of one's studying under a 
master, the Brahma&riship, which the Lotus calls the Vehicle of Disciples ; the 
period of dhySna, alias the Vehicle of Pratyekabuddhas, coincides with the 
third Asrama, that of Vanaprastha ; the ty&ga, alias Bodhisattvaship, is 
rirtually the same with the life of a Sannysin, Yati, or Mukta. tffldna 
characterises the second JLrama ; in the Lotus it is merged in or combined 
with dhy&na. 


between human and superhuman Bodhisattvas 1 the latter 
are here left out of account we find sometimes the word 
applied to those persons who in the passage of our Stitra 
alluded to are styled Sr&vakas, hearers, learners. This 
appears to be the case at least in Nep&l, as we know from 
the following passage 2 : 'The Buddha is the adept in the 
wisdom of Buddhism (Bodhijnana), whose first duty, so 
long as he remains on earth, is to communicate his wisdom 
to those who are willing to receive it. These willing learners 
are the "Bodhisattvas," so called from their hearts being 
inclined to the wisdom of Buddhism, and " Sanghas," from 
their companionship with one another, and with their 
Buddha or teacher, in the vihdras or ccenobitical esta- 
blishments. The Bodhisattva or Sangha continues to be 
such until he has surmounted the very last grade of that 
vast and laborious ascent by which he is instructed that 
he can " scale the heavens," and pluck immortal wisdom 
from its resplendent source : which achievement performed, 
he becomes a Buddha, that is, an Omniscient Being. 9 

Here the Bodhisattvas are plainly distinguished from the 
coenobitical monks; they are so likewise in the Lotus 3 , in 
which we find them also in the function of learned or wise 
men (Pastas), of preachers or ministers of religion. Was- 
siljew l.c. remarks about the Bodhisattva the terrestrial 
one of course that ' from one side, he seems to be the 
substitute of the ancient Bhikshu;' from which we ought 
not to infer that the mendicant monks, as such, ceased to 
exist, for that is notoriously not the case, but that the 
Bodhisattvas were charged with the office of preaching. 
They are persons who deserve to be honoured both by 
mendicant monks and lay devotees 4 , and formed, it would 
seem, a kind of learned clergy, not to be confounded, how- 
ever, with the modern Va^ra-A^ryas or married clergy- 
men in Nepal. There is reason to suppose that one of the 

1 Cf. Wassiljew, Buddhismus, p. 124. 

9 B H. Hodgson, Essays, p. 62. Cf. Stanislas Julien, Voyages des Pelerins 
bouddMstes, II, p. 436 note. 
8 See especially the whole of chapter x. * Lotas, chap, x, st 27 seq. 

C 2 


honorific titles given to the preachers or interpreters of the 
law was 'wise 5 or 'learned man,' Paot/ita, for the word is 
so often applied to them that it looks more like a title 
than a common epithet 1 . T&rantha knows Paw^ita to be 
a title 2 , and considers it to be the equivalent of the older 
Mahdbhadanta ; he distinguishes 'Bodhisattvas' from 'com- 
mon Pastas' and 'Arhats. 5 How does this agree with 
the data in the Lotus? As it has been intimated in a 
foregoing note, the three Vehicles are imitations of three 
Arramas or stages in the model life of an Arya, in the first 
place of a Brihman. The stages are that of a student, of 
a hermit living in the forest, and of a Sannysin, Yati, or 
Mukta, who has wholly given up the world. The second 
stage, that of a householder, does not exist, of course, for 
those who vow themselves to a monastic life. Our Sfttra 
does not prescribe that the three stages must be gone 
through by the same persons, no more than the Bhagavad- 
glt Lc. requires that one should pass the stages of study, 
knowledge, and meditation before resolving upon com- 
plete renunciation (ty&ga) ; what follows from the context 
is only this, that the Vehicle of Bodhisattvas, alias those 
who strive for the weal of all creatures, is superior to the 
two preceding Vehicles. The Vehicle of the Bodhisattvas 
being the loftiest of the three, they themselves must be 
considered as occupying the highest rank. Now T&ran&tha 
places the Arhats above them, and with the Nepalese also 
the first class of the monastic order is that of Arhat 8 . The 
question is, how are we to judge of the relation between 
Arhats and Bodhisattvas in the Lotus? As far as I am 
able to see, the compiler 4 of the Stitra describes facts, or 
supposed facts, which he knew from oral or literary tradi- 
tion, as having occurred in the past, whereas the actual 
state of things in his own time and shortly before is repre- 
sented as that of the future. His Arhats are sages of the 
past, canonized saints ; his human Bodhisattvas are sages, 

1 E.g Lotus, chap, x, st. 4, cf. 6; 23, 33 ; xih, 13, 16, 34, 26, 30, 33, 39,44. 

* Geschichte des Buddhismus, p. 60. 

* Hodgson, Essays, p. 52 , cf. p. 30. 

* The reader should not lay stress upon this singular. 


wise men of the present, most reverend worthies who should 
live a saintly life and generally do so, but who, however 
sanctimonious, are not acknowledged saints. Of an anta- 
gonism between Arhats and Bodhisattvas there is no trace 
in the book ; the Arhats being dead, they cannot be active ; 
the Bodhisattvas as living persons, can 1 . In a certain 
respect, then, the remark of Professor Rhys Davids holds 
good; the Bodhisattvas represent the ideal of spiritual 
activity, the Arhats of inactivity. It must be admitted 
that the Lotus, as a whole, breathes a less monastic and 
ascetic 2 spirit ; it does not go the length to speak of ascetism 
and mortification in such scornful terms as the Bhagavad- 
gitcl 3 does, but at the same time it never extols it. There 
are in the book many indications that the art of preaching 
was made much of and highly developed, and it may be 
supposed that a greater proficiency in hermeneutics com- 
bined with superior mental activity has enabled the Mahd- 
ydna to supplant its rival, the Hinaydna, and to extend its 
spiritual conquests once from the snows of Siberia to the 
luxuriant islands of the Indian Archipelago. 

After having touched upon such points in the text of 
the Saddharma-pu;zdartka as seemed to require more 
special notice, it behoves me to say a few words about the 
translation and its resources. In the first place, I must 
declare that I cannot speak in too warm terms of the 
benefit I have derived from the French translation by the 
illustrious Burnouf. I have taken that work throughout 
for my model, without having been able to reach its 
excellency. The material discrepancies between his trans- 
lation are partly due to my having followed other MSS., 
partly to another interpretation, especially of frequently cor- 
rupt and difficult Gths. If some reader not acquainted 

1 Something of contempt for the Arhats is shown in the story communicated 
by Hiouen Thsang in Voyages des Pelenns bouddlnstes, II, p. 176, where the 
editor inadvertently writes Vasubandhu instead of Vasumitra ; his index affords 
the means of correcting the mistake ; cf. Wassiljew in Trantha, p. 298. 

a See chap, xiii, 28, where the eighth commandment of the Dasasila, for- 
bidding the use of ointment, is slighted. 

8 See there xvii, 5 seqq., and cf. 14 seqq., where we are taught what the true 
tapas should be. 


with the peculiar difficulties of those GartMs should 
wonder at the occurrence of numerous discrepancies, I 
would repeat the words of the preface to the Chinese 
version from A.D. 601, and request him 'not to have any 
suspicion about these differences/ Let him compare the 
fragment from Kumira^iva's rendering on page xl with 
the corresponding passages in the French and English 
translations 9 and he will observe that the difference 
between the work of the learned Buddhist of the fourth 
century and the two European versions is far more con- 
siderable than between the latter, 

The base of my translation has been an old manuscript 
on palm leaves, belonging to Dr. D. Wright's collection, 
in the University Library of Cambridge. The manuscript 
is dated Newar, era 159 (=A.D. 1039), and was written in 
the reign of the king K&madeva (?), in the bright half of 
the month Vairfikha, on a Thursday *. It is one of the 
most ancient Sanskrit MSS. existing in Europe, and there- 
fore I thought that it was advisable to follow its readings 
as much as possible a except in such passages as were 
evidently corrupt. A second MS., unfortunately incom- 
plete, from the same collection, is of unknown date, since 
the latter part of the codex is lost ; from the form of the 
characters it may be inferred that it is not much more 
modern than the other codex 2 . The difference between 
both is not very great ; yet there can be no doubt that 
the second MS. belongs to another family. The varietas 
lection is is strikingly similar in kind to what we find 
in the different texts of the Vqji&UUedika, edited by 
Professor Max Muller. 

The former manuscript has much in common with the 
London codices, from which Burnouf in the notes on his 
translation has derived numerous various readings; it 
stands farther off from the Paris MS. that has formed 
the base of Burnouf s version, but not so far as the second 

^ Samvat 159 VawSMiasukle (illegible the Tithi) Gurudine, Ktoadevasya 
^grayaxa^ye lithitam iti. There seem to "be wanting two syllables before 

a The two Cambridge MSS. are marked Add. 1682 and 1683. 


Cambridge MS-, which shows the greatest number of 
peculiar readings. The text of chapter iv in Professor 
Foucaux's edition of the Parabole de 1'enfant e*gar is 
comparatively modern and bad. In general it may be said 
that all the known copies of the Saddharma-puwdarlka are 
written with a want of care little in harmony with the holy 
character of the book. 

Before closing this preface I beg to offer my sincere 
thanks to Professors William Wright and E. B. Cowell, at 
Cambridge, for the generous way in which they have 
enabled me to use the MSS. I wanted for my translation. 
My thanks are due also to the Council of Cambridge 
University and Mr. H. Bradshaw, for their readily com- 
plying with my wishes. To Professor Max Muller I owe a 
debt of gratitude for his kindly assisting me in my task 
in more than one respect, a debt which I am glad here 
openly to acknowledge. 





J'ai entendu le son de cette loi 

J'ai obtenu ce que je n'avais pas encore eu 

Dans men cceur, j'en ai con$u une grande joie. 

Les filets des doutes ont tous disparu 

Jadis, j'ai re9U les instructions da Buddha 

Je n'ai pas perdu le grand vhicule. 

Le son (la voix) du Buddha existe (s'entend) trfes rarement. 

Elle peut d&raire les tourments d'esprit de tous les mortels. 

Moi, j'ai obtenu 1'dpuisement (la d&ivrance complete) de mes fautes. 

L'ayant entendue, j'ai 6t6 d\ivi6 des chagrins et des tourments 


Moi, lorsque je demeure sur les montagnes (ou dans) les valldes, 
Ou bien au bas des arbres des forSts 
Soit que je sois assis ou que je marche 
Constamment, je pense & cette chose 
H$as, je m'adresse de sevferes reproches 
Je dis : pourquoi me tromp^-je moi-m6me ? 
Nous autres, nous sommes aussi les fils du Bouddha 
Nous sommes entr^s ensemble dans la loi exempts d'imperfections. 
Nous ne pourrons dans Tavemr 
Expliquer cette loi sans sup^rieure (anuttaradhaima). 
Les trente deux couleur d'or (signes qui ont la couleur de Tor), 
Les dk forces, les moyens de d&ivrance, 
Se trouvent ensemble au sein de la loi unique 
Et cependant je n'ai pu obtenir ces choses ; 
Les quatre vingt signes de beaut, 
Les dix huit lois non-communes (S, tous), 
Les mdrites et les vertus de cette sorte 
Moi, je les ai tous perdus. 
Moi, lorsque je me promenais seul 
J'ai vu le JBouddha au milieu de la grande multitude 
Son nom, sa reputation remplissaient les dix conti^es 
II comblait d'avantages toutes les creatures 


Je pense en moi-m&ne que j'ai perdu ce profit 

Moi, parce que je me suis trompe* moi-mlme, 

Constamment, jour et nuit 

Chaque fois, je songe & cette chose 

J'ai voulu demander k 1'honorable du siecle 

Louant et glorifiant les bddhisattvas 

C'est pourquoi jour et nuit 

J'examine mftrement une telle chose 

Exempte d'imperfections et difficile , concevoir 

Qui fait arriver la multitude & 1'estrade de 1'Intelligence (B&dhi- 

Moi, dans Torigine, j'&ais attache* aux vues perverses (k Phrsie) 

J'^tais un maitre de Brahmatcharis 

L'honorable du siecle connaissait mon cceur 

Me tira de I'h&e'sie et me park du Nirv#a 

Je me d^barrassai compl&ement des vues perverses (de Th^sie); 

Dans la loi du vide, j'obtins des t^moignages, des preuves (J'obtins 

la preuve que je comprenais la loi du vide) 
Alors, je me dis & moi-m6me 
Que j'avais obtenu d'arriver au Nirv4a. 
Mais maintenant je m'apergois 
Que ce n'est pas le vrai Nirv^wa 
Si, un jour, j'obtiens de devenir Bouddha 
Et que je sois pourvu des trente deux signes de beaute* 
Les D^vas, les Yakchas 
Les dragons, les esprits etc. 
M'honoreront et me v&ireront 
Dans ce temps &, je pourrai dire 
Que pour toujours j'ai obtenu le NirvSa complet. 
Le Bouddha, dans la grande assemble 
M'a dit que je devais devenir Bouddha 
Quand j'eus entendu le son de cette loi 
Mes doutes, mes regrets, compl&ement disparurent. 
Au commencement, lorsque j'eus entendu ce que disait le Bouddha, 
Au fond de mon cceur, je fus remplis d'&omTement et de doutes. 
(Je me dis) Le d&non n'aurait pas pris la figure du Bouddha 
Pour troubler mon coeur ? 

Le Bouddha ayant employ^ toute sorte de moyens 
De comparaisons, de paroles et de discours habiles 
Mon cceur devint calme comme la mer. 
Quand je Feus entendu, le filet de mes doutes se d^chira 
Le Bouddha dit que dans les siecles passes 



Des bouddhas sans nombre, qui ont obtenu le Nirvana 

Reposaient en paix au milieu des xnoyens habiles 

Et que tous avaient expliqud cette loi 

Que des bouddhas presents et future 

Dont le nombre est mfini 

A Taide de toute sorte de moyens habiles 

Avaient expliqud et de*veloppe* une telle loi 

Maintenant, Honorable du siecle 

Depuis que tu es ne* et que tu es sorti de la famille 

Tu as obtenu de tourner la roue de la loi 

Et de 1'exphquer par des moyens habiles 

I/Honorable du siecle a expose* la vraie voie. 

Le Mir a n'a pas fait cette chose (n'a pas pris la figure du Bouddha) 

Cest pourquoi je sais fermement 

Que le Mra ne s'est pas cteguise* en Bouddha (litt. ne s'est pas 

fait Bouddha). 

Moi, a cause du filet des doutes auxquels je m'e*tais abandonne* 
Je m'e'tais dit que c'&ait une chose faite par le Mdra (c. a. d. que 

le Mai a avait pris la figure du Bouddha) 
Mais quand j'eus entendu sa voix douce et souple 
Profonde, <*loigne*e, extrSmement ddlie'e 
Expliquant la loi pure 
Mon cceur a e*te* grandement rejoui. 
Mes doutes ont pour toujours disparu 
Je reside en paix au sein de la vraie science 
De'cide'ment, je dois devenir Bouddha. 
Je serai respecte* des DSvas 
Je tournerai la roue de la loi sans-supe*rieure 
J'instruirai et je convertirai les Bddhisattvas. 








Thus have I heard. Once upon a time the Lord 
was staying at R^agriha, on the Gr/dhrakd^a 1 
mountain, with a numerous assemblage of monks, 
twelve hundred monks, all of them Arhats, stainless, 
free from depravity, self-controlled 2 , thoroughly eman- 
cipated in thought and knowledge, of noble breed, 
(like unto) great elephants, having done their task, 
done their duty, acquitted their charge, reached the 
goal ; in whom the ties which bound them to existence 
were wholly destroyed, whose minds were thoroughly 
emancipated by perfect knowledge, who had reached 
the utmost perfection in subduing all their thoughts; 
who were possessed of the transcendent faculties 3 ; 

1 I. e. Vulture Peak. 

8 Va-rfbhftta. Like vajin, it likewise means, 'having subdued 
others or the world/ 

3 The five Abhi^w^s, viz. the magical powers, the divine ear, 

[21] B 


eminent disciples, such as the venerable A^wdta- 
Kau^nya, the venerable A^va^it, the venerable 
Vdshpa, the venerable Mahiniman, the venerable 
Bhadrika 1 , the venerable Mahd-Klryapa, the venera- 
ble Klryapa of Uruvilvd, the venerable Klsyapa of 
Nadf, the venerable Klryapa of Gayd 2 , the venera- 
ble .SSriputra, the venerable Mahi-Maudgalyiyana 3 , 
the venerable Mah&-Kity&yana *, the venerable Ani- 
ruddha 5 , the venerable Revata, the venerable Kap- 
phma 6 , the venerable GavUmpati, the venerable 
Pilindavatsa, the venerable Vakula, the venerable 
Bhiradv^a 7 , the venerable Mahd-Kaush^ila 8 , the 
venerable Nanda (alias MaMnanda), the venerable 

knowledge of the thoughts of others, knowledge of former exist- 
ences, the divine eye. Sometimes a sixth Abhi^wS, is added, 
viz. the knowledge which causes the destruction of human 
passion; Burnouf, Lotus, p. 820 sqq. ; Spence Hardy, Eastern 
Monachism, p. 284. 

1 These are known as the Five Bhadravargiyas, or, in Pali, Paa- 
vaggiyas ; they were the first five disciples. 

2 The conversion of Ka^yapa of UruvilvS and the two following 
is told in Buddhist Birth Stories (translated by Rhys Davids), 1, 1 14; 
MahSvagga (ed. Oldenberg) 1, 15. 

8 *Sariputra and MaudgalySyana are termed the foremost or 
chief disciples (agrajr^vaka) of the Lord. About their con- 
version, see Birth Stones, 1, 118 ; Mahvagga I, 23. 

4 About him, see Mahvagga V, 13. 

5 In Pali, Anuruddha ; the story of his conversion is told JTulla- 
vagga (ed. Oldenberg) I, 8. 

6 The name is variously spelt Kapphwza, Kasphia, Kashphia, 
Kapphilla, Ka^philla. The Tibetan form Kapina (in Lotus, p. 294) 
agrees with Maha-Kappina in Pah writings; Mahavaggall, 5; X, 5. 
I cannot help guessing that the name is identical with tyfap, the 
proper name of Kalanos, in Plutarch's Alexander, chap. 6g ; one 
would expect &r$JMp. 

7 The same with Pwswfola-BhSradva^, 2Tullavagga V, 8. 

8 In Pali Maha-Ko//>5ita; Mahavagga X, 5, 


Upananda 1 , the venerable Sundara-Nanda 2 , the vene- 
rable Pftraa Maitr&yafrfputra, the venerable Subhtiti, 
the venerable Rlhula ; with them yet other great dis- 
ciples, as the venerable Ananda, still under training, 
and two thousand other monks, some of whom still 
under training, the others masters ; with six thousand 
nuns having at their head Mah&pragtpati 3 , and the 
nun Yarodhari, the mother of Rlhula, along with her 
train; (further) with eighty thousand Bodhisattvas, 
all unable to slide back 4 , endowed with the spells of 
supreme, perfect enlightenment, firmly standing in 
wisdom; who moved onward the never deviating 6 
wheel of the law ; who had propitiated many hun- 
dred thousands of Buddhas ; who under many 
hundred thousands of Buddhas had planted the roots 
of goodness, had been intimate with many hundred 
thousands of Buddhas, were in body and mind fully 
penetrated with the feeling of charity ; able in com- 
municating the wisdom of the TatMgatas; very 
wise, having reached the perfection of wisdom ; re- 
nowned in many hundred thousands of worlds; 
having saved many hundred thousand myriads 6 of 

ko#s 7 of beings ; such as the Bodhisattva Mah- 


Surnamed *S&kyaputra; Mahftvaggal, 52. 

Known from Lalita-vistara, p. 164 ; Burnouf has Sunanda. 

Gautamf, the aunt of Gautama Buddha. 

Or, to swerve from their course. 

Or, never rolling back. 

I have followed Burnouf in translating nayuta by ten thousand; 
this being the value of the Sanskrit term ayuta. According to the 
Petersburg Dictionary the Northern Buddhists attach to nayuta the 
value of 100,000 millions. The Pali nahuta is said to be a vast 
number, one followed by twenty-eight ciphers; but in Spence 
Hardy's Manual of Buddhism, p. 193, its worth is put down at a 
7 I. e. ten millions. 

B 2 


sattva 1 Maagusrl, as prince royal 2 ; the Bodhisattvas 
Mah&sattvas Avalokite^vara, Mahisthimapripta, Sar- 
virthaniman, Nityodyukta, Anikshiptadhura, Ratna- 
p&m, Bhaisha^yar^a, Praddnastira, Ratna/andra, 
Ratnaprabha, Punza^andra, MahaLvikrimin, Trailo- 
kavikrdmin, Anantavikramin, Mah&pratibhina, Sata- 
tasarnitibhiyukta, Dhara^ldhara 3 , Akshayamati, Pad- 
ma5rt, NakshatrarS^a, the Bodhisattva Mah^lsattva 
Maitreya, the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Si^ha. 

With them were also the sixteen virtuous men to 
begin with Bhadraplla, to wit, Bhadrapila, Ratn&- 
kara, Susdrthav^ha, Naradatta 4 , Guhagupta, Varu- 
^adatta, Indradatta, Uttaramati,Viseshamati, Vardha- 
minamati, Amoghadamn, Susa^sthita, Suvikrinta- 
vikrdmin, Anupamamati, Sftryagarbha, and Dhara- 
7ddhara; besides eighty thousand Bodhisattvas, 
among whom the fore-mentioned were the chiefs; 
further Sakra, the ruler of the celestials, with twenty 
thousand gods, his followers, such as the god 
-STandra (the Moon), the god Sftrya (the Sun), 
the god Samantagandhat (the Wind), the god Rat- 
naprabha, the god Avabhdsaprabha, and others; 
further, the four great rulers of the cardinal points 
with thirty thousand gods in their train, viz. the 
great ruler Virfi^aka, the great ruler Vir6p4ksha, 
the great ruler Dhntarftsh/ra, and the great ruler 
Vakravawa; the god Isvara and the god Mahe- 
svara 5 , each followed by thirty thousand gods ; further, 

1 I. e. a great being. 

2 Or, 'still a youth,' kumSrabhlita. 

8 In chap. XXIV he occurs as Bodhisattva MaMsattva Dhara- 

* Burnouf has Ratnadatta. 

5 The distinction between trvara and Mahejvara, both mere 


Brahma Sahimpati 1 and his twelve thousand fol- 
lowers, the Brahmakiyika gods, amongst whom 
Brahma Sikhin 2 and Brahma Gyotishprabha, with the 
other twelve thousand Brahmakiyika gods 8 ; together 
with the eight Niga kings and many hundred thou- 
sand myriads of koris of N&gas in their train, viz. 
the Niga king Nanda, the N&ga king Upananda, 
Sdgara, Vdsuki, Takshaka, Manasvin, Anavatapta, 
and Utpalaka ; further, the four Kinnara kings with 
many hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of fol- 
lowers, viz. the Kinnara king Druma, the Kinnara 
king Mahidharma, the Kinnara king Sudharma, and 
the Kinnara king Dharmadhara; besides, the four 
divine beings (called) Gandharvakiyikas with many 
hundred thousand Gandharvas in their suite, viz. the 
Gandharva Mano^a, the Gandharva Manqf#asvara, 
the Gandharva Madhura, and the Gandharva Ma- 
dhurasvara ; further, the four chiefs of the demons 

epithets of Siva, has its counterpart in the equally fanciful difference 
between Tishya and Pushya, Meru and Sumeru, which occurs in 
Buddhist writings. In Mahivastu, p, 333 (ed. Senart), we even find 
My distinguished from Mahftmtyft. 

1 On comparing Lalita-vistara, p. $itfl 3, with the parallel pas- 
sage MahSvagga I, 5, 4, it appears that Sah&npati and Sikhin are 
synonymous terms. As Sikhin is a common term for Agni and as 
to the latter in Rig-veda 1, 97, g ; 127, 10 ; III, 14, 2, is applied the 
epithet of sahasvat, it may be inferred that Sahdmpati and the 
collateral form Sahapati answer to a Sanskrit sahasSmpati or 

2 Another instance of a fanciful distinction, 

8 It may be remarked that in the enumeration of gods, between 
<Siva and Brahma, Vistom is wanting. Those who adopt the view 
that *S$kyamuni is an Avat&ra of Vishu, consequently a mythical 
being, will readily account for that omission by saying that Vishu 
and the Lord Buddha are identical, so that Vishnu is present in the 
gathering, under the disguise of Buddha. 


followed by many hundred thousand myriads of 
kotfs of demons, viz. the chief of the demons Bali, 
Kharaskandha \ Vema/itri 2 , and Rlhu ; along with 
the four Garuda chiefs followed by many hundred 
thousand myriads of ko/is of Garu^as, viz. the 
GaruaTa chiefs Mahte/as, Mahikiya, Mahpftn*a, 
and Maharddhipripta, and with Afatasatru, king of 
Magadha, the son of Vaidehl. 

Now at that time it was that the Lord surrounded, 
Attended, honoured, revered, venerated, worshipped 
by the four classes of hearers, after expounding the 
Dharmaparydya 3 called 'the Great Exposition/ a 
text of great development, serving to instruct Bodhi- 
sattvas and proper to all Buddhas, sat cross-legged 
on the seat of the law and entered upon the medita- 
tion termed 'the station of the exposition of Infinity;' 
his body was motionless and his mind had reached 
perfect tranquillity. And as soon as the Lord had 
entered upon his meditation, there fell a great rain of 
divine flowers, Mandiravas 4 and great Mandiravas, 
Mai%lashakas and great MaT^tshakas 4 , covering the 
Lord and the four classes of hearers, while the 
whole Buddha field shook in six ways : it moved, 

1 Burnouf has Suraskandha. 

2 This is a wrong Sanskritisation of a Prakrit Vema&tti, Pali 
Vepa&tti; the proper Sanskrit equivalent is Vipra&tti. 

8 I. e. turn, period, or roll of the law; it may often be rendeied 
by 'a discourse on the law.' In the sense of period, term, end, it is 
used as the title of the closing chapter of the whole work. 

4 Mand&ava, or rather Mdnd&ava, derived from manddru= 
mandlra, Eiythrina, is here a heavenly flower, or, as the Indians 
say, <a cloud-flower/ ineghapushpa, Le. raindrop and hail- 
stone. Ma%tisha is a name of the Rubia Manjista; the word is 
also said to mean, 'a stone;' in this case perhaps a hailstone or 


removed, trembled, trembled from one end to the 
other, tossed, tossed along. 

Then did those who were assembled and sitting 
together in that congregation, monks, nuns, male and 
female lay devotees, gods, Nigas, goblins, Gan- 
dharvas, demons, Garudas, Kinnaras, great serpents, 
men, and beings not human, as well as governors of 
a region, rulers of armies and rulers of four con- 
tinents, all of them with their followers, gaze on the 
Lord in astonishment, in amazement, in ecstasy. 

And at that moment there issued a ray from 
within the circle of hair between the eyebrows of 
the Lord 1 . It extended over eighteen hundred 
thousand Buddha-fields in the eastern quarter, so 
that all those Buddha-fields appeared wholly illu- 
minated by its radiance, down to the great hell 
Avl^i and up to the limit of existence. And the 
beings in any of the six states 2 of existence became 
visible, all without exception. Likewise the Lords 
Buddhas staying, living, and existing in those 
Buddha-fields became all visible, and the law 
preached by them could be entirely heard by all 
beings. And the monks, nuns, lay devotees male 
and female, Yogins and students of Yoga, those 
who had obtained the fruition (of the Paths of sanc- 
tification) and those who had not, they, too, became 
visible. And the Bodhisattvas Mahsattvas in those 

1 This reminds one of Woidsworth's lines : 
'Bright apparition suddenly put forth 
The Rainbow, smiling on the faded storm; 
The mild assemblage of the starry heavens; 
And the great Sun, earth's universal Lord, 1 
a Viz. hell, the brute creation, the world of ghosts, of demons, of 
men, and of gods or angels. 


Buddha-fields who plied the Bodhisattva-course with 
ability, due to their earnest belief in numerous and 
various lessons and the fundamental ideas, they, too, 
became all visible. Likewise the Lords Buddhas in 
those Buddha-fields who had reached final NirvS^a 
became visible, all of them. And the Sttipas made 
of jewels and containing the relics of the extinct 
Buddhas became all visible in those Buddha-fields 1 . 

Then rose in the mind of the Bodhisattva Mahi- 
sattva Maitreya this thought : O how great a wonder 
does the Tathigata display! What may be the 
cause, what the reason of the Lord producing so 
great a wonder as this ? And such astonishing, pro- 
digious, inconceivable, powerful miracles now appear, 
although the Lord is absorbed in meditation ! Why, 
let me inquire about this matter; who would be able 
here to explain it to me ? He then thought : Here 
is Ma^usrl, the prince royal, who has plied his 
office under former Ginas and planted the roots of 
goodness, while worshipping many Buddhas. This 
Ma%usrl, the prince royal, must have witnessed 
before such signs of the former TathSgatas, those 
Arhats, those perfectly enlightened Buddhas; of 
yore he must have enjoyed the grand conversations 
on the law. Therefore will I inquire about this 
matter with Ma%u,srl, the prince royal. 

And the four classes of the audience, monks, nuns, 
male and female lay devotees, numerous gods, Nigas, 

1 It is sufficiently clear, I think, that the Buddha-fields are the 
heavens, and that we have in the text a description of the aspect of 
heaven when the stars are twinkling at dawn, shortly after or 
before. A Stftpa denotes the spot where a luminary, for the time 
being extinct, once stood; in more general acceptation it must 
have been synonymous with dhish^ya, a fire-place, or with j 


goblins, Gandharvas, demons, Garudas, Kinnaras, 
great serpents, men, and beings not human, on seeing 
the magnificence of this great miracle of the Lord, 
were struck with astonishment, amazement and curio- 
sity, and thought : Let us inquire why this magnifi- 
cent miracle has been produced by the great power 
of the Lord. 

At the same moment, at that very instant, the 
Bodhisattva Mahisattva Maitreya knew in his mind 
the thoughts arising in the minds of the four classes 
of hearers and he spoke to Ma^fiwrt, the prince 
royal : What, O Ma%usrl, is the cause, what is the 
reason of this wonderful, prodigious, miraculous 
shine having been produced by the Lord? Look, how 
these eighteen thousand Buddha-fields appear varie- 
gated, extremely beautiful, directed by Tathigatas 
and superintended by Tathigatas. 

Then it was that Maitreya, the Bodhisattva 
Mahisattva, addressed Ma#nanri, the prince royal, 
in the following stanzas : 

1. Why, Ma^osrl, does this ray darted by the 
guide of men shine forth from between his brows ? 
this single ray issuing from the circle of hair ? and 
why this abundant rain of Mandiravas ? 

2. The gods, overjoyed, let drop Ma^gllshakas 
and sandal powder, divine, fragrant, and delicious. 

3. This earth is, on every side, replete with splen- 
dour, and all the four classes of the assembly are 
filled with delight, while the whole field shakes in 
six different ways, frightfully. 

4. And that ray in the eastern quarter illuminates 
the whole of eighteen thousand Buddha-fields, simul- 
taneously, so that those fields appear as gold- 


5. (The universe) as far as the (hell) Avf/i (and) 
the extreme limit of existence, with all beings 
of those fields living in any of the six states of 
existence, those who are leaving one state 1 to be 
born in another; 

6. Their various and different actions in those 
states have become visible ; whether they are in 
a happy, unhappy, low, eminent, or intermediate 
position, all that I see from this place. 

7. I see also the Buddhas, those lions of kings, 
revealing and showing the essence of the law, com- 
forting 2 many kotfs of creatures and emitting sweet- 
sounding voices. 

8. They let go forth, each in his own field, a 
deep, sublime, wonderful voice, while proclaiming 
the Buddha-laws by means of myriads of koris of 
illustrations and proofs. 

9. And to the ignorant creatures who are op- 
pressed with toils and distressed in mind by birth 
and old age, they announce the bliss of Rest, saying: 
This is the end of trouble, O monks. 

10. And to those who are possessed of strength 
and vigour and who have acquired merit by virtue 
or earnest belief in the Buddhas, they show the 
vehicle of the Pratyekabuddhas, by observing this 
rule of the law. 

11. And the other sons of the Sugata who, striving 
after superior knowledge, have constantly accom- 

1 The word for state, gati, also means c the position, place/ e. g. 
of a star, 

2 Pra,rv3samna;n, var. lect prakdsamanSn; Burnouf must 
have followed the latter reading, his translation having 'instrui- 



plished their various tasks, them also they admonish 
to enlightenment. 

12. From this place, O Ma%nghosha, I see and 
hear such things and thousands of ko^is of other 
particulars besides; I will only describe some of 

13-! see in many fields Bodhisattvas by many 
thousands of koris, like sands of the Ganges, who 
are producing enlightenment according to the dif- 
ferent degree of their power. 

14. There are some who charitably bestow wealth, 
gold, silver, gold money, pearls, jewels, conch shells, 
stones 1 , coral, male and female slaves, horses, and 
sheep ; 

15. As well as litters adorned with jewels. They 
are spending gifts with glad hearts, developing them- 
selves for superior enlightenment, in the hope of 
gaining the vehicle. 

1 6. (Thus they think): * The best and most ex- 
cellent vehicle in the whole of the threefold world 
is the Buddha-vehicle magnified by the Sugatas. 
May I, forsooth, soon gain it after my spending such 

1 7. Some give carriages yoked with four horses 
and furnished with benches, flowers, banners, and 
flags ; others give objects made of precious sub- 

1 8. Some, again, give their children and wives; 

1 The text has jankhajili; according to the Tibetan version 
this would mean crystal, but that is impossible because jankha is 
well known to be a conch shell. Burnouf hesitatingly renders it 
by ' des conques, du cristal ;' see, however, Lotus, p. 314. I have 
been unable to find out what meaning the compound, be it a 
Dvandva or a Tatpurusha, is intended to convey. 


others their own flesh; (or) offer, when bidden, 
their hands and feet, striving to gain supreme en- 

19. Some give their heads, others their eyes, 
others their dear own body, and after cheerfully 
bestowing their gifts they aspire to the knowledge 
of the Tathdgatas. 

20. Here and there, O Maw^iwrl, I behold beings 
who have abandoned their flourishing kingdoms, 
harems, and continents, left all their counsellors and 

21. And betaken themselves to the guides of the 
world to ask for the most excellent law, for the sake 
of bliss ; they put on reddish-yellow robes, and shave 
hair and beard, 

22. I see also many Bodhisattvas like monks, 
living in the forest, and others inhabiting the empty 
wilderness, engaged in reciting and reading. 

23. And some Bodhisattvas I see, who, full of 
wisdom (or constancy), betake themselves to moun- 
tain caves, where by cultivating and meditating the 
Buddha-knowledge they arrive at its perception. 

24. Others who have renounced all sensual de- 
sires, by purifying their own self, have cleared their 
sphere and obtained the five transcendent faculties, 
live in the wilderness, as (true) sons of the Sugata. 

25. Some are standing firm, the feet put together 
and the hands joined in token of respect towards the 
leaders, and are praising joyfully the king of the 
leading Crinas in thousands of stanzas. 

26. Some thoughtful, meek, and tranquil, who 
have mastered the niceties of the course of duty, 
question the highest of men about the law, and 
retain in their memory what they have learnt 


27. And I see here and there some sons of the 
principal ina who, after completely developing 
their own self, are preaching the law to many ko/is 
of living beings with many myriads of illustrations 
and reasons. 

28. Joyfully they proclaim the law, rousing many 
Bodhisattvas ; after conquering the Evil One with 
his hosts and vehicles, they strike the drum of 
the law. 

29. I see some sons of the Sugata, humble, calm, 
and quiet in conduct, living under the command of 
the Sugatas, and honoured by men, gods, goblins, 
and Titans. 

30. Others, again, who have retired to woody 
thickets, are saving the creatures in the hells by 
emitting radiance from their body, and rouse them 
to enlightenment. 

31. There are some sons of the Gina who dwell 
in the forest, abiding in vigour, completely re- 
nouncing sloth, and actively engaged in walking ; it 
is by energy that they are striving for supreme 

32. Others complete their course by keeping a 
constant purity and an unbroken morality like pre- 
cious stones and jewels ; by morality do these strive 
for supreme enlightenment 

33. Some sons of the Gina, whose strength con- 
sists in forbearance, patiently endure abuse, censure, 
and threats from proud monks. They try to attain 
enlightenment by dint of forbearance. 

34. Further, I see Bodhisattvas, who have for- 
saken all wanton pleasures, shun unwise companions 
and delight in having intercourse with genteel men 


35. Who, with avoidance of any distraction of 
thoughts and with attentive mind, during thousands 
of ko/is of years have meditated in the caves of the 
wilderness; these strive for enlightenment by dint 
of meditation. 

36. Some, again, offer in presence of the rinas 
and the assemblage of disciples gifts (consisting) in 
food hard and soft, meat and drink, medicaments 
for the sick, in plenty and abundance. 

37. Others offer in presence of the 6inas and the 
assemblage of disciples hundreds of ko^is of clothes, 
worth thousands of ko^is, and garments of priceless 

38. They bestow in presence of the Sugatas hun- 
dreds of koAs of monasteries which they have caused 
to be built of precious substances and sandal-wood, 
and which are furnished with numerous lodgings 
(or couches). 

39. Some present the leaders of men and their 
disciples with neat and lovely gardens abounding 
with fruits and beautiful flowers, to serve as places 
of daily recreation. 

40. When they have, with joyful feelings, made 
such various and splendid donations, they rouse 
their energy in order to obtain enlightenment ; these 
are those who try to reach supreme enlightenment 
by means of charitableness. 

41. Others set forth the law of quietness, by many 
myriads of illustrations and proofs ; they preach it 
to thousands of kotis of living beings; these are 
tending to supreme enlightenment by science. 

42. (There are) sons of the Sugata who try to 
reach enlightenment by wisdom ; they understand 
the law of indifference and avoid acting at the 


antinomy (of things), unattached like birds in the 

43- Further, I see, O Ma^nghosha, many Bodhi- 
sattvas who have displayed steadiness under the 
rule of the departed Sugatas, and now are wor- 
shipping the relics of the inas. 

44. I see thousands of ko/is of Stftpas, numerous 
as the sand of the Ganges, which have been raised 
by these sons of the Gina and now adorn ko/is of 

45. Those magnificent Sttipas, made of seven 
precious substances, with their thousands of kotis of 
umbrellas and banners, measure in height no less 
than 5000 yo^nas and 2000 in circumference 1 . 

46. They are always decorated with flags ; a mul- 
titude of bells is constantly heard sounding; men, 
gods, goblins, and Titans pay their worship with 
flowers, perfumes, and music. 

47. Such honour do the sons of the Sugata render 
to the relics of the inas, so that all directions of 
space are brightened as by the celestial coral trees 
in full blossom. 

48. From this spot I behold all this; those nu- 
merous ko/is of creatures; both this world and 
heaven covered with flowers, owing to the single, 
ray shot forth by the ina. 

49. O how powerful is the Leader of men ! how- 
extensive and bright is his knowledge 1 that a single 
beam darted by him over the world renders visiblft 
so many thousands of fields 1 w y^" 

50. We are astonished at seeing this sign;jafc(i 

',"''1 e 1 
1 It is evident that there is no question of earthly Stftpas^ iior 61 

hyperbolic phrases. 


this wonder, so great, so incomprehensible. Ex- 
plain me the matter, O Ma?Ifusvara ! the sons of 
Buddha are anxious to know it. 

51. The four classes of the congregation in joyful 
expectation gaze on thee, O hero, and on me; 
gladden (their hearts) ; remove their doubts ; grant 
a revelation, O son of Sugata ! 

52. Why is it that the Sugata has now emitted 
such a light? O how great is the power of the 
Leader of men ! O how extensive and holy is his 
knowledge ! 

53. That one ray extending from him all over 
the world makes visible many thousands of fields. 
It must be for some purpose that this great ray has 
been emitted 

54. Is the Lord of men to show the primordial 
laws which he, the Highest of men, discovered on the 
terrace of enlightenment ? Or is he to prophesy 
the Bodhisattvas their future destiny ? 

55. There must be a weighty reason why so 
many thousands of fields have been rendered visible, 
variegated, splendid, and shining with gems, while 
Buddhas of infinite sight are appearing. 

56. Maitreya asks the son of Gina; men, gods, 
goblins, and Titans, the four classes of the congrega- 
tion, are eagerly awaiting what answer Ma-/2fusvara 
shall give in explanation. 

Whereupon Marigurrl, the prince royal, addressed 
Maitreya, the Bodhisattva Mahisattva, and the whole 
assembly of Bodhisattvas (in these words) : It is the 
intention of the Tathdgata, young men of good 
family, to begin a grand discourse for the teaching 
of the law, to pour the great rain of the law, to make 
resound the great drum of the law, to raise the great 


banner of the law, to kindle the great torch of the law, 
to blow the great conch trumpet of the law, and to 
strike the great tymbal of the law. Again, it is the 
intention of the Tathigata, young men of good family, 
to make a grand exposition of the law this very day. 
Thus it appears to me, young men of good family, 
as I have witnessed a similar sign of the former 
Tathigatas 1 , the Arhats, the perfectly enlightened. 
Those former Tathigatas, &c., they, too, emitted a 
lustrous ray, and I am convinced that the Tathlgata 
is about to deliver a grand discourse for the teaching 
of the law and make his grand speech on the law 
everywhere heard, he having shown such a fore- 
token. And because the Tath^gata, &c., wishes 
that this Dharmaparydya meeting opposition in all 
the world 2 be heard everywhere, therefore does he 
display so great a miracle and this fore-token con- 
sisting in the lustre occasioned by the emission of 
a ray, 

1 Hence it follows that Maw^urri is eternally young, like the rising 
sun, like Mithra, and like the Arhat&w deva, the latest, or youngest, 
of the Arhats or (?inas. 

2 The rendering of vipratyantka, var. lect vipratyanf yaka, is 
doubtful. Burnouf, who translates it by e avec laquelle (le monde 
entier) doit 6tre en disaccord, 5 remarks in his comment (Lotus,p. 323) 
that the Tibetan version assigns to pratyaniyaka the meaning of 
' accordance, concord/ It is, however, extremely doubtful whether 
such a word as pratyaniyaka exists at all, and if pratyanfka 
should really be used in the sense of ' concord/ notwithstanding its 
generally occurring in the sense of c opposition/ we must suppose 
that from the notion of 'an opposite party' has developed that of a 
party, paksha, in general. On that assumption we can account 
for vipratyanika being used in the sense of vipaksha, repugnant, 
contrary, belonging to a different party. As to vipratyantyaka, 
alsoLalita-vistara,p.5i3, this may be a wrongly Sanskritised vippavfc- 
anlyaka, to which would answer a Sanskrit vipratyantkaka. 

["] C 


I remember, young men of good family, that in 
the days of yore, many immeasurable, inconceivable, 
immense, infinite, countless ^ons, more than count- 
less ./Eons ago, nay, long and very long before, 
there was born a Tathigata called jSTandrasftrya- 
pradlpa 1 , an Arhat, &c., endowed with science and 
conduct 2 , a Sugata, knower of the world, an incom- 
parable tamer of men, a teacher (and ruler) of gods 
and men, a Buddha and Lord. He showed the law ; 
he revealed the duteous course which is holy at its 
commencement, holy in its middle, holy at the end, 
good in substance and form, complete and perfect, 
correct and pure. That is to say, to the disciples 
he preached the law containing the four Noble 
Truths, and starting from the chain of causes and 
effects, tending to overcome birth, decrepitude, sick- 
ness, death, sorrow, lamentation, woe, grief, despond- 
ency, and finally leading to Nirv&;za; and to the 
Bodhisattvas he preached the law connected with 
the six Perfections 8 , and terminating in the know- 
ledge of the Omniscient, after the attainment of 
supreme, perfect enlightenment. 

[Now, young men of good family, long before the 
time of that Tathigata .STandrasuryapradtpa, the 
Arhat, &c., there had appeared a TatMgata, &c., 
likewise called ^sfandrastiryapradipa, after whom, 
O A/ita 4 , there were twenty thousand Tathigatas, 

1 I. e. having the shine of moon and sun. 

2 Otherwise, with light and motion. 

s The six Paramitds, viz. of almsgiving, morality, patience, zeal 
or energy, meditation, and wisdom. 

4 Le. invincible, invictus. The palpable connection between 
Maitreya A,ita and Mithras Invictus is no proof of the Buddhists 
having borrowed the figure fiom the Persians; the coincidence 


&c M all of them bearing the name of ./ifandrasurya- 
pradlpa, of the same lineage and family name, to 
wit, of Bharadv^ti 1 . All those twenty thousand 
Tathdgatas, O A^ita, from the first to the last, 
showed the law, revealed the course which is holy 
at its commencement, holy in its middle, holy at the 
end, c. &c. a ] 

The aforesaid Lord A!andrasiryaprad!pa, the 
Tathftgata, &c., when a young prince and not yet 
having left home (to embrace the ascetic life), had 
eight sons, viz. the young princes Sumati, Ananta- 
mati, Ratnamati, Vueshamati, Vimatisamudghdtin, 
Ghoshamati, and Dharmamati. These eight young 
princes, A^ita, sons to the Lord -/JTandrastiryapradlpa, 
the Tathdgata, had an immense fortune . Each of 
them was in possession of four great continents, 
where; they exercised the kingly sway. When they 
saw that the Lord had left his home to become an 
ascetic, and heard that he had attained supreme, 
perfect enlightenment, they forsook all of them the 
pleasures of royalty and followed the example of the 
Lord by resigning the world ; all of them strove to 

l>eing perfectly explainable if we consider the narrow relationship 
of Indian and Iranian mythology. Maitreya is not strictly identical 
with Mitra, but a younger edition, so to speak, of him; he is the 
future saviour. 

1 It is clear that Bharaclv^a, a well-known progenitor of one 
of the Brahmanic families, existed long before the creation, i.e. of 
the last creation of the world* There can be no question of his 
being a man, at least in the system of the Lotus. 
a The words in brackets are wanting in one of the MSS* 
9 J?*ddhi is the word used in the text As an ecclesiastical 
term it denotes * magic power/ but that artificial meaning does not 
suit here, 

C J2 


reach superior enlightenment and became preachers 
of the law. While constantly leading a holy life, 
those young princes planted roots of goodnes5 under 
many thousands of Buddhas* 

It was at that time, Agita, that the Lord -ffandra- 
s&yapradipa, the Tathigata, &c., after expounding 
the Dharmapary3Lya called 'the Great Exposition/ 
a text of great extension, serving to instruct Bodhi- 
sattvas and proper to all Buddhas, at the same 
moment and instant, at the same gathering of the 
classes of hearers, sat cross-legged on the same seat 
of the law, and entered upon the meditation termed 
'the Station of the exposition of Infinity;' his body 
was motionless, and his mind had reached perfect 
tranquillity. And as soon as the Lord had entered 
upon meditation, there fell a great rain of divine 
flowers, Mandiravas and great Mandiravas, Ma#- 
^Ushakas and great Ma;^lishakas, covering the Lord 
and the four classes of hearers, while the whole 
Buddha-field shook in six ways ; it moved, removed, 
trembled, trembled from one end to the other, tossed, 
tossed along. 

Then did those who were assembled and sitting 
together at that congregation, monks, nuns, male 
and female lay devotees, gods, Nigas, goblins, 
Gandharvas, demons, Garudas, Kinnaras, great 
serpents, men and beings not human, as well as 
governors of a region, rulers of armies and rulers 
of four continents, all of them with their followers 
gaze on the Lord in astonishment, in amazement, in 

And at that moment there issued a ray from 
within the circle of hair between the eyebrows of 
the Lord. It extended over eighteen hundred 


thousand Buddha-fields in the eastern quarter, so 
that all those Buddha-fields appeared wholly illu- 
minated by its radiance, just like the Buddha-fields 
do now, O Agita. 

[At that juncture, A^ita, there were twenty kotis 
of Bodhisattvas following the Lord, All hearers 
of the law in that assembly, on seeing how the 
world was illuminated by the lustre of that ray, 
felt astonishment, amazement, ecstasy, and curio- 
sity 1 .] 

Now it happened, A^ita, that under the rule of 
the aforesaid Lord there was a Bodhisattva called 
Varaprabha, who had eight hundred pupils. 1 1 was to 
this Bodhisattva Varaprabha that the Lord, on rising 
from his meditation, revealed the DharmaparySya 
called 'the Lotus of the True Law/ He spoke during 
fully sixty intermediate kalpas, always sitting on the 
same seat, with immovable body and tranquil mind. 
And the whole assembly continued sitting on the 
same seats, listening to the preaching of the Lord 
for sixty intermediate kalpas, there being not a 
single creature in that assembly who felt fatigue 
of body or mind. 

As the Lord .ATandrasftryapradlpa, the Tathdgata, 
&c., during sixty intermediate kalpas had been ex- 
pounding the DharmaparySya called * the Lotus of 
the True Law/ a text of great development, serving 
to instruct Bodhisattvas and proper to all Buddhas, 
he instantly announced his complete Nirvi^a to the 
world, including the gods, M&ras and Brahmas, to all 
creatures, including ascetics, Brahmans, gods, men 
and demons, saying: To-day, O monks, this very 

1 The passage in brackets is wanting in one of the MSS. 


night, in the middle watch, will the Tathigata, by 
entering the element of absolute Nirvd;*a, become 
wholly extinct. 

Thereupon, A/ita, the Lord ^Tandrastiryapradtpa, 
the Tathigata, &c., predestinated the Bodhisattva 
called .Srlgarbha to supreme, perfect enlightenment, 
and then spoke thus to the whole assembly 
O monks, this Bodhisattva .5rigarbha here shall 
immediately after me attain supreme, perfect en- 
lightenment, and become Vimalanetra, the TathS,- 
gata, &c. 

Thereafter, Agita, that very night, at that very 
watch, the Lord .STandrastiryapradipa, the TatMgata, 
&c., became extinct by entering the element of abso- 
lute NirvA#a. And the afore-mentioned Dharmapar- 
yiya, termed * the Lotus of the True Law/ was kept 
in memory by the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Vara- 
prabha; during eighty intermediate kalpas did the 
Bodhisattva Varaprabha keep and reveal the com- 
mandment of the Lord who had entered Nirvana. 
Now it so happened, A^ita, that the eight sons of 
the Lord J'sfandrastiryapradipa, Mati and the rest, 
were pupils to that very Bodhisattva Varaprabha. 
They were by him made ripe for supreme, perfect 
enlightenment, and in after times they saw and wor- 
shipped many hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of 
Buddhas, all of whom had attained supreme, perfect 
enlightenment, the last of them being Dtpankara, 
the TatMgata, &c. 

Amongst those eight pupils there was one Bodhi- 
sattva who attached an extreme value to gain, 
honour and praise, and was fond of glory, but all 
the words and letters one taught him faded (from 
his memory), did not stick. So he got the appella- 


tion of Yasaskdma 1 . He had propitiated many 
hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Buddhas by 
that root of goodness, and afterwards esteemed, 
honoured, respected, revered, venerated, worshipped 
them. Perhaps, A^ita, thou feelest some doubt, 
perplexity or misgiving that in those days, at that 
time, there was another Bodhisvattva Mahisattva 
Varaprabha, preacher of the law. But do not think 
so. Why ? because it is myself who in those days, 
at that time, was the Bodhisattva MaMsattva Vara- 
prabha, preacher of the law ; and that Bodhisattva 
named Ya^askima, the lazy one, it is thyself, Agita, 
who in those days, at that time, wert the Bodhisattva 
named Yaraskima, the lazy one. 

And so, Agita, having once seen a similar fore- 
token of the Lord, I infer from a similar ray being 
emitted just now, that the Lord is about to expound 
the Dharmapary&ya called ' the Lotus of the True 

And on that occasion, in order to treat the subject 
more copiously, Ma^gnsrt, the prince royal, uttered 
the following stanzas : 

57. I remember a past period, inconceivable, 
illimited kalpas ago, when the highest of beings, 
the trina of the name of -/Tandrastiryapradlpa, was 
in existence. 

58. He preached the true law, he, the leader of 
creatures ; he educated an infinite number of ko/is 
of beings, and roused inconceivably many Bodhi- 
sattvas to acquiring supreme Buddha-knowledge. 

59. And the eight sons born to him, the leader, 
when he was prince royal, no sooner saw that the 

1 I. e. desirous of glory. 


great sage had embraced ascetic life, than they 
resigned worldly pleasures and became monks. 

60. And the Lord of the world proclaimed the law, 
and revealed to thousands of ko/is of living beings 
the Sfttra, the development, which by name is called 
'the excellent Exposition of Infinity/ 

6 1. Immediately after delivering his speech, the 
leader crossed his legs and entered upon the medi- 
tation of ' the excellent Exposition of the Infinite/ 
There on his seat of the law the eminent seer 
continued absorbed in meditation. 

62. And there fell a celestial rain of Manddravas, 
while the drums (of heaven) resounded without 
being struck; the gods and elves in the sky paid 
honour to the highest of men. 

63. And simultaneously all the fields (of Buddha) 
began trembling. A wonder it was, a great prodigy. 
Then the chief emitted from between his brows one 
extremely beautiful ray, 

64. Which moving to the eastern quarter glittered, 
illuminating the world all over the extent of eighteen 
thousand fields. It manifested the vanishing and 
appearing of beings. 

65. Some of the fields then seemed jewelled, 
others showed the hue of lapis lazuli, all splendid, 
extremely beautiful, owing to the radiance of the 
ray from the leader. 

66. Gods and men, as well as Ngas, goblins, 
Gandharvas, nymphs, Kinnaras, and those occupied 
with serving the Sugata became visible in the 
spheres and paid their devotion. 

67. The Buddhas also, those self-born beings, 
appeared of their own accord, resembling golden 
columns; like unto a golden disk (within lapis 


lazuli), they revealed the law in the midst of the 

68. The disciples, indeed, are not to be counted : 
the disciples of Sugata are numberless. Yet the 
lustre of the ray renders them all visible in every 

69. Energetic, without breach or flaw in their 
course, similar to gems and jewels, the sons of the 
leaders of men are visible in the mountain caves 
where they are dwelling. 

70. Numerous Bodhisattvas, like the sand of the 
Ganges, who are spending all their wealth in giving 
alms, who have the strength of patience, are 
devoted to contemplation and wise, become all of 
them visible by that ray. 

71. Immovable, unshaken, firm in patience, de- 
voted to contemplation, and absorbed in meditation 
are seen the true sons of the Sugatas while they 
are striving for supreme enlightenment by dint of 

72. They preach the law in many spheres, and 
point to the true, quiet, spotless state they know. 
Such is the effect produced by the power of the 

73. And all the four classes of hearers on 
seeing the power of the mighty 1 jSTandrftrka- 

1 The text has tiyin, a word frequently occurring in the Lotus. 
I assume that the form ta*pin, given in the dictionaries as an epithet 
of Buddha, is but a misread tyin, and further that this is radically 
the same with the Pali tddt (tidm). As tftyana,Pfcrini I, 3, 38, is 
explained to have the meaning of thriving, prospering, it may be sup- 
posed that tftyin on the strength of its derivation denotes thriving, 
prosperous, mighty, holy, as well as making prosperous,^ blessing, 
sanctifying. Burnouf derives it from a supposed Sanskrit trftyin, 
and translates it by 'protector/ It is, indeed, by no means unlikely 


dipa 1 were filled with joy and asked one another: 
How Is this ? 

74. And soon afterwards, as the Leader of the 
world, worshipped by men, gods, and goblins, rose 
from his meditation, he addressed his son Vara- 
prabha, the wise Bodhisattva and preacher of the 

75. 'Thou art wise, the eye and refuge of the 
world ; thou art the trustworthy keeper of my law, 
and canst bear witness as to the treasure of laws 
which I am to lay bare to the weal of living beings/ 

76. Then, after rousing and stimulating, praising 
and lauding many Bodhisattvas, did the 6ina pro- 
claim the supreme laws during fully sixty inter- 
mediate kalpas. 

77. And whatever excellent supreme law was 
proclaimed by the Lord of the world while conti- 
nuing sitting on the very same seat, was kept in 
memory by Varaprabha, the son of Gina, the preacher 
of the law. 

78. And after the Gina and Leader had mani- 
fested the supreme law and stimulated the numerous 
crowd, he spoke, that day, towards the world includ- 
ing the gods (as follows) : 

79. * I have manifested the rule of the law ; I 
have shown the nature of the law ; now, O monks, 
it is the time of my Nirv4#a ; this very night, in the 
middle watch, 

80. c Be zealous and strong in persuasion ; apply 
yourselves to my lessons ; (for) the Ginas, the great 

that tyin was used synonymousl7 with n&tha or n&yaka, but 
it seems not necessary to derive it from tr&yate. 

1 This name is synonymous with jSTandiasflryapradtpa ; one of 
the MSS, has -ffandrapradtpa. 


seers, are but rarely met with in the lapse of myriads 
of ko/is of ^Eons.' 

81. The many sons of Buddha were struck with 
grief and filled with extreme sorrow when they 
heard the voice of the highest of men announcing 
that his Nirvdwa was near at hand. 

82. To comfort so inconceivably many ko/is of 
living beings the king of kings said : ' Be not 
afraid, O monks ; after my Nirv&^a there shall be 
another Buddha. 

83. ' The wise Bodhisattva .Srigarbha, after finish- 
ing his course in faultless knowledge, shall reach 
highest, supreme enlightenment, and become a rina 
under the name of Vimaligranetra.' 

84. That very night, in the middle watch, he met 
complete extinction, like a lamp when the cause 
(of its burning) is exhausted. His relics were 
distributed, and of his Stftpas there was an infinite 
number of myriads of ko/is. 

85. The monks and nuns at the time being, who 
strove after supreme, highest enlightenment, nume- 
rous as sand of the Ganges, applied themselves to 
the commandment of the Sugata. 

86. And the monk who then was the preacher of 
the law and the keeper of the law, Varaprabha, 
expounded for fully eighty intermediate kalpas the 
highest laws according to the commandment (of the 

87. He had eight hundred pupils, who all of them 
were by him brought to full development They 
saw many ko#s of Buddhas, great sages, whom they 

88. By following the regular course they became 
Buddhas in several spheres, and as they followed 


one another in immediate succession they suc- 
cessively foretold each other's future destiny to 

89. The last of these Buddhas following one 
another was Dlpankara. He, the supreme god of 
gods, honoured by crowds of sages, educated thou- 
sands of koris of living beings, 

90. Among the pupils of Varaprabha, the son of 
<-rina, at the time of his teaching the law, was one 
slothful, covetous, greedy of gain and cleverness. 

91. He was also excessively desirous of glory, 
but very fickle, so that the lessons dictated to him 
and his own reading faded from his memory as soon 
as learnt. 

92. His name was Yajaskima, by which he was 
known everywhere. By the accumulated merit l of 
that good action, spotted as it was, 

93. He propitiated thousands of koris of Buddhas, 
whom he rendered ample honour. He went through 
the regular course of duties and saw the present 
Buddha SSkyzsimha.. 

94. He shall be the last to reach superior en- 
lightenment and become a Lord known by the family 
name of Maitreya, who shall educate thousands of 
korfs of creatures. 

TheMSS havetenikujalenakarmawS, tenoku^alena kar- 
#l As teno and ten4 in the stanzas are occasionally used instead 
of tena, it is uncertain whether tenk. is to be separated into tena 
and aku,rala. This much is clear, that the author of the foregoing 
prose text has taken the words as teni (Vedic the same) or teno, and 
ku jala. The good in Yajasktoa was his love of renown, of good 
fame. Maitreya, by his very nature, holds a middle position be- 
tween black night and bright daylight; Mithra also is represented 



95. He who then, under the rule of the extinct 
Sugata, was so slothful, was thyself, and it was I 
who then was the preacher of the law. 

96. As on seeing a foretoken of this kind I re- 
cognise a sign such as I have seen manifested of 
yore, therefore and on that account I know, 

97. That decidedly the chief of Ginas, the su- 
preme king of the .S&kyas, the All-seeing, who 
knows the highest truth, is about to pronounce the 
excellent Stitra which I have heard before. 

98. That very sign displayed at present is a proof 
of the skilfulness of the leaders; the Lion of the 
S&kyas is to make an exhortation, to declare the 
fixed nature of the law. 

99. Be well prepared and well minded ; join your 
hands : he who is affectionate and merciful to the 
world is going to speak, is going to pour the endless 
rain of the law and refresh those that are waiting for 

100. And if some should feel doubt, uncertainty, 
or misgiving in any respect, then the Wise One 
shall remove it for his children, the Bodhisattvas 
here striving after enlightenment. 


wonderful, Siriputra. None but a Tathigata, 
putra, can impart to a Tathagata those laws which 
the Tathgata knows. And all laws, .SSriputra, are 
taught by the Tath&gata, and by him alone ; no one 
but he knows all laws, what they are, how they are, 
like what they are, of what characteristics and of 
what nature they are. 

And on that occasion, to set forth the same sub- 
ject more copiously, the Lord uttered the following 
stanzas : 

1. Innumerable are the great heroes in the world 
that embraces gods and men; the totality of crea- 
tures is unable to completely know the leaders. 

2. None can know their powers and states of 
emancipation, their absence of hesitation and Buddha 
properties, such as they are. 

3. Of yore have I followed in presence of kotis of 
Buddhas the good course which is profound, subtle, 
difficult to understand, and most difficult to find. 

4. After pursuing that career during an incon- 
ceivable number of koris of JEons, I have on 
the terrace of enlightenment discovered the fruit 

5. And therefore I recognise, like the other chiefs 
of the world, how it is, like what it is, and what are 
its characteristics. 

6. It is impossible to explain it ; it is unutterable ; 
nor is there such a being in the world 

7. To whom this law could be explained or who 
would be able to understand it when explained, with 
exception of the Bodhisattvas, those who are firm 
in resolve. 

8. As to the disciples of the Knower of the world, 
those who have done their duty and received praise 



from the Sugatas, who are freed from faults and 
have arrived at the last stage of bodily existence, 
the ina-knowledge lies beyond their sphere. 

9. If this whole sphere were full of beings like 
*53.risuta, and if they were to investigate with com- 
bined efforts, they would be unable to comprehend 
the knowledge of the Sugata. 

10. Even if the ten points of space were full of 
sages like thee, ay, if they were full of such as the 
rest of my disciples, 

n. And if those beings combined were to in- 
vestigate the knowledge of the Sugata, they would, 
all together, not be able to comprehend the Buddha- 
knowledge in its whole immensity. 

1 2. If the ten points of space were filled with 
Pratyekabuddhas, free from faults, gifted with acute 
faculties, and standing in the last stage of their 
existence, as numerous as reeds and bamboos in 
the woods; 

13. And if combined for an endless number of 
myriads of ko/is of ^Eons, they were to investigate 
a part only of my superior laws, they would never 
find out its real meaning. 

14. If the ten points of space were full of Bodhi- 
sattvas who, after having done their duty under 
many ko^is of Buddhas, investigated all things and 
preached many sermons, after entering a new 
vehicle l ; 

15. If the whole world were full of them, as of 
dense reeds and bamboos, without any ' interstices, 
and if all combined were to investigate the law which 
the Sugata has realised ; 

1 Or lather, a new career. 
Lai] D 



1 6. If they were going on investigating for many 
ko/is of JEons, as incalculable as the sand of the 
Ganges, with undivided attention and subtle wit, 
even then that (knowledge) would be beyond their 

17. If such Bodhisattvas as are unable to fall 
back, numerous as the sand of the Ganges, were 
to investigate it with undivided attention, it would 
prove to lie beyond their ken. 

1 8. Profound are the laws of the Buddhas, and 
subtle ; all inscrutable and faultless. I myself know 
them as well as the Crinas do in the ten directions 
of the world. 

19. Thou, iSSriputra, be full of trust in what the 
Sugata declares. The Gins, speaks no falsehood, 
the great Seer who has so long preached the highest 

20. I address all disciples here, those who have 
set out to reach the enlightenment of Pratyeka- 
buddhas, those who are roused to activity at my 
NirvclTza 1 , and those who have been released from 
the series of evils. 

21. It is by my superior skilfulness that I explain 
the law at great length to the world at large. I 
deliver whosoever are attached to one point or 
another, and show the three vehicles 2 . 

The eminent disciples in the assembly headed by 
A^S4ta-Kaurfinya, the twelve hundred Arhats fault- 
less and self-controlled, the other monks, nuns, male 
and female lay devotees using the vehicle of disciples, 
and those who had entered the vehicle of Pratyeka- 

1 Or, who by me are established in Nirvfoza. 

2 The word yna in the text also means <a career, course.' 


buddhas, all of them made this reflection: What 
may be the cause, what the reason of the Lord so 
extremely extolling the skilfulness of the Tathi- 
gatas ? of his extolling it by saying, ' Profound is 
the law by me discovered;' of his extolling it by 
saying, f It is difficult for all disciples and Pratyeka- 
buddhas to understand it/ But as yet the Lord has 
declared no more than one kind of emancipation, 
and therefore we also should acquire the Buddha- 
laws on reaching Nirv^a. We do not catch the 
meaning of this utterance of the Lord. 

And the venerable .S&riputra, who apprehended 
the doubt and uncertainty of the four classes of the 
audience and guessed their thoughts from what was 
passing in his own mind, himself being in doubt about 
the law, then said to the Lord : What, O Lord, is 
the cause, what the reason of the Lord so repeatedly 
and extremely extolling the skilfulness, knowledge, 
and preaching of the Tathdgata? Why does he 
repeatedly extol it by saying, ' Profound is the law 
by me discovered ; it is difficult to understand the 
mystery of the Tathigatas/ Never before have I 
heard from the Lord such a discourse on the law. 
These four classes of the audience, O Lord, are 
overcome with doubt and perplexity. Therefore 
may the Lord be pleased to explain what the Tathi- 
gata is alluding to, when repeatedly extolling the 
profound law of the TathUgatas. 

On that occasion the venerable S&riputra uttered 
the following stanzas : 

22. Now first does the Sun of men utter such a 
speech : ( I have acquired the powers, emancipations, 
and numberless meditations/ 

23. And thou mentionest the terrace of enlighten- 

D 2 


ment without any one asking thee ; thou mentionest 
the mystery, although no one asks thee. 

24. Thou speakest unasked and laudest thine own 
course ; thou mentionest thy having obtained know- 
ledge and pronouncest profound words. 

25. To-day a question rises in my mind and of 
these self-controlled, faultless beings striving after 
Nirv&^a : Why does the ina speak in this manner ? 

26. Those who aspire to the enlightenment of 
Pratyekabuddhas, the nuns and monks, gods, Nslgas, 
goblins, Gandharvas, and great serpents, are talking 
together, while looking up to the highest of men, 

27. And ponder in perplexity. Give an elucida- 
tion, great Sage, to all the disciples of Sugata here 

28. Myself have reached the perfection (of virtue), 
have been taught by the supreme Sage ; still, O 
highest of men ! even in my position I feel some 
doubt whether the course (of duty) shown to me 
shall receive its final sanction by Nirvi^a, 

29. Let thy voice be heard, O thou whose voice 
resounds like an egregious kettle-drum ! proclaim thy 
law such as it is. The legitimate sons of ina here 
standing and gazing at the ina, with joined hands ; 

30. As well as the gods, Nigas, goblins, Titans, 
numbering thousands of ko/is, like sand of the 
Ganges; and tihtose that aspire to superior en- 
lightenment, here standing, fully eighty thousand 
in number; 

31- Further, the kings, rulers of provinces and 
paramount monarchy who have flocked hither from 
thousands of ko/is of countries, are now standing 
with joined hands, and respectful, thinking : How 
are we to fulfil the course of duty ? 


The venerable ^riputra having spoken, the Lord 
said to him: Enough, 6^riputra; it is of no use 
explaining this matter. Why ? Because, .Sdriputra, 
the world, including the gods, would be frightened if 
this matter were expounded. 

But the venerable SSriputra entreated the Lord 
a second time, saying : Let the Lord expound, let 
the Sugata expound this matter, for in this assembly, 
O Lord, there are many hundreds, many thousands, 
many hundred thousands, many hundred thousand 
myriads of kotis of living beings who have seen 
former Buddhas, who are intelligent, and will believe, 
value, and accept the words of the Lord. 

The venerable .SJiriputra addressed the Lord with 
this stanza : 

32. Speak clearly, O most eminent of trinas ! in 
this assembly there are thousands of living beings 
trustful, affectionate, and respectful towards the 
Sugata ; they will understand the law by thee ex- 

And the Lord said a second time to the venerable 
iS&riputra : Enough, -S&riputra ; it is of no use ex- 
plaining this matter, for the world, including the 
gods, would be frightened, .Sclriputra, if this matter 
were expounded, and some monks might be proud 
and come to a heavy fall 1 . 

And on that occasion uttered the Lord the follow- 
ing stanza : 

33, Speak no more of it that I should declare this 
law ! This knowledge is too subtle, inscrutable, and 
there are so many unwise men who in their conceit 
and foolishness would scoff at the law revealed* 

1 Or, commit a great offence. 


A third time the venerable .Sariputra entreated 
the Lord, saying: Let the Lord expound, let the 
Sugata expound this matter. In this assembly, O 
Lord, there are many hundreds of living beings my 
equals, and many hundreds, many thousands, many 
hundred thousands, many hundred thousand myriads 
of ko/is of other living beings more, who in former 
births have been brought by the Lord to full ripe- 
ness. They will believe, value, and accept what the 
Lord declares, which shall tend to their advantage, 
weal, and happiness in length of time. 

On that occasion the venerable ^iriputra uttered 
the following stanzas : 

34. Explain the law, O thou most high of men ! 
I, thine eldest son, beseech thee. Here are thou- 
sands of kotis of beings who are to believe in the 
law by thee revealed. 

35. And those beings that in former births so 
long and constantly have by thee been brought to 
full maturity and now are all standing here with 
joined hands, they, too, are to believe in this law. 

36. Let the Sugata, seeing the twelve hundred, 
my equals, and those who are striving after superior 
enlightenment, speak to them and produce in them 
an extreme joy. 

When the Lord for the third time heard the* 
entreaty of the venerable Sariputra, he spoke to him 
as follows : Now that thou entreatest the Tathigata 
a third time, .S&riputra, I will answer thee. Listen 
then, .Sariputra, take well and duly to heart what 
I am saying ; I am going to speak. 

Now it happened that five thousand proud monks, 
nuns, and lay devotees of both sexes in the congre- 
gation rose from their seats and, after saluting with 


their heads the Lord's feet, went to leave the assem- 
bly. Owing to the principle of good which there is 
in pride they imagined having attained what they 
had not, and having understood what they had not. 
Therefore, thinking* themselves aggrieved, they went 
to leave the assembly, to which the Lord by his 
silence showed assent. 

Thereupon the Lord addressed the venerable 
VAriputra: My congregation, .Sariputra, has been 
cleared from the chaff 1 , freed from the trash; it is 
firmly established in the strength of faith. It is good, 
Variputra, that those proud ones are gone away. 
Now I am going to expound the matter, driputra. 
* Very well, Lord/ replied the venerable Sdriputra. 
The Lord then began and said : 

It is but now and then, 6ariputra, that the Tathd- 
jjata preaches such a discourse on the law as this. 
Just us but now and then is seen the blossom of the 
j^lomcTous fig-tree, iariputra, so does the Tathagala 
but now and then preach such a discourse on the 
law. Believe me, 6uriputra; I speak what is real, 
I speak what is truthful, I speak what is right. It is 
difficult to understand the exposition of the mystery 
of the Tathftjpita, .Sariputra ; for in elucidating the 
law, Aariputfii, I use hundred thousands of various 
skilful means, such as different interpretations, indi- 
cations, explanations, illustrations. It is not by 
reasoning, Sariputra, that the law is to be found: 
it is beyond the pale of reasoning, and must be 

1 One of the MSS. has nishpraldva, which ought to be nish- 
palftva; another has nishpudgaldva. Both imaginary words 
arc no doubt the result of an unhappy attempt to Sanskritise a Prd- 
krit nip paid va by sdribes unacquainted with the Sanskrit paldva 
(PSli pal&pa). The right form occurs below, stanza 40, 


learnt from the TatMgata. For, ,S&riputra, it is 
for a sole object, a sole aim, verily a lofty object, 
a lofty aim that the Buddha, the Tathigata, &c., 
appears in the world. And what is that sole object, 
that sole aim, that lofty object, that lofty aim of the 
Buddha, the Tathlgata, &c., appearing in the world ? 
To show all creatures the sight of Tath&gata-know- 
ledge 1 does the Buddha, the Tathdgata, &c., appear 
in the world ; to open the eyes of creatures for the 
sight of Tathlgata-knowledge does the Buddha, the 
TatMgata, &c., appear in the world. This, O *SSri- 
putra, is the sole object, the sole aim, the sole pur- 
pose of his appearance in the world. Such then, 
.S&riputra, is the sole object, the sole aim, the lofty 
object, the lofty aim of the TatMgata. And it is 
achieved by the TathUgata. For, ,5&riputra, I do show 
all creatures the sight of Tathdgata-knowledge ; I 
do open the eyes of creatures for the sight of Tathd- 
gata-knowledge, 6&riputra ; I do firmly establish the 
teaching of Tathigata-knowledge, Sdriputra ; I do 
lead the teaching of Tathigata-knowledge on the 
right path, .SSriputra. By means of one sole vehicle 2 , 
to wit, the Buddha-vehicle, ,S&riputra, do I teach 
creatures the law; there is no second vehicle, nor 
a third. This is the nature of the law, .SSriputra, 
universally in the world, in all directions. For, 
Sariputra, all the TatMgatas, &c,, who in times 
past existed in countless, innumerable . spheres in 
all directions for the weal of many, the happiness 
of many, out of pity to the world, for the benefit, 
weal, and happiness of the great body of creatures, 

1 Or, to rouse all creatures by the display of Tathgata-knowledge. 
f Rather and properly, one sole course. 


and who preached the law to gods and men with 
able means, such as several directions and indica- 
tions, various arguments, reasons, illustrations, fun- 
damental ideas, interpretations, paying regard to the 
dispositions of creatures whose inclinations and 
temperaments are so manifold, all those Buddhas 
and Lords, Sdriputra, have preached the law to 
creatures by means of only one vehicle, the Buddha- 
vehicle, which finally leads to omniscience; it is 
identical with showing all creatures the sight of 
Tathdgata-knowledge ; with opening the eyes of 
creatures for the sight of TathSgata-knowledge ; 
with the awakening (or admonishing) by the dis- 
play (or sight) of Tathdgata-knowledge 1 ; with 
leading the teaching of Tathigata-knowledge on the 
right path. Such is the law they have preached to 
creatures. And those creatures, iS&riputra, who have 
heard the law from the past Tathigatas, &c., have 
all of them reached supreme, perfect enlightenment. 

And the Tath&gatas, &c., who shall exist in 
future, .Siriputra, in countless, innumerable spheres 
in all directions for the weal of many, the happi- 
ness of many, out of pity to the world, for the 
benefit, weal, and happiness of the great body of 
creatures, and who shall preach the law to gods and 
men (See., as above till) the right path. Such is the 
law they shall preach to creatures. And those 
creatures, ^riputra, who shall hear the law from 
the future Tathdgatas, &c., shall all of them reach 
supreme, perfect enlightenment 

And the Tathdgatas, &c., who now at present are 

1 One MS. has Tathtgata#&nade$anapratibodhana; the 
other darjana instead of dejana. 


staying, living, existing, 6ariputra, in countless, innu- 
merable spheres in all directions, &c., and who are 
preaching the law to gods and men (&c., as above 
till) the right path. Such is the law they are 
preaching to creatures. And those creatures, ari- 
putra, who are hearing the law from the present 
TatMgatas, &c., shall all of them reach supreme, 
perfect enlightenment. 

I myself also, .Sariputra, am at the present period a 
Tath&gata, &c., for the weal of many (&c., till) mani- 
fold; I myself also, -SSriputra, am preaching the law 
to creatures (&c., till) the right path. Such is the law 
I preach to creatures. And those creatures, .Sari- 
putra, who now are hearing the law from me, shall 
all of them reach supreme, perfect enlightenment. 
In this sense, Sariputra, it must be understood that 
nowhere in the world a second vehicle is taught, far 
less a third. 

Yet, ^Iriputra, when the TatMgatas, &c., happen 
to appear at the decay l of the epoch, the decay of 
creatures, the decay of besetting sins *, the decay of 
views, or the decay of lifetime ; when they appear 
amid such signs of decay at the disturbance of the 
epoch; when creatures are much tainted, full of 
greed and poor in roots of goodness ; then, Sdxi- 
putra, the Tathigatas, &c., use, skilfully, to desig- 
nate that one and sole Buddha-vehicle by the 
appellation of the threefold vehicle. Now, Sdxi- 
putra, such disciples, Arhats, or Pratyekabuddhas 

1 One MS. has kash&yeshu in the plural, literally c the dregs/ 

2 Kle^akasMya, which -Burnouf renders by 'la corruption du 
mal/ I think we might paraphrase the term used in the text by 
saying, the time when the besetting sins or natural depravities 
show themselves at their very worst. 


who do not hear their actually being called to the 
Buddha- vehicle by the Tathdgata, who do not per- 
ceive, nor heed it, those, ,5riputra, should not be 
acknowledged as disciples of the TathSgata, nor as 
Arhats, nor as Pratyekabuddhas. 

Again, .5&riputra, if there be some monk or nun 
pretending to Arhatship without an earnest vow to 
reach supreme, perfect enlightenment and saying, ' I 
am standing too high 1 for the Buddha-vehicle, I am 
in my last appearance in the body before complete 
Nirvdraa,' then, ^driputra, consider such a one to be 
conceited. For, vS&riputra, it is unfit, it is improper 
that a monk, a faultless Arhat, should not believe in 
the law which he hears from the Tathigata in his 
presence. I leave out of question when the Tathi- 
gata shall have reached complete Nirvi^a; for at 
that period, that time, ^driputra, when the Tathi- 
gata shall be wholly extinct, there shall be none 
who either knows by heart or preaches such Sfttras 
as this. It will be under other TathUgatas, &c., that 
they are to be freed from doubts. In respect to these 
things believe my words, .SSriputra, value them, 
take them to heart ; for there is no falsehood in the 
TatMgatas, ^iriputra. There is but one vehicle, 
Sariputra, and that the Buddha-vehicle. 

And on that occasion to set forth this matter 
more copiously the Lord uttered the following 
stanzas : 

1 Accordingtothereadingutsanna; another MS. has u^^mna, 
the reading followed by Burnouf, for he renders it by e exclu/ The 
form u>&inna could the more easily creep in, because instead of 
utsanna we often find u&6anna, which, in fact, I believe to be 
the true form, for the word may be derived from ^ad, akin to 
Latin cedo, Greek Keneao/wu ; the usual spelling, however, is ut- 


37. No less than five thousand monks, nuns, and 
lay devotees of both sexes, full of unbelief and 

38. Remarking this slight, went, defective in 
training and foolish as they were, away in order 
to beware of damage. 

39. The Lord, who knew them to be the dregs of 
the congregation, exclaimed 1 : They have no suffi- 
cient merit to hear this law. 

40. My congregation is now pure 2 , freed from 
chaff; the trash is removed and the pith only 

41. Hear from me, ,5cLriputra ? how this law has 
been discovered by the highest man 3 , and how the 
mighty Buddhas are preaching it with many hundred 
proofs of skilfulness. 

42. I know the disposition and conduct, the 
various inclinations of koris of living beings in 
this world ; I know their various actions and the 
good they have done before. 

43. Those living beings I initiate in this (law) by 
the aid of manifold interpretations and reasons ; and 
by hundreds of arguments and illustrations have I, 
in one way or another, gladdened all creatures. 

44. I utter both SAtras and stanzas; legends, 

1 The two preceding stanzas and the half of this stanza make no 
part of the Lord's speech. It appears that the maker of the prose 
text has worked upon the older text in poetry, and on this occasion 
has been at a loss how to connect the latter with the former. The 
matter is easily explained on the assumption that the verses con- 
tained the ancient text, and therefore were treated with the greatest 

* Suddhi; Burnouf rendering 'ayant de la foi' has followed 
another reading, jraddhl 

3 The term used is Purushottama, a well-known epithet of 


<7atakas T , and prodigies, besides hundreds of intro- 
ductions and curious parables. 

45. I show Nirv&a to the ignorant with low 
dispositions, who have followed no course of duty 
under many ko/is of Buddhas, are bound to con- 
tinued existence and wretched. 

46. The self-born one uses such means to mani- 
fest Buddha-knowledge, but he shall never say to 
them, Ye also are to become Buddhas 2 . 

47. Why should not the mighty 3 one, after having 
waited for the right time, speak, now that he per- 
ceives the right moment is come ? This is the fit 
opportunity, met somehow, of commencing the ex- 
position of what really is, 

48. Now the word of my commandment, as con- 
tained in nine divisions 4 , has been published accord- 
ing to the varying degree of strength of creatures. 
Such is the device I have shown in order to intro- 
duce (creatures) to the knowledge of the giver of 

49. And to those in the world who have always 
been pure, wise, good-minded, compassionate sons 

1 Moralising talcs and fables, so-called birth stories. Of the Pfili 
version of those talcs a part has been edited by Professor Fausboll 
and translated by Dr* Rhys Davids. 

a The reading is uncertain; one MS. has yushme pi bud- 
dheka(l)bhavishyatheti; another yushmaipi buddhehibha- 

5 T&yin; here one might translate the word by 'able, clever/ 

4 The nine divisions, according to the matter, of Scripture, are 
with the Southern Buddhists, Sutta, Geya, Veyykaraa, GSM, 
Udfina, Itivuttaka, G&taka, Abbhutadhamma, and Vedalla, to which 
answer in the Northern enumeration Sfltra, Geya, Vaiykaraa, 
Gdthd, Uddna, Ityukta (or Itivnttika), G&aka, Adbhutadharma, and 
Vaipulya ; see Burnouf, Introduction, p. 51 sqq. 


of Buddha and dons their duty under many ko/is of 
Buddhas will I make known amplified Sfttras. 

50. For they are endowed with such gifts of 
mental disposition and such advantages of a blame- 
less outward form l that I can announce to them : in 
future ye shall become Buddhas benevolent and 

51. Hearing which, all of them will be pervaded 
with delight (at the thought) : We shall become 
Buddhas pre-eminent in the world. And I, per- 
ceiving their conduct, will again reveal amplified 

52. And those are the disciples of the Leader, 
who have listened to my word of command. One 
single stanza learnt or kept in memory suffices, no 
doubt of it, to lead all of them to enlightenment. 

53. There is, indeed, but one vehicle; there is no 
second, nor a third anywhere in the world, apart 
from the case of the Purushottamas using an expe- 
dient to show that there is a diversity of vehicles. 

54. The Chief of the world appears in the world 
to reveal the Buddha-knowledge. He has but one 
aim, indeed, no second ; the Buddhas do not bring 
over (creatures) by an inferior vehicle. 

^ 55. There where the self-born one has established 
himself, and where the object of knowledge is, of what- 
ever form or kind ; (where) the powers, the stages of 
meditation, the emancipations, the perfected faculties 
(are); there the beings also shall be established. 
56. I should be guilty of envy, should I, after 

1 The text has: tatMhi te sayamnpadhi visuddharflpS- 
yasamanvita 'bhftt. This abhfit is rather an unhappy attempt 
at Sanskritismg a Pr&krit ahim or ahu, than a singular used for 
a plural. S ampad and sty a are neaily synonymous terms. 


reaching the spotless eminent state of enlightenment, 
establish any one in the inferior vehicle. That 
would not beseem me. 

57. There is no envy whatever in me; no 
jealousy, no desire, nor passion. Therefore I am 
the Buddha, because the world follows my teaching 1 . 

58. * /hen, splendidly marked with (the thirty- 
two) cnaracteristics, I am illuminating this whole 
world, and, worshipped by many hundreds of beings, 
I show the (unmistakable) stamp of the nature of 
the law; 

59. Then, .S&riputra, I think thus: How will all 
beings by the thirty-two characteristics mark the 
self-born Seer, who of his own accord sheds his 
lustre all over the world? 

60. And while I am thinking and pondering, 
when my wish has been fulfilled and my vow 
accomplished, I no more 3 reveal Buddha-knowledge. 

6 1. If, O son of Sdri 3 , I spoke to the creatures, 
' Vivify in your minds the wish for enlightenment,' 
they would in their ignorance all go astray and 
never catch the meaning of my good words. 

62. And considering them to be such, and that 
they have not accomplished their course of duty in 
previous existences, (I see how) they are attached 
and devoted to sensual pleasures, infatuated by 
desire and blind with delusion. 

1 Anubodh^t, which may be rendered otherwise, e (because the 
world) perceives me/ 

* One MS. reads a, ' and, 1 for na, 'not.' 

8 S&risuta, otherwise *Sriputra, S&T&& or s&rik is the Tnrdus 
Salica, one of whose other names is dfttt, masc, dftta. It is 
hardly a mere play of chance that SSriputia in JSTuUavagga VII, 4 
is piaised as being an excellent dftta. 


63. From lust they run into distress ; they are tor- 
mented in the six states of existence and people the 
cemetery I again and again ; they are overwhelmed 
with misfortune, as they possess little virtue. 

64. They are continually entangled in the thickets 
of (sectarian) theories, such as, 'It is and it is not ; 
it is thus and it is not thus/ In trying to get a 
decided opinion on what is found in the sixty-two 
(heretical) theories they come to embrace falsehood 
and continue in it. 

65. They are hard to correct, proud, hypocritical, 
crooked, malignant, ignorant, dull ; hence they do 
not hear the good Buddha-call, not once in ko/is of 

66. To those, son of Sri, I show a device and 
say : Put an end to your trouble. When I perceive 
creatures vexed with mishap I make them see 

67. And so do I reveal all those laws that are 
ever holy and correct from the very first. And the 
son of Buddha who has completed his course shall 
once be a rina. 

, 68. It is but my skilfulness which prompts me to 
manifest three vehicles ; for there is but one vehicle 
and one track 2 ; there is also but one instruction by 
the leaders. 

69. Remove all doubt and uncertainty; and should 

vardhenti. This is a strangely altered ka/asiz?z 
vardhenti, Pali ka/asim va<Wenti; see ^Tullavagga XII, i, 3, 
and cf. the expression ka/asiva^^ano in Gdtaka (ed. Fausbdll) 
I, p. 146, and the passage of Apastamba II, 9, 23, 4 (in Biihler's 
transl, p. 156), where cemeteries, Smsus-dnSm, by the commentator 
Haradatta, are said to denote * fresh births/ 
2 Or, method. 


there be any who feel doubts, (let them know that) 
the Lords of the world speak the truth ; this is the 
only vehicle, a second there is not. 

70. The former Tath^gatas also, living in the past 
for innumerable ./Eons, the many thousands of Bud- 
dhas who are gone to final rest, whose number can 
never be counted, 

71. Those highest of men 1 have all of them re- 
vealed most holy laws by means of illustrations, 
reasons, and arguments, with many hundred proofs 
of skilfulness. 

72. And all of them have manifested but one 
vehicle and introduced but one on earth; by one 
vehicle have they led to full ripeness inconceivably 
many thousands of ko/is of beings. 

73. Yet the G'mas possess various and manifold 
means through which the Tathfigata reveals to the 
world, including the gods, superior enlightenment, in 
consideration of the inclinations and dispositions (of 
the different beings). 

74. And all in the world who are hearing or 
have heard the law from the mouth of the Tathd- 
gatas, given alms, followed the moral precepts, and 
patiently accomplished the whole of their religious 
duties ; 

75. Who have acquitted themselves in point of 
zeal and meditation, with wisdom reflected on those 
laws, and performed several meritorious actions, 
have all of them reached enlightenment 

76. And such beings as were living patient, sub- 
dued, and disciplined, under the rule of the 6inas of 
those times, have all of them reached enlighten- 

1 Purushottami^ 
[21] E 


77. Others also, who paid worship to the relics of 
the departed inas, erected many thousands of 
Sttipas made of gems, gold, silver, or crystal, 

78. Or built Sttipas of emerald, cat's eye 1 , pearls, 
egregious lapis lazuli, or sapphire ; they have all of 
them reached enlightenment 

79. And those who erected Sttipas from marble, 
sandal-wood, or eagle-wood; constructed Stftpas from 
Deodar or a combination of different sorts of timber; 

80. And who in gladness of heart built for the 
Ginas Sttipas of bricks or clay; or caused mounds of 
earth to be raised in forests and wildernesses in 
dedication to the Ginas ; 

8 1. The little boys even, who in playing erected 
here and there heaps of sand with the intention of 
dedicating them as Sttipas to the 6inas, they have 
all of them reached enlightenment 

82. Likewise have all who caused jewel images 
to be made and dedicated, adorned with the thirty- 
two characteristic signs, reached enlightenment. 

83. Others who had images of Sugatas made 
of the seven precious substances, of copper or 
brass, have all of them reached enlightenment 

84. Those who ordered beautiful statues of Su- 
gatas to be made of lead, iron, clay, or plaster 
have &c. 

85. Those who made images (of the Sugatas) on 
painted walls, with complete limbs and the hundred 
holy signs, whether they drew them themselves or 
had them drawn by others, have &c. 

1 ELarketana, a certain precious stone, which, according to the 
dictionaries, is a kind of cat's eye. It rather looks as if it were 
the Greek xo^&Jwo*. 


86. Those even, whether men or boys, who 
during the lesson or in play, by way of amusement 
made upon the walls (such) images with the nail or 
a piece of wood, 

87. Have all of them reached enlightenment; 
they have become compassionate, and, by rousing 
many Bodhisattvas, have saved ko/is of creatures. 

88. Those who offered flowers and perfumes to 
the relics of the TatMgatas, to Sttipas, a mound of 
earth, images of clay or drawn on a wall ; 

89. Who caused musical instruments, drums, conch 
trumpets, and noisy great drums to be played, and 
raised the rattle of tymbals at such places in order 
to celebrate the highest enlightenment; 

90. Who caused sweet lutes, cymbals, tabors, 
small drums, reed-pipes, flutes of l or sugar-cane 
to be made, have all of them reached enlightenment 

91. Those who to celebrate the Sugatas made 
iron cymbals resound, (?) or small drums 2 ; who 
sang a song sweet and lovely; 

92. They have all of them reached enlightenment. 
By paying various kinds of worship to the relics of 
the Sugatas, by doing but a little for the relics, by 
making resound were it but a single musical instru- 
ment ; 

93. Or by worshipping were it but with a single 

1 The MSS. have ekonna</a, which I do not understand ; Bur- 
nouf, it would seem, has read ekotsava, for his translation has 
* ceux qui ne servent que pour une f8te.' 

a Two words are doubtful; one MS. has -alama7W</uk v& 
maw^akS vd; another ^ilamaddrakS v& maddrakft vl 
It is not impossible that maddraka is essentially the same with 
Sanskrit mandra, which is said to be a kind of drum. Burnouf 
renders the words by ' qui ont battu 1'eau, frapp dans leurs mains.' 

E 2 


flower, by drawing on a wall the images of the Su- 
gatas, by doing worship were it even with distracted 
thoughts, one shall in course of time see koris of 

94. Those who, when in presence of a Stftpa, 
have offered their reverential salutation, be it in a 
complete form or by merely joining the hands ; who, 
were it but for a single moment, bent their head or 

95. And who at Stftpas containing relics have one 
single time said: Homage be to Buddha ! albeit they 
did it with distracted thoughts, all have attained 
superior enlightenment. 

96. The creatures who in the days of those Su- 
gatas, whether already extinct l or still in existence, 
have heard no more than the name of the law, have 
all of them reached enlightenment. 

97. Many ko^is of future Buddhas beyond imagina- 
tion and measure shall likewise reveal this device as 
Grinas and supreme Lords. 

98. Endless shall be the skilfulness of these 
leaders of the world, by which they shall educate 2 
kotfs of beings to that Buddha-knowledge which is 
free from imperfection 3 . 

1 Or, expired, and more grandly entered Nirv4a. The real 
meaning of the contents of stanza 74 seq. will be that all men 
who lived under past Sugatas, i.e. in past days, after doing 
acts of piety, have finished with reaching enlightenment, i.e. with 

9 Vinayati, to train, educate, also means to carry away, remove. 

8 Le. death. Such terms as perfect enlightenment, Buddha- 
knowledge, &c., when they are vetted or euphemistic expressions 
for death, may be compared with the phrase 'to see the truth,' 
which in some parts of Europe is quite common, especially among 


99. Never has there been any being who, after 
hearing the law of those (leaders), shall not become 
Buddha 1 ; for this is the fixed vow of the TatM- 
gatas : Let me, by accomplishing my course of duty, 
lead others to enlightenment 

100. They are to expound in future days many 
thousand korfs of heads of the law ; in their Tathi- 
gataship they shall teach the law by showing the 
sole vehicle before-mentioned. 

101. The line of the law forms an unbroken con- 
tinuity and the nature of its properties is always 
manifest Knowing this, the Buddhas, the highest 
of men, shall reveal this single vehicle 2 . 

102. They shall reveal the stability of the law, its 
being subjected to fixed rules, its unshakeable per- 
petuity in the world, the awaking of the Buddhas on 
the elevated terrace of the earth, their skilfulness. 

103. In all directions of space are standing Bud- 
dhas, like sand of the Ganges, honoured by gods 
and men ; these also do, for the weal of all beings in 
the world, expound superior enlightenment. 

104. Those Buddhas while manifesting skilfulness 
display various vehicles though, at the same time, 
indicating the one single vehicle 3 : the supreme place 
of blessed rest. 

country people, as synonymous with dying. No less common is 
the expression nirvam pasyati, to see Nirva. 

1 The text has eko 'pi satvo na kad&S tesh&fc, SrutvSna dhar- 
maw na bhaveta buddha& -JrutvSna answers, of course, to a 
Prdkrit sutvina; cf. Vedic pftvnam, P&zini VII, i, 48- 

* Viditva BuddhS dvipad&iam uttam, prak&ayishyanti 'mam 
ekayna0z. The elision of i is an example of Prdkrit or Pk 
Sandhi, frequent in the stanzas. 

8 Y&na here properly denotes way, or place where one is 
going to. 


105. Acquainted as they are with the conduct of 
all mortals, with their peculiar dispositions and pre- 
vious actions; with due regard to their strenuous- 
ness and vigour, as well as their inclination, the 
Buddhas impart their lights to them. 

1 06. By dint of knowledge the leaders produce 
many illustrations, arguments, and reasons; and con- 
sidering how the creatures have various inclinations 
they impart various directions. 

107. And myself also, the leader of the chief 
trinas, am now manifesting, for the weal of creatures 
now living, this Buddha enlightenment by thousands 
of kotis of various directions. 

1 08. I reveal the law in its multifariousness with 
regard to the inclinations and dispositions of creatures. 
I use different means to rouse each according to his 
own character. Such is the might of my knowledge. 

109. I likewise see the poor wretches, deficient in 
wisdom and conduct, lapsed into the mundane whirl, 
retained in dismal places, plunged in affliction inces- 
santly renewed. 

no. Fettered as they are by desire like the yak 
by its tail, continually blinded by sensual pleasure, 
they do not seek the Buddha, the mighty one ; they 
do not seek the law that leads to the end of pain. 

in. Staying in the six states of existence, they 
are benumbed in their senses, stick unmoved to 
the low views, and suffer pain on pain. For those I 
feel a great compassion. 

112. On the terrace of enlightenment I have 
remained three weeks in full, searching and pon- 
dering on such a matter, steadily looking up to the 
tree there (standing). 

113. Keeping in view that king of trees with an 


unwavering gaze I walked round at its foot 1 
(thinking): This law is wonderful and lofty, whereas 
creatures are blind with dulness and ignorance. 

114. Then it was that Brahma entreated me, and 
so did Indra, the four rulers of the cardinal points, 
Mahe^vara, Lvara, and the hosts of Maruts by thou- 
sands of ko/is 2 . 

115. All stood with joined hands and respectful, 
while myself was revolving the matter in my mind 
(and thought) : What shall I do ? At the very time 
that I am uttering syllables 3 , beings are oppressed 
with evils. 

1 1 6. In their ignorance they will not heed the 
law I announce, and in consequence of it they will 
incur some penalty. It would be better were I never 
to speak. May my quiet extinction take place this 
very day! 

117. But on remembering the former Buddhas 
and their skilfulness, (I thought): Nay, I also will 
manifest this tripartite Buddha-enlightenment. 

1 1 8. When I was thus meditating on the law, the 
other Buddhas in all the directions of space appeared 
to me in their own body and raised their voice, crying 
* Amen. 

119. 'Amen, Solitary, first Leader of the world ! 
now that thou hast come to unsurpassed knowledge, 

1 Tasyaiva heshMe, i.e. Piikrit he//Ae, Sanskrit adhastdt. 

2 The story slightly differs from what is found in the Mahivagga, 
Lalita-vistara, and other works, in so far as the number of weeks 
is generally reckoned as seven. There are, however, other discre- 
pancies between the relations in the various sources, for which 
I must refer to MaMvagga I, g ; Lalita-vistara, p. 51 1 ; cf. Bigandet, 
Legend, p. 112. 

8 The text has var^n, i. e. colours, letters. 


and art meditating on the skilfulness of the leaders 
of the world, thou repeatest their teaching. 

1 20. 'We also, being Buddhas, will make clear the 
highest word 1 , divided into three parts; for men 
(occasionally) have low inclinations, and might per- 
chance from ignorance not believe (us, when we say), 
Ye shall become Buddhas. 

121. 'Hence we will rouse many Bodhisattvas by 
the display of skilfulness and the encouraging of the 
wish of obtaining fruits/ 

122. And I was delighted to hear the sweet voice 
of the leaders of men ; in the exultation of my heart 
I said to the blessed saints, 'The words of the 
eminent sages are not spoken in vain. 

123. 'I, too, will act according to the indications 
of the wise leaders of the world ; having myself been 
born in the midst of the degradation of creatures, I 
have known agitation in this dreadful world/ 

124. When I had come to that conviction, O son 
of 6M, I instantly went to Benares, where I skilfully 
preached the law to the five Solitaries 2 , that law 
which is the base of final beatitude. 

125. From that moment the wheel of my law has 
been moving 3 , and the name of NirvA^a made its 
appearance in the world, as well as the name of 
Arhat, of Dharma, and Sangha. 

1 26. Many years have I preached and pointed to the 

1 Properly, the most lofty place; the word pa da in the text 
means place, spot, word, subject, &c. 

2 i^ta-Kau#<fmya and the four others mentioned in the open- 
ing chapter. 

3 In chap.VII we shall see that the wheel was put in motion at 
an inconceivably long period before, by the TathSgata 



stage of Nirvi^a, the end of wretchedness and 
mundane existence. Thus I used to speak at all 

.127. And when I saw, ^riputra, the children of 
the highest of men by many thousands of koris, 
numberless, striving after the supreme, the highest 
enlightenment ; 

128. And when such as had heard the law of the 
Ginas, owing to the many-sidedness of (their) skilful- 
ness, had approached me and stood before my face, 
all of them with joined hands, and respectful ; 

129. Then I conceived the idea that the time had 
come for me to announce the excellent law and to 
reveal supreme enlightenment, for which task I had 
been born in the world. 

130. This (event) to-day will be hard to be under- 
stood by the ignorant who imagine they see 1 here 
a sign, as they are proud and dull. But the Bodhi- 
sattvas, they will listen to me. 

131. And I felt free from hesitation and highly 
cheered ; putting aside all timidity, I began speaking 
in the assembly of the sons of Sugata, and roused 
them to enlightenment. 

132. On beholding such worthy sons of Buddha 
(I said): Thy doubts also will be^-^moved, and these 
twelve hundred (disciples) of mine, free from imper- 
fections, will all of them become Buddhas. 

133. Even as the nature of the law of the former 2 
mighty saints and the future Ginas is, so is my law 

1 One would rather expect 'who imagine not to see, fail to see/ 
but the words of the text do not a^it of such an interpretation. 

2 Yathaiva tesh&w purimSa " ,fftiam, an&gatana/& a Crinana 
dhannat&, mam&pi esh& vikalpL^gita", tathaiva 'haw desayi adya 


free from any doubtfulness, and it is such as I to-day 
preach it to thee. 

134. At certain times, at certain places, somehow 
do the leaders appear in the world, and after their 
appearance will they, whose view is boundless, at 
one time or another preach 1 a similar law. 

135. It is most difficult to meet with this superior 
law, even in myriads of korts of ^Eons; very rare 
are the beings who will adhere to the superior law 
which they have heard from me. 

136. Just as the blossom of the glomerous fig- 
tree is rare, albeit sometimes, at some places, and 
somehow it is met with, as something pleasant to see 
for everybody, as a wonder to the world including 
the gods ; 

137. (So wonderful) and far more wonderful is the 
law I proclaim. Any one who, on hearing a good 
exposition of it, shall cheerfully accept it and recite but 
one word of it, will have done honour to all Buddhas. 

138. Give up all doubt and uncertainty in this 
respect; I declare that I am the king of the law 
(Dharmara^a) ; I am urging others to enlighten- 
ment, but I am here without disciples. 

1 39. Let this mystery be for thee, ,S&riputra, for all 
disciples of mine, and for the eminent Bodhisattvas, 
who are to keep this mystery. 

14.0. For the creatures, when at the period of the 
five depravities 2 , are vile and bad; they are blinded 

plural ; Burnouf seems to have read the singular. 
2 The five kasMyas are summarily indicated in Dhammapada 
115 by 'ragddi/ As the list of klejas, Lahta-vistara, p. 348 seq. ? 
commences with rga, there can be no doubt that Burnouf was 
right in supposing the five kashdyas to be synonymous with the 
corresponding number of kle^as. The items of the list are 
variously given. 


by sensual desires, the fools, and never turn their 
minds to enlightenment. 

141. (Some) beings, having heard this one and 
sole vehicle 1 manifested by the ina, will in days to 
come swerve from it, reject the Sfttra, and go down 
to hell. 

142. But those beings who shall be modest and 
pure, striving after the supreme and the highest 
enlightenment, to them shall I unhesitatingly set 
forth the endless forms of this one and sole vehicle. 

143. Such is the mastership of the leaders ; that 
is, their skilfulness. They have spoken in many 
mysteries 2 ; hence it is difficult to understand 

144. Therefore try to understand the mystery 8 of 
the Buddhas, the holy masters of the world ; for- 
sake all doubt and uncertainty: you shall become 
Buddhas; rejoice! 

1 Or, rather, learnt this way. 

a The word in the text is sandh&vaanai, evidently synony- 
mous with sandh&bh&shya. 

8 SandhS, by Burnouf rendered Engage foigmatique.' On 
comparing the different meanings of sandhd and sandhiya, both 
in Sanskrit and in Pli, I am led to suppose that sandh- (and 
sandhfiya-) bh&shita (bh&shya) was a term used in the sense 
of c speaking (speech) in council, a counsel/ scarcely differing from 
mantra. In both words secrecy is implied, though not expressed. 
If we take the term as synonymous with mantra, the connection 
between updyakau^alya, diplomacy, skilfulness, and sandh- 
bhdshita is clear. Cf. the Gothic word rftna, both jSouXq and 
/zvor^ptov; garftni, <n/*/3ouXiw. The theistical sect have taken 
it in the sense of c God's counsel,' but I cannot produce a wau 
for this guess. By Hiouen Thsang, the term sandh&ya is trans 
lated by * in a hidden sense/ as we know from Professor Ma- 
Mailer's note, in his edition of the VagraAfciedika, p. 23. 




Then the venerable .SSriputra, pleased, glad, 
charmed, cheerful, thrilling with delight and joy, 
stretched his joined hands towards the Lord, and, 
looking up to the Lord with a steady gaze, ad- 
dressed him in this strain : I am astonished, amazed, 
O Lord ! I am in ecstasy to hear such a call from the 
Lord. For when, before I had heard of this law 
from the Lord, I saw other Bodhisattvas, and heard 
that the Bodhisattvas would in future get the name 
of Buddhas, I felt extremely sorry, extremely vexed 
to be deprived from so grand a sight as the Tathi- 
gata-knowledge. And whenever, O Lord, for my 
daily recreation I was visiting the caves of rocks or 
mountains, wood thickets, lovely gardens, rivers, and 
roots of trees, I always was occupied with the same 
and ever-recurring thought : * Whereas the entrance 
into the fixed points 1 of the law is nominally 2 equal, 
we have been dismissed by the Lord with the inferior 
vehicle/ Instantly, however, O Lord, I felt that it 

1 Or, elements. 

2 Tulye nma dharmadhStuprave^e vayaw nirydtitLfc. 
The terms are ambiguous, and open to various interpretations. 
The Tibetan version has, according to Burnouf, 'in an equal intro- 
duction to the domain of the law/ from which at least thus much 
results, that the text had tulye, not tulya, as Burnouf reads. 
Tulye prave^e I take to be a so-called absolute locative case. 
As to the plural c we/ it refers to S&iputra. 


was our own fault, not the Lord's. For had we 
regarded the Lord at the time of his giving the all- 
surpassing demonstration of the law, that is, the 
exposition of supreme, perfect enlightenment, then, 
O Lord, we should have become adepts in those 
laws. But because, without understanding the 
mystery of the Lord, we, at the moment of the 
Bodhisattvas not being assembled, heard only in a 
hurry, caught, meditated, minded, took to heart 
the first lessons pronounced on the law, therefore, 
O Lord, I used to pass day and night in self- 
reproach. (But) to-day, O Lord, I have reached 
complete extinction ; to-day, O Lord, I have become 
calm ; to-day, O Lord, I am wholly come to rest ; 
to-day, O Lord, I have reached Arhatship ; to-day, 
O Lord, I am the Lord's eldest son, born from his 
law, sprung into existence by the law, made by the 
law, inheriting from the law, accomplished by the law. 
My burning has left me, O Lord, now that I have 
heard this wonderful law, which I had not learnt 
before, announced by the voice from the mouth of 
the Lord. 

And on that occasion the venerable .S&riputra 
addressed the Lord in the following stanzas: 

1. I am astonished, great Leader, I am charmed 
to hear this voice ; I feel no doubt any more ; now 
am I fully ripe for the superior vehicle. 

2. Wonderful is the voice 1 of the Sugatas; it 
dispels the doubt and pain of living beings; my 
pain also is all gone now that I, freed from imper- 
fections, have heard that voice (or, call). 

3. When I was taking my daily recreation or was 

1 Rather, call. 


walking in woody thickets, when betaking myself to 
the roots of trees or to mountain caves, I indulged 
in no other thought but this : 

4. * O how am I deluded by vain thoughts ! 
whereas the faultless laws are, nominally, equal, 
shall I in future not preach the superior law in the 
world ? 

5. 'The thirty-two characteristic signs have failed 
me, and the gold colour of the skin has vanished ; 
all the (ten) powers and emancipations have likewise 
been lost, O how have I gone astray at the equal 
laws ! 

6. c The secondary signs also of the great Seers, 
the eighty excellent specific signs, and the eighteen 
uncommon properties have failed me. O how am 
I deluded! 1 

7. And when I had perceived thee, so benign and 
merciful to the world, and was lonely walking to take 
my daily recreation, I thought: * I am excluded from 
that inconceivable, unbounded knowledge ! ' 

8. Days and nights, O Lord, I passed always 
thinking of the same subject ; I would ask the Lord 
whether I had lost my rank or not. 

9. In such reflections, O Chief of Ginas, I con- 
stantly passed my days and nights ; and on seeing 
many other Bodhisattvas praised by the Leader of 
the world, 

10. And on hearing this Buddha-law, I thought: 
'To be sure, this is expounded mysteriously 1 ; it is 
an inscrutable, subtle, and faultless science, which 
is announced by the Ginas on the terrace of en- 

1 Sandhiya; the Chinese translation by Kumdr&fiva, accord- 
ing to Stan, Julien's version, has ' suivant la convenance/ 


1 1. Formerly I was attached to (heretical) theories, 
being a wandering monk and in high honour (or, of 
the same opinions) with the heretics 1 ; afterwards 
has the Lord, regarding my disposition, taught me 
Nirv;za, to detach me from perverted views. 

12. After having completely freed myself from 
all (heretical) views and reached the laws of void, 
(I conceive) that I have become extinct ; yet this is 
not deemed to be extinction. 

13. But when one becomes Buddha, a superior 
being, honoured by men, gods, goblins, Titans, and 
adorned with the thirty-two characteristic signs, then 
one will be completely extinct 

14. All those (former) cares 2 have now been dis- 
pelled, since I have heard the voice. Now am I 
extinct, as thou announcest my destination (to Nir- 
vd^a) before the world including the gods. 

15. When I first heard the voice of the Lord, I 
had a great terror lest it might be Mra, the evil 
one, who on this occasion had adopted the disguise 
of Buddha. 

1 6. But when the unsurpassed Buddha-wisdom 
had been displayed in and established with argu- 

1 Parivrdg-akas Ttrthikasammataj a. The term pari- 
vr^aka or parivr^ is occasionally applied to Buddhist monks, 
but here it would seem that the Brahmanistic monks are meant, 
the brahmasazrasthas of 5iankara in his commentary on Brahma- 
Sfttra III, 4, 20. They are to be distinguished from the Ttrthika's. 

2 Or, thoughts; one MS. has vyapanita sarv^ni 'mi (read 
m 'mi) manyit^ni ; another reads, vy. sarv&#i 'mi ma^itnL 
Many ita is a participle derived from the present tense of manyate, 
to mean, to mind, in the manner of ^ahita from^ah&ti. Mai- 
t&ni is hardly correct ; it is, however, just possible that it is intended 
to stand for ma/fc-^ittdtnu 


ments, reasons, and illustrations, by myriads of ko/is, 
then I lost all doubt about the law I heard. 

17. And when thou hadst mentioned to me 1 the 
thousands of ko/is of Buddhas, the past Canas who 
have come to final rest, and how they preached this 
law by firmly establishing it through skilfulness ; 

1 8. How the many future Buddhas and those who 
are now existing, as knowers of the real truth, shall 
expound or are expounding this law by hundreds of 
able devices ; 

19. And when thou wert mentioning thine own 
course after leaving home, how the idea of the wheel 
of the law presented itself to thy mind and how thou 
decidedst upon preaching the law ; 

20. Then I was convinced : This is not MAra ; it 
is the Lord of the world, who has shown the true 
course ; no Mdras can here abide. So then my 
mind (for a moment) was overcome with perplexity ; 

21. But when the sweet, deep, and lovely voice of 
Buddha gladdened me, all doubts were scattered, my 
perplexity vanished, and I stood firm in knowledge. 

22. I shall become a TatMgata, undoubtedly, 
worshipped in the world including the gods ; I shall 
manifest Buddha -wisdom, mysteriously 2 rousing 
many Bodhisattvas. 

After this speech of the venerable 6&riputra, the 
Lord said to him : I declare to thee, Sriputra, I 
announce to thee, in presence of this world including 
the gods, M&ras, and Brahmas, in presence of this 

1 Yadd a me Buddhasahasrako/yaA, kirteshy (var. lect. kirtishy) 
atttfin parinirvn't&w Ginn. Kirteshi is Sanskrit a^iklrtas. 

2 SandhSya. Burnoufs rendering 'aux creatures' points to 
satvdya, which is nothing but a misread sandh^ya. Cf. stanza 
37, below. 


people, including ascetics and Brahmans, that thou, 
Sariputra, hast been by me made ripe for supreme, 
perfect enlightenment, in presence of twenty hundred 
thousand myriads of Wis of Buddhas, and that thou, 
xSariputra, hast for a long time followed my com- 
mandments. Thou, .Sariputra, art, by the counsel of 
the Bodhisattva, by the decree of the Bodhisattva, 
reborn here under my rule. Owing to the mighty 
will of the Bodhisattva thou, .Sariputra, hast no 
recollection of thy former vow to observe the (reli- 
gious) course ; of the counsel of the Bodhisattva, the 
decree of the Bodhisattva. Thou thinkest that thou 
hast reached final rest. I, wishing to revive and 
renew in thee the knowledge of thy former vow to 
observe the (religious) course, will reveal to the 
disciples the Dharmaparyaya called 'the Lotus of 
the True Law,' this Sutranta, &c. 

Again, -Sariputra, at a future period, after innu- 
merable, inconceivable, immeasurable ^Eons, when 
thou shalt have learnt the true law of hundred 
thousand myriads of kotis of Tathagatas, showed 
devotion in various ways, and achieved the present 
Bodhisattva-course, thou shalt become in the world 
a^Tathagata, &c., named Padmaprabha 1 , endowed 
with science and conduct, a Sugata, a knower of the 
world, an -unsurpassed tamer of men, a master of 
gods and men 2 , a Lord Buddha. 

1 Padma, Nelumbmm Speciosum, having a rosy hue, we must 

fer that Sariputra will be reborn at twilight. 

a The supreme tamer of men is, in reality, Yama, personified 

Twilight, and as evening twilight the god of death and the ruler 

of the infernal regions. The word yama itself means both 

twin' (cf. fwi-light) and 'tamer.' Owing to the fact that in 

^thology many beings are denoted by the name of 'the twins,' 

g. morning and evening, the A wins, Castor and Pollux, it is often 
D] F 


At that time then, 6ariputra, the Buddha-field of 
that Lord, the Tathigata Pa<imaprabha, to be called 
Virata, will be level, pleasant, delightful, extremely 
beautiful to see, pure, prosperous, rich, quiet, abound- 
ing with food, replete with many races of men 1 ; it 
will consist of lapis lazuli, and contain a checker-board 
of eight compartments distinguished by gold threads, 
each compartment having its jewel tree always and 
perpetually filled with blossoms and fruits of seven 
precious substances. 

Now that Tathgata Padmaprabha, &c., -S&riputra, 
will preach the law by the instrumentality of three 
vehicles 2 . Further, .Slriputra, that TatMgata will 
not appear at the decay of the JEon, but preach the 
law by virtue of a vow. 

That ^Eon, .Sdriputra, will be named MaMratna- 
pratima^ita (L e. ornamented with magnificent 
jewels). Knowest thou, ,5&riputra, why that JEon 
is named Mahratnapratima#a?ita ? The Bodhisat- 
tvas of a Buddha-field, .SMputra, are called ratnas 
(jewels), and at that time there will be many Bodhi- 
sattvas in that sphere (called) Virata ; innumerable, 
incalculable, beyond computation, abstraction made 
from their being computed by the Tath&gatas. On 
that account is that JEon called Mah&ratnaprati- 

Now, to proceed, 6riputra, at that period the 

difficult to make out which pair of twins is meant in any particular 
case. The sun himself appears in the function of Yama, because 
it is he who makes twilight 

1 One MS. reads bahu^anamanushy^kfrwa, the other bahu- 

2 C the threefold vehicle, trivrit ratha, of the Awns, Rig- 
veda I, 34, 9. 12, 47, 2. 


Bodhisattvas of that field will in walking step on 
jewel lotuses 1 . And these Bodhisattvas will not be 
plying their work for the first time, they having 
accumulated roots of goodness and observed the 
course of duty under many hundred thousand 
Buddhas ; they are praised by the Tathdgatas for 
their zealous application to Buddha-knowledge; are 
perfectioned in the rites preparatory to transcendent 
knowledge ; accomplished in the direction of all true 
laws; mild, thoughtful. Generally, 6&riputra, will 
that Buddha-region teem with such Bodhisattvas. 

As to the lifetime, Sriputra, of that TathSgata 
Padmaprabha, it will last twelve intermediate kalpas, 
if we leave out of account the time of his being a 
young prince. And the lifetime of the creatures 
then living will measure eight intermediate kalpas. 
At the expiration of twelve intermediate kalpas, 
.S&riputra, the Tathigata Padmaprabha, after an- 
nouncing the future destiny of the Bodhisattva called 
Dhntipariptinza 2 to superior perfect enlightenment, 
is to enter complete Nirv^a. 'This Bodhisattva 
Mah&sattva Dhmiparipftma, O monks, shall imme- 
diately after me come to supreme, perfect enlighten- 
ment He shall become in the world a Tath&gata 
named Padmaw^shabhavikrimin, an Arhat, &c., 
endowed with science and conduct, &c. &c/ 

Now the Tathagata Padmavnshabhavikrdmin, 
S&riputra, will have a Buddha-field of quite the 
same description. The true law, lriputra, of that 
Tathdgata Padmavr/shabhavikrimin will, after his 

1 We may express the same idea thus . roses are springing up 
under their feet at every step. 

2 Dhrz'ti, perseverance, endurance. Dhntiparipura is, full 
of perseverance or endurance. 

F 2 


extinction, last thirty-two intermediate kalpas, and 
the counterfeit of his true law will last as many 
intermediate kalpas 1 . 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the follow- 
ing stanzas : 

23. Thou also, son of iSclri, shalt in future be a 
6ina, a Tathagata named Padmaprabha, of illimited 
sight ; thou shalt educate thousands of ko/is of living 
beings 2 . 

24. After paying honour to many ko/is of Buddhas, 
making 3 strenuous efforts in the course of duty, and 
after having produced in thyself the ten powers, thou 
shalt reach supreme, perfect enlightenment. 

25. Within a period inconceivable and immense 
there shall be an JEon rich in jewels (or, the JEon 
jewel-rich), and a sphere named Virata, the pure 
field of the highest of men; 

26. And its ground will consist of lapis lazuli, and 
be set off with gold threads ; it will have hundreds 
of jewel trees, very beautiful, and covered with 
blossoms and fruits. 

27. Bodhisattvas of good memory, able in showing 

1 This counterfeit, pratirupaka, of the true law, reminds one 
of the counterfeit, paitiyro, produced by Ariman in opposition 
to fre creation of Ormazd; mythologically it is the dark side of 
nature. That there is some connection between the Buddhistical 
pratirftpaka and the Iranian paitiy&ro can hardly be doubted, 

2 A striking example of how the original Prakrit of the verse has 
been adulterated in order to give it a more Sanskrit colouring is 
afforded ^by this stanza. One MS. has bhavishyasl S^risut^ 
tuhaazpi ; another bhavishyase Sansuta*nukampf, with mar- 
ginal correction tvayampi. 

8 UpSdayitva, i.e. Pali up^diyitv^ synonymous with ra- 
>hy a (ylryam) ; the var. lect. upSr^ayitvS, having acquired, is an 
innovation, at first sight specious enough. 


the course of duty which they have been taught 
under hundreds of Buddhas, will come to be born 
in that field. 

28. And the afore-mentioned ina, then in his last 
bodily existence, shall, after passing the state of 
prince royal, renounce sensual pleasures, leave home 
(to become a wandering ascetic), and thereafter reach 
the supreme and the highest enlightenment. 

29. The lifetime of that Gina will be precisely 
twelve intermediate kalpas, and the life of men will 
then last eight intermediate kalpas. 

30. After the extinction of the Tathigata the true 
law will continue thirty-two JEons in full, for the 
benefit of the world, including the gods. 

31. When the true law shall have come to an end, 
its counterfeit will stand for thirty-two intermediate 
kalpas. The dispersed relics of the holy one will 
always be honoured by men and gods. 

32. Such will be the fate of that Lord. Rejoice, 
O son of Sri, for it is thou who shalt be that most 
excellent of men, so unsurpassed. 

The four classes of the audience, monks, nuns, 
lay devotees male and female, gods, Ndgas, goblins, 
Gandharvas, demons, Garu^as, Kinnaras, great ser- 
pents, men and beings not human, on hearing the 
announcement of the venerable .Sdriputra's destiny 
to supreme, perfect enlightenment, were so pleased, 
glad, charmed, thrilling with delight and joy, that 
they covered the Lord severally with their own 
robes, while Indra the chief of gods, Brahma Sah&m- 
pati, besides hundred thousands of ko#s of other 
divine beings, covered him with heavenly garments 
and bestrewed him with flowers of heaven, Mandi- 
ravas and great Mand&ravas. High aloft they 


whirled celestial clothes and struck hundred thou- 
sands of celestial musical instruments and cymbals, 
high in the sky; and after pouring a great rain of 
flowers they uttered these words : The wheel of the 
law has been put in motion by the Lord, the first 
time at Benares at ^eshipatana in the Deer-park ; 
to-day has the Lord again put in motion the supreme 
wheel of the law. 

And on that occasion those divine beings uttered 
the following stanzas : 

33. The wheel of the law was put in motion by 
thee, O thou that art unrivalled in the world, at 
Benares, O great hero! (that wheel which is the 
rotation of) the rise and decay of all aggregates. 

34. There it was put in motion for the first time ; 
now, a second time, is it turned here, O Lord. To- 
day, O Master, thou hast preached this law, which is 
hard to be received with faith 1 . 

35. Many laws have we heard near the Lord of 
the world, but never before did we hear a law like 

36. We receive with gratitude, O great hero, the 
mysterious speech of the great Sages, such as this 
prediction regarding the self-possessed Arya 6Sri- 

37. May we also become such incomparable 
Buddhas in the world, who by mysterious speech 
announce supreme Buddha-enlightenment 

38. May we also, by the good we have done in 
this world and in the next, and by our having 

yas te } ya0z, var.lect. du^^raddheyo 'yan 
It may be remarked that jraddhS; not only means faith, 
belief, but also liking, approval. Cf. the passage in MaMvagga I, 
5, 2 sq.; the verses in Lalita-vistara, p. 515. 


propitiated the Buddha, be allowed to make a vow 
for Buddhaship. 

Thereupon the venerable 6riputra thus spoke 
to the Lord : My doubt is gone, O Lord, my un- 
certainty is at an end on hearing from the mouth 
of the Lord my destiny to supreme enlightenment. 
But these twelve hundred self-controlled (disciples), 
O Lord, who have been placed by thee on the stage 
of .Saikshas 1 , have been thus admonished and in- 
structed : * My preaching of the law, O monks, comes 
to this, that deliverance from birth, decrepitude, dis- 
ease, and death is inseparably connected with Nir- 
vi^a;' and these two thousand monks, O Lord, thy 
disciples, both those who are still under training and 
adepts, who all of them are free from false views 
about the soul, false views about existence, false views 
about cessation of existence, free, in short, from all 
false views, who are fancying themselves to have 
reached the stage of Nirv^a, these have fallen into 
uncertainty by hearing from the mouth of the Lord 
this law which they had not heard before. There- 
fore, O Lord, please speak to these monks, to dispel 
their uneasiness, so that the four classes of the audi- 
ence, O Lord, may be relieved from their doubt and 

On this speech of the venerable vSiriputra the Lord 

1 I.e. of those who are under training, P&H sekho. The term 
is applied to the first seven degrees of persons striving for sancti- 
fication, the eighth, or Arhat, being A^aiksha (Asekha). It implies 
that they still have a remainder of human passion to eradicate, 
still duties to perform, still a probation to be passed through; see 
Childers, Pali Diet. p. 47 2. The seven degrees of 5aiksha answer to 
the sevenfold preparatory wisdom in the Yoga system ; see Yoga- 
2, 27. 


said to him the following: Have I not told thee 
before, Siriputra, that the TatMgata, &c., preaches 
the law by able devices, varying directions and indi- 
cations, fundamental ideas, interpretations, with due 
regard to the different dispositions and inclinations 
of creatures whose temperaments 1 are so various ? 
All his preachings of the law have no other end 
but supreme and perfect enlightenment, for which he 
is rousing beings to the Bodhisattva -course. But, 
Sftriputra, to elucidate this matter more at large, 
I will tell thee a parable, for men of good under- 
standing will generally readily enough catch the 
meaning of what is taught under the shape of a 

Let us suppose the following case, .SiElriputra. In 
a certain village, town, borough, province, kingdom, 
or capital, there was a certain housekeeper, old, 
aged, decrepit, very advanced in years, rich, wealthy, 
opulent ; he had a great house, high, spacious, built a 
long time ago and old, inhabited by some two, three, 
four, or five hundred living beings. The house had 
but one door, and a thatch ; its terraces were totter- 
ing, the bases of its pillars rotten, the coverings 2 and 
plaster of the walls loose. On a sudden the whole 
house was from every side put in conflagration by a 
mass of fire. Let us suppose that the man had 
many little boys, say five, or ten, or even twenty, 
and that he himself had come out of the house. 

Now, ^jlriputra, that man, on seeing the house 
from every side wrapt in a blaze by a great mass of 

1 Dhdtv&jaya, properly the disposition of the constitutive ele- 
ments of the body. " 
* Or, boards. 


fire, got afraid, frightened, anxious in his mind, and 
made the following reflection : I myself am able to 
come out from the burning house through the 
door, quickly and safely, without being touched or 
scorched by that great mass of fire ; but my children, 
those young boys, are staying in the burning house, 
playing, amusing, and diverting themselves with all 
sorts of sports. They do not perceive, nor know, nor 
understand, nor mind that the house is on fire, and 
do not get afraid. Though scorched by that great 
mass of fire, and affected with such a mass of pain, 
they do not mind the pain, nor do they conceive the 
idea of escaping. 

The man, >S&riputra, is strong, has powerful arms, 
and(so) he makes this reflection : I am strong,and have 
powerful arms ; why, let me gather all my little boys 
and take them to my breast to effect their escape 
from the house. A second reflection then presented 
itself to his mind : This house has but one opening ; 
the door is shut ; and those boys, fickle, unsteady, 
and childlike as they are, will, it is to be feared, 
run hither and thither, and come to grief and 
disaster in this mass of fire. Therefore I will warn 
them. So resolved, he calls to the boys: Come, 
my children ; the house is burning with a mass of 
fire; come, lest ye be burnt in that mass of fire, 
and come to grief and disaster. But the ignorant 
boys do not heed the words of him who is their 
well-wisher; they are not afraid, not alarmed, and feel 
no misgiving; they do not care, nor fly, nor even 
know nor understand the purport of the word 
'burning;' on the contrary, they run hither and 
thither, walk about, and repeatedly look at their 
father ; all, because they are so ignorant 



Then the man is going to reflect thus : The 
house is burning, is blazing by a mass of fire. It 
is to be feared that myself as well as my children 
will come to grief and disaster. Let me therefore by 
some skilful means get the boys out of the house. 
The man knows the disposition of the boys, and has 
a clear perception of their inclinations. Now these 
boys happen to have many and manifold toys to 
play with, pretty, nice, pleasant, dear, amusing, and 
precious. The man, knowing the disposition of the 
boys, says to them : My children, your toys, which 
are so pretty, precious, and admirable, which you 
are so loth to miss, which are so various and multi- 
farious, (such as) bullock-carts, goat-carts, deer-carts, 
which are so pretty, nice, dear, and precious to you, 
have all been put by me outside the house-door for 
you to play with. Come, run out, leave the house ; 
to each of you I shall give what he wants. Come 
soon ; come out for the sake of these toys. And 
the boys, on hearing the names mentioned of such 
playthings as they like and desire, so agreeable to 
their taste, so pretty, dear, and delightful, quickly 
rush out from the burning house, with eager effort 
and great alacrity, one having no time to wait for 
the other, and pushing each other on with the cry of 
' Who shall arrive first, the very first ? ' 

The man, seeing that his children have safely and 
happily escaped, and knowing that they are free from 
danger, goes and sits down in the open air on the 
square of the village, his heart filled with joy and 
delight, released from trouble and hindrance, quite 
at ease. The boys go up to the place where their 
father is sitting, and say: 'Father, give us those 
toys to play with, those bullock-carts, goat-carts, and 


deer-carts/ Then, 6ariputra, the man gives to his 
sons, who run swift as the wind, bullock-carts only, 
made of seven precious substances, provided with 
benches, hung with a multitude of small bells, lofty, 
adorned with rare and wonderful jewels, embellished 
with jewel wreaths, decorated with garlands of 
flowers, carpeted with cotton mattresses and woollen 
coverlets, covered with white cloth and silk, having 
on both sides rosy cushions, yoked with white, very 
fair and fleet bullocks, led by a multitude of men. 
To each of his children he gives several bullock- 
carts of one appearance and one kind, provided with 
flags, and swift as the wind. That man does so, 
.SSriputra, because being rich, wealthy, and in posses- 
sion of many treasures and granaries, he rightly 
thinks : Why should I give these boys inferior carts, 
all these boys being my own children, dear and 
precious ? I have got such great vehicles, and 
ought to treat all the boys equally and without 
partiality. As I own many treasures and granaries, 
I could give such great vehicles to all beings, how 
much more then to my own children. Meanwhile 
the boys are mounting the vehicles with feelings of 
astonishment and wonder. Now, *S$riputra, what 
is thy opinion? Has that man made himself 
guilty of a falsehood by first holding out to his 
children the prospect of three vehicles and after- 
wards giving to each of them the greatest vehicles 
only, the most magnificent vehicles? 

iS&riputra answered : By no means, Lord ; by no 
means, Sugata. That is not sufficient, O Lord, to 
qualify the man as a speaker of falsehood, since it 
only was a skilful device to persuade his children 
to go out of the burning house and save their 


lives. Nay, besides recovering their very body, 
O Lord, they have received all those toys. If 
that man, O Lord, had given no single cart, 
even then he would not have been a speaker of 
falsehood, for he had previously been meditating 
on saving the little boys from a great mass of pain 
by some able device. Even in this case, O Lord, 
the man would not have been guilty of falsehood, 
and far less now that he, considering his having 
plenty of treasures and prompted by no other motive 
but the love of his children, gives to all, to coax 1 
them, vehicles of one kind, and those the greatest 
vehicles. That man, Lord, is not guilty of false- 

The venerable 6&riputra having thus spoken, the 
Lord said to him : Very well, very well, ^iriputra, 
quite so ; it is even as thou sayest So, too, Sri- 
putra, the Tathigata, &c., is free from all dangers, 
wholly exempt from all misfortune, despondency, 
calamity, pain, grief, the thick enveloping dark mists 
of ignorance. He, the Tathigata, endowed with 
Buddha-knowledge, forces, absence of hesitation, 
uncommon properties, and mighty by magical 
power, is the father of the world 2 , who has reached 
the highest perfection in the knowledge of skilful 
means, who is most merciful, long-suffering, bene- 
volent, compassionate. He appears in this triple 

8 Here the Buddha is represented as a wise and benevolent 
father; he is the heavenly father, Brahma. As such he was repre- 
sented as sitting on a ' lotus seat.' How common this representa- 
tion was in India, at least in the sixth century of our era, appears 
from Variha-Mihira's Br/hat-Sa^hita 4 , chap. 58, 44, where the fol- 
lowing rule is laid down for the Buddha idols : ' Buddha shall be 
(represented) sitting on a lotus seat, hke the father of the world.' 


world, which is like a house the roof 1 and shelter 
whereof are decayed, (a house) burning by a mass 
of misery, in order to deliver from affection, hatred, 
and delusion the beings subject to birth, old age, 
disease, death, grief, wailing, pain, melancholy, de- 
spondency, the dark enveloping mists of ignorance, in 
order to rouse them to supreme and perfect enlighten- 
ment Once born, he sees how the creatures are 
burnt, tormented, vexed, distressed by birth, old 
age, disease, death, grief, wailing, pain, melancholy, 
despondency ; how for the sake of enjoyments, and 
prompted by sensual desires, they severally suffer 
various pains. In consequence both of what in this 
world they are seeking and what they have acquired, 
they will in a future state suffer various pains, in 
hell, in the brute creation, in the realm of Yama ; 
suffer such pains as poverty in the world of gods or 
men, union with hateful persons or things, and 
separation from the beloved ones. And whilst in- 
cessantly whirling in that mass of evils they are 
sporting, playing, diverting themselves ; they do not 
fear, nor dread, nor are they seized with terror; they 
do not know, nor mind ; they are not startled, do 
not try to escape, but are enjoying themselves in 
that triple world which is like unto a burning house, 
and run hither and thither. Though overwhelmed 
by that mass of evil, they do not conceive the idea 
that they must beware of it 

Under such circumstances, iS&riputra, the Tathd- 
gata reflects thus : Verily, I am the father of these 
beings; I must save them from this mass of evil, and 
bestow on them the immense, inconceivable bliss of 

1 Or, coping. 


Buddha-knowledge, wherewith they shall sport, play, 
and divert themselves, wherein they shall find their 

Then, .SSriputra, the Tathigata reflects thus : If, 
in the conviction of my possessing the power of 
knowledge and magical faculties, I manifest to these 
beings the knowledge, forces, and absence of hesita- 
tion of the Tathigata, without availing myself of 
some device, these beings will not escape. For they 
are attached to the pleasures of the five senses, to 
worldly pleasures ; they will not be freed from birth, 
old age, disease, death, grief, wailing, pain, melan- 
choly, despondency, by which they are burnt, tor- 
mented, vexed, distressed. Unless they are forced 
to leave the triple world which is like a house the 
shelter and roof whereof is in a blaze, how are they 
to get acquainted with 1 Buddha-knowledge ? 

Now, ^driputra, even as that man with powerful 
arms, without using the strength of his arms, attracts 
his children out of the burning house by an able 
device, and afterwards gives them magnificent, great 
carts, so, Sdriputra, the TatMgata, the Arhat, &c., 
possessed of knowledge and freedom from all hesita- 
tion, without using them, in order to attract the 
creatures out of the triple world which is like a 
burning house with decayed roof and shelter, shows, 
by his knowledge of able devices, three vehicles, 
viz. the vehicle of the disciples, the vehicle of the 
Pratyekabuddhas, and the vehicle of the Bodhisat- 
tvas. By means of these three vehicles he attracts 
the creatures and speaks to them thus: Do not 

1 Paribhotsyante; Buraoufs rendering, 'pourront jouir,' points 
to a reading paribhokshyante. 



delight in this triple world, which is like a burning 
house, in these miserable forms, sounds, odours, fla- 
vours, and contacts \ For in delighting in this triple 
world ye are burnt, heated, inflamed with the thirst 
inseparable from the pleasures of the five senses. 
Fly from this triple world; betake yourselves to 
the three vehicles : the vehicle of the disciples, the 
vehicle of the Pratyekabuddhas, the vehicle of the 
Bodhisattvas, I give you my pledge for it, that I 
shall give you these three vehicles ; make an effort 
to run out of this triple world. And to attract 
them I say : These vehicles are grand, praised by 
the Aryas, and provided with most pleasant things ; 
with such you are to sport, play, and divert your- 
selves in a noble 2 manner. Ye will feel the great 
delight of the faculties 3 , powers 4 , constituents of 
Bodhi, meditations, the (eight) degrees of emancipa- 
tion, self-concentration, and the results of self-con- 
centration, and ye will become greatly happy and 

1 The same idea and the same moral form the warp and woof 
of the sermon on the hill of Gaylrfrsha, the Aditta-pariytya, MaM- 
vagga I, 21. This sermon was the second in course of time, if 
we leave out of account the repetitions of the first^ preached near 
Benares. The parable also is propounded at the time when the 
Master moves the wheel of the law for the second time ; see above, 
St. 34, Hence we may conclude that the sermon and parable are 
variations of one and the same monkish moralization on the base 
of a more primitive cosmological legend. 

* Akrz'pawam, properly, not miserably. 

8 Indriya; here apparently the five moral faculties of faith, 
energy, recollection, contemplation, and wisdom or prescience; 
cf. Spence Hardy, Manual, p. 498 ; Lalita-vistara, p. 37. 

4 Bala, the same as the indriya, with this difference, it would 
seem, that the balas are the faculties in action or more developed ; 
cf. Spence Hardy, 1. c., and Lalita-vistara, L c. 


Now, vSariputra, the beings who have become wise 
have faith in the Tathigata, the father of the world, 
and consequently apply themselves to his command- 
ments. Amongst them there are some who, wishing 
to follow the dictate of an authoritative voice, apply 
themselves to the commandment of the TathSgata 
to acquire the knowledge of the four great truths, 
for the sake of their own complete Nirvi#a. These 
one may say to be those who, coveting the vehicle 
of the disciples, fly from the triple world, just as 
some of the boys will fly from that burning house, 
prompted by a desire of getting a cart yoked with 
deer. Other beings desirous of the science without 
a master, of self-restraint and tranquillity, apply 
themselves to the commandment of the Tathdgata 
to learn to understand causes and effects, for the 
sake of their own complete Nirvi;za. These one 
may say to be those who, coveting the vehicle of 
the Pratyekabuddhas, fly from the triple world, just 
as some of the boys fly from the burning house, 
prompted by the desire of getting a cart yoked with 
goats. Others again desirous of the knowledge of the 
all-knowing, the knowledge of Buddha, the knowledge 
of the self-born one, the science without a master, 
apply themselves to the commandment of the Tathi- 
gata to learn to understand tfie knowledge, powers, 
and freedom from hesitation of the Tathigata, for 
the sake of the common weal and happiness, out of 
compassion to the world, for the benefit, weal, and 
happiness of the world at large, both gods and men, 
for the sake of the complete Nirvdwa of all beings. 
These one may say to be those who, coveting the 
great vehicle, fly from the triple world. Therefore 
they are called Bodhisattvas Mahdsattvas. They 

in. A PARABLE. 8 1 

may be likened to those among the boys who have 
fled from the burning house prompted by the desire 
of getting a cart yoked with bullocks. 

In the same manner, S&riputra, as that man, on 
seeing his children escaped from the burning house 
and knowing them safely and happily rescued and 
out of danger, in the consciousness of his great 
wealth, gives the boys one single grand cart; so, 
too, .Slriputra, the Tathdgata, the Arhat, &c., on 
seeing many ko#s of beings recovered 1 from the 
triple world, released from sorrow, fear, terror, and 
calamity, having escaped owing to the command of 
the Tathagata, delivered from all fears, calamities, and 
difficulties, and having reached the bliss of Nirv#a, 
so, too, ^iriputra, the Tathagata, the Arhat, &c., 
considering that he possesses great wealth of 
knowledge, power, and absence of hesitation, and 
that all beings are his children, leads them by no 
other vehicle but the Buddha- vehicle to full de- 
velopment 2 . But he does not teach a particular 
Nirvd^a for each being; he causes all beings to 
reach complete Nirvd^a by means of the complete 
Nirv&sa of the TathSgata. And those beings, Sn- 
putra, who are delivered from the triple world, to 
them the Tathigata gives as toys to amuse themselves 
with the lofty pleasures of the Aryas, the pleasures 

1 Paripftr^in; in one MS. there is a second-hand reading, 
parimukt^n. I suppose that paripftra is the original reading, 
but that we have to take it in the sense of 6 recovered, healed. 1 

2 Time, Siva or Vishwu ekapad, the One-footed, who at the same 
time is tripad, three-footed, leads all living beings to final rest. 
The Buddha-vehicle is the ratha ekaakra, the one-wheeled 
carriage, each wheel being trinbhi, three-naved, as in Rig-veda 

I, 164, 2. 

[21] G 


of meditation, emancipation, self-concentration, and 
its results; (toys) all of the same kind. Even as 
that man, .Sariputra, cannot be said to have told a 
falsehood for having held out to those boys the 
prospect of three vehicles and given to all of them 
but* one great vehicle, a magnificent vehicle made of 
seven precious substances, decorated with all sorts 
of ornaments, a vehicle of one kind, the most egre- 
gious of all, so, too, 6ariputra, the TathSgata, the 
Arhat, &c., tells no falsehood when by an able 
device he first holds forth three vehicles and after- 
wards leads all to complete Nirv^a by the one 
great vehicle. For the Tathdgata, ,S4riputra, who 
is rich in treasures and storehouses of abundant 
knowledge, powers, and absence of hesitation, is 
able to teach all beings the law which is connected 
with the knowledge of the all-knowing. In this 
way, vS&riputra, one has to understand how the 
TatMgata by an able device and direction shows 
but one vehicle, the great vehicle. 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the fol- 
lowing stanzas : 

39. A man has 1 an old house, large, but very 
infirm; its terraces are decaying and the columns 
rotten at their bases. 

40. The windows and balconies are partly ruined, 
the wall as well as its coverings and plaster decaying; 
the coping shows rents from age ; the thatch is every- 
where pierced with holes. 

41. It is inhabited by no less than five hundred 
beings ; containing many cells and closets filled with 
excrements and disgusting. 

1 The original has ' as if a man had/ &c. I have changed the 
construction to render it less wearisome. 


42. Its roof-rafters are wholly ruined; the walls 
and partitions crumbling away; ko/is of vultures 
nestle in it, as well as doves, owls, and other birds. 

43. There are in every corner dreadful snakes, 
most venomous and horrible ; scorpions and mice of 
all sorts ; it is the abode of very wicked creatures 
of every description. 

44. Further, one may meet in it here and there 
beings not belonging to the human race. It is 
defiled with excrement and urine, and teeming with 
worms, insects, and fire-flies; it resounds from the 
howling of dogs and jackals. 

45. In it are horrible hyenas that are wont to 
devour human carcasses; many dogs and jackals 
greedily seeking the matter of corpses. 

46. Those animals weak from perpetual hunger 
go about in several places to feed upon their prey, 
and quarrelling fill the spot with their cries. Such 
is that most horrible house. 

47. There are also very malign goblins, who 
violate human corpses ; in several spots there are 
centipedes, huge snakes, and vipers. 

48. Those animals creep into all corners, where 
they make nests to deposit their brood, which is 
often devoured by the goblins. 

49. And when those cruel-minded goblins are 
satiated with feeding upon the flesh of other crea- 
tures, so that their bodies are big, then they com- 
mence sharply fighting on the spot. 

50. In the wasted retreats are dreadful, malign 
urchins, some of them measuring one span, others 
one cubit or two cubits, all nimble in their move- 

51. They are in the habit of seizing dogs by the 

G 2 


feet, throwing them upside down, upon the floor, 
pinching their necks and using them ill 

52. There also live yelling ghosts naked, black, 
wan, tall, and high, who, hungry and in quest of food, 
are here and there emitting cries of distress. 

53. Some have a mouth like a needle, others 
have a face like a coVs ; they are of the size of men 
or dogs, go with entangled hair, and utter plaintive 
cries from want of food. 

54. Those goblins, ghosts, imps, like vultures, are 
always looking out through the windows and loop- 
holes, in all directions in search of food. 

55. Such is that dreadful house, spacious and 
high, but very infirm, full of holes, frail and dreary. 
(Let us suppose that) it is the property of a certain 

56. And that while he is out of doors the house is 
reached by a conflagration, so that on a sudden it 
is wrapt in a blazing mass of fire on every side. 

57. The beams and rafters consumed by the fire, 
the columns and partitions in flame are crackling most 
dreadfully, whilst goblins and ghosts are yelling. 

58. Vultures are driven out by hundreds ; urchins 
withdraw with parched faces ; hundreds of mis- 
chievous beasts of prey 1 run, scorched, on every 
side, crying and shouting 2 . 

59. Many poor devils move about, burnt by the 
fire ; while burning they tear one another with the 
teeth, and bespatter each other with their blood 

2 Krosanti, var. lect. kroshanti. Burnoufs version, ' sont en 
fureur,' points to a reading roshanti, which, however, is not appro- 
priate, for the would-be conflagration is a description of the time 
of twihght. 


60. Hyenas also perish there, in the act of eating 
one another. The excrements burn, and a loath- 
some stench spreads in all directions. 

6 1. The centipedes, trying to fly, are devoured by 
the urchins. The ghosts, with burning hair, hover 
about, equally vexed with hunger and heat. 

62. In such a state is that awful house, where 
thousands of flames are breaking out on every side. 
But the man who is the master of the house looks 
on from without 

63. And he hears his own children, whose minds 
are engaged in playing with their toys, in their fond- 
ness of which they amuse themselves, as fools do in 
their ignorance. 

64. And as he hears them he quickly steps in 1 to 
save his children, lest his ignorant children might 
perish in the flames. 

65. He tells them the defect of the house, and 
says : This, young man 2 of good family, is a miser- 
able house, a dreadful one ; the various creatures in 
it, and this fire to boot, form a series of evils. 

66. In it are snakes, mischievous goblins, urchins, 
and ghosts in great number ; hyenas, troops of dogs 
and jackals, as well as vultures, seeking their prey. 

67. Such beings live in this house, which, apart 

1 This trait is wanting in the prose relation. The explana- 
tion, I fancy, is this : If the description of the glowing house 
refers to morning twilight, the father (Pit&naha, or Day-god) 
will needs step in afterwards ; if, on the other hand, the evening 
twilight is meant, he will already have left the house. In the 
former case he calls his children to activity, to their daily work; 
in the latter he admonishes them to take their rest, exhorts them 
to think of the end of life. 

2 In addressing more persons it is not uncommon that only one 
is addressed as representing the whole company. 


from the fire, is extremely dreadful, and miserable 
enough ; and now comes to it this fire blazing on 
all sides. 

68. The foolish boys, however, though admo- 
nished, do not mind their father's words, deluded as 
they are by their toys ; they do not even under- 
stand him. 

69. Then the man thinks : I am now in anxiety 
on account of my children. What is the use of my 
having sons if I lose them ? No, they shall not 
perish by this fire. 

70. Instantly a device occurred to his mind: 
These young (and ignorant) children are fond of 
toys, and have none just now to play with. Oh, 
they are so foolish ! 

71. He then says to them : Listen, my sons, I 
have carts of different sorts, yoked with deer, goats, 
and excellent bullocks, lofty, great, and completely 

72. They are outside the house ; run out, do with 
them what you like; for your sake have I caused 
them to be made. Run out all together, and rejoice 
to have them. 

73. All the boys, on hearing of such carts, exert 
themselves, immediately rush out hastily, and reach, 
free from harm, the open air. 

74. On seeing thg.t the children have come out, 
the man betakes himself to the square in the centre 
of the village 1 , and there from-the throne he is sitting 
on he says : Good people, now I feel at ease. 

* The sun reaches the meridian point. The poetic version 
which makes the father enter the blazing house is consistent; the 
prose version has effaced a necessary trait of the story. Therefore 


75. These poor sons of mine, whom I have re- 
covered with difficulty, my own dear twenty young 
children, were in a dreadful, wretched, horrible house, 
full of many animals. 

76. As it was burning and wrapt in thousands of 
flames, they were amusing themselves in it with 
playing, but now I have rescued them all. There- 
fore I now feel most happy. 

77. The children, seeing their father happy, ap- 
proached him, and said: Dear father, give us, as you 
have promised 1 , those nice vehicles of three kinds ; 

78. And make true all that you promised us 
in the house when saying, ' I will give you three 
sorts of vehicles/ Do give them; it is now the 
right time. 

79. Now the man (as we have supposed) had 
a mighty treasure of gold, silver, precious stones, 
and pearls ; he possessed bullion, numerous slaves, 
domestics, and vehicles of various kinds ; 

80. Carts made of precious substances, yoked 
with bullocks, most excellent, with benches 2 and 
a row of tinkling bells, decorated with umbrellas 
and flags, and adorned with a network of gems and 

8 1. They are embellished with gold, and arti- 
ficial wreaths hanging down here and there ; covered 
all around with excellent cloth and fine white 

82. Those carts are moreover furnished with 
choice mattresses of fine silk, serving for cushions, 

it is posterior to the version in metre, and apparently belongs to 
a much later period. 
1 YathSbhibhashitam, var. lect. bhdvitam, 


and covered with choice carpets showing the images 
of cranes and swans, and worth thousands of koris. 

83. The carts are yoked with white bullocks, well 
fed, strong, of great size, very fine, who are tended 
by numerous persons. 

84. Such excellent carts that man gives to all his 
sons, who, overjoyed and charmed, go and play 
with them in all directions. 

85. In the same manner, ^Sslriputra, I, the great 
Seer, am the protector and father of all beings, and 
all creatures who, childlike, are captivated by the 
pleasures of the triple world, are my sons. 

86. This triple world is as dreadful as that house, 
overwhelmed with a number of evils, entirely in- 
flamed on every side by a hundred different sorts of 
birth, old age, and disease, 

87. But I, who am detached from the triple world 
and serene, am living in absolute retirement 1 in a 
wood 2 . This triple world is my domain, and those 
who in it are suffering from burning heat are my 

88. And I told its evils because I had resolved 
upon saving them, but they would not listen to me, 
because all of them were ignorant and their hearts 
attached to the pleasures of sense. 

89. Then I employ an able device, and tell them 
of the three vehicles, so showing them the means 
of evading 8 the numerous evils of the triple world 
which are known to me. 

90. And those of my sons who adhere to me, 

1 EkSntasthayin. 

2 Vana, a wood, also means a cloud, the cloudy region. 

3 Nirdhavanrth3ya; a van leek has nirvdpandrthaya, 
i. e. to allay. 


who are mighty in the six transcendent faculties 
(Abhi#s) and the triple science, the Pratyeka- 
buddhas, as well as the Bodhisattvas unable to 
slide back; 

91. And those (others) who equally are my sons, 
to them I just now am showing, by means of this 
excellent allegory, the single Buddha-vehicle. Re- 
ceive it ; ye shall all become inas. 

92. It is most excellent and sweet, the most ex- 
alted in the world, that knowledge of the Buddhas, 
the most high among men ; it is something sublime 
and adorable. 

93. The powers, meditations, degrees of emanci- 
pation and self-concentration by many hundreds of 
ko/is, that is the exalted vehicle in which the sons 
of Buddha take a never-ending delight. 

94. In playing with it they pass days and nights, 
fortnights, months, seasons, years, intermediate kal- 
pas, nay, thousands of kotfs of kalpas 1 . 

95. This is the lofty vehicle of jewels which 
sundry Bodhisattvas and the disciples listening to 
the Sugata employ to go and sport on the terrace 
of enlightenment 

96. Know then, Tishya 2 , that there is no second 

1 As the mean duration of a man's life extends over thousands 
of korfs of kalpas or JEons, it is evident that the JEon here 
meant is in reality an extremely small particle of time, an atom. 
The meaning attached to it was perhaps that of asu or pr#a, 
a respiration. It seems to me, however, more probable that kalpa, 
as synonymous with rftpa, simply denotes a unit, e.g. of atoms of 

2 I.e. 5$riputra, otherwise named Upatishya, Le. secondary 
Tishya. The canonical etymology of the name of Upatishya is 
to be found in Burnouf s Introduction, p. 48, and Schiefher's 
Lebensbeschreibung, p. 253, 


vehicle in this world anywhere to be found, in what- 
ever direction thou shalt search, apart from the 
device (shown) by the most high among men. 

97. Ye are my children, I am your father, who has 
removed you from pain, from the triple world, from 
fear and danger, when you had been burning for 
many ko/is of JEons. 

98. And I am teaching blessed rest (Nirv;za), in 
so far as, though you have not yet reached (final) rest, 
you are delivered from the trouble of the mundane 
whirl, provided you seek the vehicle of the Buddhas. 

99. Any Bodhisattvas here present obey my 
Buddha-rules. Such is the skilfulness of the ina 
that he disciplines many Bodhisattvas. 

100. When the creatures in this world delight in 
low and contemptible pleasures, then the Chief of 
the world, who always speaks the truth, indicates 
pain as the (first) great truth. 

TOI. And to those who are ignorant and too 
simple-minded to discover the root of that pain 
I lay open the way : * Awaking of full consciousness, 
strong desire is the origin of pain 1 / 

1 02. Always try, unattached 2 , to suppress desire. 
This is my third truth, that of suppression. It is an 
infallible means of deliverance ; for by practising 
this method one shall become emancipated 3 . 

103. And from what are they emancipated, S&ri- 

1 Samudgama, trz"sha du^khasya sambhava^. lam 
not certain of the translation of samudslgama, which recurs below 
in Chap. V, in the apparent sense of full knowledge, agreeing with 
what the dictionaries give. 

2 Anur*tft. 

8 Na ko mSrga^ hi bhvitva vimu'ktu bhoti (var, lect. 
bhotu). The words nao spoil metre and sense, and must be 

ni - A PARABLE. 

putra? They are emancipated from chimeras 1 . Yet 
they are not wholly freed; the Chief declares that 
they have not yet reached (final and complete) rest 
in this world. 

104. Why is it that I do not pronounce one to be 
delivered before one's having reached the highest, 
supreme enlightenment ? (Because) such is my will ; 
I am the ruler of the law 2 , who is born in this world 
to lead to beatitude. 

105. This, vS&riputra, is the closing word of my law 
which now at the last time I pronounce 3 for the weal 
of the world including the gods. Preach it in all 

1 06. And if some one speaks to you these words, 
' I joyfully accept/ and with signs of utmost reverence 
receives this SAtra, thou mayst consider that man 
to be unable to slide back 4 . 

107. To believe in this Sfttra one must have seen 
former Tathslgatas, paid honour to them, and heard 
a law similar to this. 

1 08. To believe in my supreme word one must 
have seen me; thou and the assembly of monks 
have seen all these Bodhisattvas. 

109. This Sfttra is apt to puzzle the ignorant 5 , 

te, ^riputS, vimukta? AsantagrSMtu (abl.) vimukta 
bhonti ; na[a] t&va te sarvatu mukta bhonti. 

2 Dharmar^a, a well-known epithet of Yama the god of death; 
he is the real tamer of men, the master of gods and men, &c, 

8 Mama dharmamudrft (properly, seal, closure of my law) 
y& pa^akaie (var.lect pa^imi k^le) maya adya (var. lect 
mamadya) bhdshita. 

4 Or, to swerve from his course, his purpose. 

6 Properly, young children, because one must have seen former 
TatMgatas, i. e. liyed some revolving suns before having an idea 
of death. 


and I do not pronounce it before having penetrated 
to superior knowledge. Indeed, it is not within the 
range of the disciples, nor do the Pratyekabuddhas 
come to it. 

no. But thou, .S&riputra, hast good will, not to 
speak of my other disciples here. They will walk 
in my faith, though each cannot have his individual 

in. But do not speak of this matter to haughty 
persons, nor to conceited ones, nor to Yogins who 
are not self-restrained ; for the fools, always revelling 
in sensual pleasures, might in their blindness scorn 
the law manifested. 

112. Now hear the dire results when one scorns 
my skilfulness and the Buddha-rules for ever fixed 
in the world; when one, with sullen brow, scorns 
the vehicle. 

113. Hear the destiny of those who have scorned 
such a Sfttra like this, whether during my lifetime or 
after my Nirvi^a, or who have wronged the monks. 

114. After having disappeared from amongst 
men, they shall dwell in the lowest hell (AviK) 
during a whole kalpa, and thereafter they shall fall 
lower and lower, the fools, passing through repeated 
births for many intermediate kalpas. 

115. And when they have vanished from amongst 
the inhabitants of hell, they shall further descend to 
the condition of brutes, be even as dogs and jackals, 
and become a sport to others. 

116. Under such circumstances they shall grow 
blackish of colour, spotted, covered with sores, itchy; 
moreover, they shall be hairless and feeble, (all) 
those who have an aversion to my supreme en- 


1 1 7. They are ever despised amongst animals ; hit 
by clods or weapons they yell ; everywhere they are 
threatened with sticks, and their bodies are emaci- 
ated from hunger and thirst. 

1 1 8. Sometimes they become camels or asses, 
carrying loads, and are beaten with whips 1 and 
sticks ; they are constantly occupied with thoughts 
of eating, the fools who have scorned the Buddha- 

119. At other times they become ugly jackals, 
half blind and crippled 2 ; the helpless creatures are 
vexed by the village boys, who throw clods and 
weapons at them. 

120. Again shooting off from that place, those 
fools become animals with bodies of five hundred 
yo^-anas, whirling round, dull and lazy. 

121. They have no feet, and creep on the belly 8 ; 
to be devoured by many koris of animals is the 
dreadful punishment they have to suffer for having 
scorned a Stitra like this. 

122. And whenever they assume a human shape, 
they are born crippled, maimed 4 , crooked, one-eyed, 
blind, dull, and low, they having no faith in my 

1 Kasha, var. lect. sata, with a marginal correction sada (for 
sadS). Burnoufs 'cent Mtons* is evidently based upon the 
reading sata. 

2 K#akaku<fak& s a, var. lect. v&laka , with marginal correc- 
tion kanaka . The translation is doubtful; cfc St. 116 below. 
Ku#<?akal connect with ku#/=vikaltkarae and the Greek 

* Kro<?asaa&krin,var.lect.safl^rain,with correction sazkkin, 
the reading I have followed, taking saawkkin to be identical with 
sakkin, a Prakrit form of Sanskrit sarpin. 

* Ku</ak41angaka, for which I read Tsal&ngafca. 


123. Nobody keeps their side 1 ; a putrid smell is 
continually issuing from their mouths ; an evil spirit 
has entered the body of those who do not believe in 
this supreme enlightenment. 

124. Needy, obliged to do menial labour, always 
in another's service, feeble, and subject to many 
diseases they go about in the world, unprotected. 

125. The man whom they happen to serve is 
unwilling to give them much, and what he gives is 
soon lost. Such is the fruit of sinfulness. 

126. Even the best-prepared medicaments, admi- 
nistered to them by able men, do, under those 
circumstances, but increase their illness, and the 
disease has no end 

127. Some commit thefts, affrays, assaults, or acts 
of hostility, whereas others commit robberies of 
goods ; (all this) befalls the sinner, 

128. Never does he behold the Lord of the world, 
the King of kings ruling the earth 2 , for he is doomed 
to live at a wrong time 3 , he who scorns my Buddha- 

129. Nor does that foolish person listen to the 
law ; he is deaf and senseless ; he never finds rest, 
because he has scorned this enlightenment. 

130. During many hundred thousand myriads of 
ko/is of ^Eons equal to the sand of the Ganges he 
shall be dull and defective; that is the evil result 
from scorning this SAtra. 

1 Apratyanlka, var. lect. apratyanfya. The rendering is 
doubtful. I take it to be synonymous \rith apaksha; cf. note, 
p. 17. 

a Mahi, i. e. Sansk. mahtm. 

9 In the darkness of hell, i. e. in common parlance, at nigh 
time, when nobody can behold the sun. 



1. Hell is his garden (or monastery), a place 
of misfortune 1 his abode; he is continually living 
amongst asses, hogs, jackals, and dogs. 

132. And when he has assumed a human shape 
he is to be blind, deaf, and stupid, the servant of 
another, and always poor. 

133- Diseases, myriads of koAs of wounds on the 
body, scab, itch, scurf, leprosy, blotch, a foul smell 
are, in that condition, his covering and apparel. 

^134. His sight is dim to distinguish the real 
His anger appears mighty in him, and his passion 
is most violent; he always delights in animal 

135- Were I to go on, SSriputra, for a whole 
JEon, enumerating the evils of him who shall scorn 
my Sfttra, I should not come to an end, 

136. And since I am fully aware of it, I com- 
mand thee, ^riputra, that thou shalt not expound a 
Stitra like this before foolish people. 

137. But those who are sensible, instructed, 
thoughtful, clever, and learned, who strive after 
the highest supreme enlightenment, to them ex- 
pound its real meaning. 

138. Those who have seen many ko/is of Bud- 
dhas, planted immeasurably many roots of good- 
ness, and undertaken a strong vow, to them expound 
its real meaning. 

139. Those who, full of energy and ever kind- 
hearted, have a long time been developing the 
feeling of kindness, have given up body and life, 
in their presence thou mayst preach this Stitra, 

1 A p &y a, properly 'going away, disappearance/ the reverse of 
up&ya, 'approaching/ 


140. Those who show mutual love and respect, 
keep no intercourse with ignorant people, and are 
content to live in mountain caverns, to them expound 
this hallowed SAtra. 

141. If thou see sons of Buddha who attach them- 
selves to virtuous friends and avoid bad friends, 
then reveal to them this Stitra. 

142. Those sons of Buddha who have not broken 
the moral vows, are pure like gems and jewels, and 
devoted to the study of the great Stitras, before 
those thou mayst propound this Sfttra. 

143. Those who are not irascible, ever sincere, 
full of compassion for all living beings, and respect- 
ful towards the Sugata, before those thou mayst 
propound this Sfttra. 

144. To one who in the congregation, without 
any hesitation and distraction of mind, speaks to 
expound the law, with many myriads of kotfs of 
illustrations, thou mayst manifest this Sfttra. 

145. And he who, desirous of acquiring all-know- 
ingness, respectfully lifts his joined hands to his 
head, or who seeks in all directions to find some 
monk of sacred eloquence ; 

146. And he who keeps (in memory) the great 
Stitras, while he never shows any liking for other 
books, nor even knows a single stanza from another 
work; to all of them thou mayst expound this 
sublime Sfttra. 

147. He who seeks such an excellent Stitra as 
this, and after obtaining it devoutly worships it, is 
like the man who wears a relic of the TathSgata he 
has eagerly sought for. 

148. Never mind other Stitras nor other books 
in which a profane philosophy is taught ; such books 


are fit for the foolish ; avoid them and preach this 

149. During a full JEon, Siriputra, I could speak 
of thousands of korfs of (connected) points, (but 
this suffices); thou mayst reveal this Sfttra to all 
who are striving after the highest supreme en- 




As the venerable Subhtiti, the venerable Mah- 
K&tyyana, the venerable Mah - Kyyapa, and 
the venerable Mahi-Maudgaly&yana heard this 
law unheard of before, and as from the mouth 
of the Lord they heard the future destiny of 
.S&riputra to superior perfect enlightenment, they 
were struck with wonder, amazement, and rapture. 
They instantly rose from their seats and went up 
to the place where the Lord was sitting; after 
throwing their cloak over one shoulder, fixing the 
right knee on the ground and lifting up their joined 
hands before the Lord, looking up to him, their 
bodies bent, bent down and inclined, they addressed 
the Lord in this strain : 

Lord, we are old, aged, advanced in years; 
honoured as seniors in this assemblage of monks. 
Worn out by old age we fancy that we have 
attained Nirvi^a; we make no efforts, O Lord, 
for supreme perfect enlightenment; our force and 
exertion are inadequate to it Though the Lord 
preaches the law and has long continued sitting, and 
though we have attended to that preaching of the 
law, yet, O Lord, as we have so long been sitting 
and so long attended the Lord's service, our 
greater and minor members, as well as the joints 
and articulations, begin to ache. Hence, O Lord, 
we are unable, in spite of the Lord's preaching, to 


realise the fact that all is vanity (or void), purpose- 
less (or causeless, or unconditioned), and unfixed l ; we 
have conceived no longing after the Buddha-laws, the 
divisions of the Buddha-fields, the sports 2 of the Bodhi- 
sattvas or Tathigatas. For by having fled out of the 
triple world, O Lord, we imagined having attained 
Nirvd^a, and we are decrepit from old age. Hence, 
O Lord, though we have exhorted other Bodhisattvas 
and instructed them in supreme perfect enlighten- 
ment, we have in doing so never conceived a single 
thought of longing. And just now, O Lord, we are 
hearing from the Lord that disciples also may be 
predestined to supreme perfect enlightenment. We 
are astonished and amazed, and deem it a great 
gain, O Lord, that to-day, on a sudden, we have 
heard from the Lord a voice such as we never heard 
before. We have acquired a magnificent jewel, O 
Lord, an incomparable jewel. We had not sought, 
nor searched, nor expected, nor required so mag- 
nificent a jewel. It has become clear to us 3 , O 
Lord ; it has become clear to us, O Sugata. 

It is a case, O Lord, as if a certain man went 

1 Sfinyat&nimitt&pramhitaflz sarvam. The commentary on 
Dhammapada, ver. 92 (p. 281), gives an explanation of the Pdli 
terms su^wata, animitta, and appawihita. His interpretation 
is too artificial to be of much use. In the verse referred to we 
find suwwata apparently as an adjective, but till we find such 
an adjective in another place, it is safer to doubt its existence 
altogether. Apra#ihita is, to my apprehension, unfixed, not 
fixed beforehand, not determined providentially; it may also mean 

2 Or, display of magical phenomena. 

8 PratibhUti no ; a would-be correction has pratil^bhino, 
which is inadmissible, because with this reading the pronoun 
vayam cannot be left out. 

H 2 


away from his father and betook himself to some 
other place* He lives there in foreign parts for 
many years, twenty or thirty or forty or fifty. In 
course of time the one (the father) becomes a great 
man ; the other (the son) is poor ; in seeking a live- 
lihood for the sake of food and clothing he roams in 
all directions and goes to some place, whereas his 
father removes to another country. The latter has 
much wealth, gold, corn \ treasures, and granaries ; 
possesses* much (wrought) gold and silver, many 
gems, pearls, lapis lazuli, conch shells, and stones (?), 
corals, gold and silver; many slaves male and 
female, servants for menial work and journeymen ; 
is rich in elephants, horses, carriages, cows, and 
sheep. He keeps a large retinue; has his money 
invested in great territories 2 , and does great 
things in business, money-lending, agriculture, and 

In course of time, Lord, that poor man, in quest of 
food and clothing, roaming through villages, towns, 
boroughs, provinces, kingdoms, and royal capitals, 
reaches the place where his father, the owner of 
much wealth and gold, treasures and granaries, is 
residing. Now the poor man's father, Lord, the 
owner of much wealth and gold, treasures and 
granaries, who was residing in that town, had 
always and ever been thinking of the son he had 
lost fifty years ago, but he gave no utterance to 
his thoughts before others, and was only pining in 
himself and thinking : I am old, aged, advanced 

1 DhSnya, wanting in some MSS. 

* Mah^anapadeshu dhanikaA. The translation is doubtful; 
the words may as well mean, a creditor of people at large. 


in. years, and possess abundance of bullion, gold, 
money and corn, treasures and granaries, but have 
no son. It is to be feared lest death shall overtake 
me and all this perish unused. Repeatedly he was 
thinking of that son : O how happy should I be, 
were my son to enjoy this mass of wealth ! 

Meanwhile, Lord, the poor man in search of food 
and clothing was gradually approaching the house of 
the rich man, the owner of abundant bullion, gold, 
money and corn, treasures and granaries. And the 
father of the poor man happened to sit at the door 
of his house, surrounded and waited upon by a great 
crowd of Brdhmans, Kshatriyas, VaLyyas, and udras; 
he was sitting on a magnificent throne with a foot- 
stool decorated with gold and silver, while dealing 
with hundred thousands of koris of gold-pieces, and 
fanned with a chowrie, on a spot under an extended 
awning inlaid with pearls and flowers and adorned 
with hanging garlands of jewels ; sitting (in short) in 
great pomp. The poor man, Lord, saw his own 
father in such pomp sitting at the door of the 
house, surrounded with a great crowd of people 
and doing a householder's business. The poor man 
frightened, terrified, alarmed, seized with a feeling 
of horripilation all over the body, and agitated in 
mind, reflects thus : Unexpectedly have I here 
fallen in with a king or grandee. People like me 
have nothing to do here ; let me go ; in the street 
of the poor I am likely to find food and clothing 
without much difficulty. Let me no longer tarry at 
this place, lest I be taken to do forced labour or 
incur some other injury. 

Thereupon, Lord, the poor man quickly departs, 
runs off, does not tarry from fear of a series of 


supposed dangers. But the rich man, sitting on 
the throne at the door of his mansion, has recog- 
nised his son at first sight, in consequence whereof 
he is content, in high spirits, charmed, delighted, 
filled with joy and cheerfulness. He thinks : Won- 
derful! he who is to enjoy this plenty of bullion, 
gold, money and corn, treasures and granaries, has 
been found! He of whom I have been thinking 
again and again, is here now that I am old, aged, 
advanced in years. 

At the same time, moment, and instant, Lord, he 
despatches couriers, to whom he says : Go, sirs, and 
quickly fetch me that man. The fellows thereon 
all run forth in full speed and overtake the poor 
man, who, frightened, terrified, alarmed, seized with 
a feeling of horripilation all over his body, agitated 
in mind, utters a lamentable cry of distress, screams, 
and exclaims : I have given you no offence. But 
the fellows drag the poor man, however lamenting, 
violently with them. He, frightened, terrified, 
alarmed, seized with a feeling of horripilation all 
over his body, and agitated in mind, thinks by 
himself : I fear lest I shall be punished with capital 
punishment 1 ; I am lost. He faints away, and falls 
on the earth* His father dismayed and near de- 
spondency 2 says to those fellows: Do not carry 3 the 

1 According to the reading vadhyda</ya>5. If we read 
vadhyo da#</ya^, the rendering would be, executed or punished 
(fined). Cf. stanza 19 below. 

2 Visha#0a^fca sSd&sanne Hsya sa pita* bhavet; var. lect. 
v. systd dsannaj^a sya s. p. b. Both readings are corrupt ; we 
have to read sdsannaja. The final e of asanne is likely to 
be a remnant of the original Mftgadhf (not PSli) text, the e being 
the nom. case sing, of masculine words in a. 

8 Ma* bhavanta ena/0 (var. lect. eva0z) purusham Syishur 


man in that manner. With these words he sprinkles 
him with cold water without addressing him any 
further. For that householder knows the poor 
man's humble disposition 1 and his own elevated 
position; yet he feels that the man is his son, 

The householder, Lord, skilfully conceals from 
every one that it is his son. He calls one of his 
servants and says to him : Go, sirrah, and tell that 
poor man : Go, sirrah, whither thou likest ; thou art 
free. The servant obeys, approaches the poor man 
and tells him : Go, sirrah, whither thou likest ; thou 
art free. The poor man is astonished and amazed 
at hearing these words; he leaves that spot and 
wanders to the street of the poor in search of food 
and clothing. In order to attract him the house- 
holder practises an able device. He employs for it 
two men ill-favoured and of little splendour 2 . Go, 
says he, go to the man you saw in this place ; hire 
him in your own name for a double daily fee, and 
order him to do work here in my house. And if he 
asks : What work shall I have to do ? tell him : 
Help us in clearing the heap of dirt. The two 

(var. lect. &nayeyur) iti. A would-be correction has Snayata, 
at any rate a blunder, because inayantu would be required. The 
original reading may have been &nayishur, in common Sanskrit 
finaishur. Quite different is the reading, atha khalu sa daridra- 
purusham &nayantv iti tarn enaw rftalena, &c.,< thereupon 
he (the rich man) ordered the poor man to be brought before him 
and,' &c. 

1 Here and repeatedly in the sequel the term hlndhimuk- 
tat& would much better be rendered by * humble or low position/ 

2 Durvar#av alpaug-askau. The idiomatic meaning of dur- 
var^a a. is * having a bad complexion or colour (e.g. from ill 
health) and little vitality or vigour/ The artificial or so-called 
etymological meaning may be, e of bad caste and of little splendour 
or majesty;' see, however, below at stanza ax. 


fellows go and seek the poor man and engage him 
for such work as mentioned. Thereupon the two 
fellows conjointly with the poor man clear the heap 
of dirt in the house for the daily pay they receive 
from the rich man, while they take up their abode 
in a hovel of straw l in the neighbourhood of the 
rich man's dwelling. And that rich man beholds 
through a window his own son clearing the heap of 
dirt, at which sight he is anew struck with wonder 
and astonishment 

Then the householder descends from his mansion, 
lays off his wreath and ornaments, parts with his 
soft, clean, and gorgeous attire, puts on dirty rai- 
ment, takes a basket in his right hand, smears his 
body with dust, and goes to his son, whom he 
greets from afar, and thus addresses : Please, take 
the baskets and without delay remove the dust By 
this device he manages to speak to his son, to have 
a talk with him and say : Do, sirrah, remain here in 
my service ; do not go again to another place ; I 
will give thee extra pay, and whatever thou wantest 
thou mayst confidently ask me, be it the price of a 
pot, a smaller pot, a boiler or wood 2 , or be it the 

1 The MSS. vary considerably, and are moreover inconsistent 
in their readings of this word. One has grzhaparisare ka/a- 
pallikuwikaya; another, g. kapa/liku/ikayaz (r. ka/apali 
or ka/opali); a third, grzhapatisakare (mere nonsense for 
grzhaparisare) ka/apalikuwikaya02. Paliku/ik is evi- 
dently a variation of upariku/i, pali being a M^gadht form for 
pari, or the Prakrit of prati or pari. The 11 is clearly wrong, 
Ka/a may mean mat, straw, and boards. 

* The rendering of this passage is doubtful. Burnouf takes the 
words pot (ku</a), small pot (ku*<fika), boiler (sth&hka), and 
k&sh//5a to denote measures. He may be right, though in the 
absence of sufficient evidence for kSsh/Aa denoting a measure or 
value, I thought it safer to take the word in the usual sense. 


price of salt, food, or clothing. I have got an old 
cloak, man ; if thou shouldst want it, ask me for it, 
I will give it Any utensil of such sort 1 , when thou 
wantest to have it, I will give thee. Be at ease, 
fellow ; look upon me as if I were thy father, for I 
am older and thou art younger, and thou hast ren- 
dered me much service by clearing this heap of dirt, 
and as long as thou hast been in my service thou 
hast never shown nor art showing wickedness, 
crookedness, arrogance, or hypocrisy; I have dis- 
covered in thee no vice at all of such as are com- 
monly seen in other man-servants. From hence- 
forward thou art to me like my own son. 

From that time, Lord, the householder, addresses 
the poor man by the name of son, and the latter 
feels in presence of the householder as a son to 
his father. In this manner, Lord, the householder 
affected with longing for his son employs him for 
the clearing of the heap of dirt during twenty years, 
at the end of which the poor man feels quite at ease 
in the mansion to go in and out, though he continues 
taking his abode in the hovel of straw 2 . 

After a while, Lord, the householder falls sick, 
and feels that the time of his death is near at hand. 
He says to the poor man ; Come hither, man, I pos- 
sess abundant bullion, gold, money and corn, treasures 
and granaries. I am very sick, and wish to have one 
upon whom to bestow (my wealth) ; by whom it is to 
be received, and with whom it is to be deposited 3 . 
Accept it For in the same manner as I am the 

1 It seems to me that this refers to kurfa, &c 

8 Hereka/apaliku^e,var.lect.ka/akapallikm'i>&e andka/a- 

8 MSS. yaa nidh&tavyam; we have to read yatra n. 


owner of it, so art thou, but thou shalt not suffer 
anything of it to be wasted. 

And so, Lord, the poor man accepts the abundant 
bullion, gold, money and corn, treasures and grana- 
ries of the rich man, but for himself he is quite 
indifferent to it, and requires nothing from it, not 
even so much as the price of a prastha of flour ; he 
continues living in the same hovel of straw and 
considers himself as poor as before. 

After a while, Lord, the householder perceives 
that his son is able to save, mature and mentally 
developed ; that in the consciousness of his nobility 
he feels abashed, ashamed, disgusted, when thinking 
of his former poverty. The time of his death 
approaching, he sends for the poor man, presents 
him to a gathering of his relations, and before the 
king or king's peer and in the presence of citizens 
and country-people makes the following speech : 
Hear, gentlemen ! this is my own son, by me begot- 
ten. It is now fifty years that he disappeared from 
such and such a town. He is called so and so, and 
myself am called so and so. In searching after him 
I have from that town come hither. He is my son, 
I am his father. To him I leave all my revenues 1 , 
and all my personal (or private) wealth shall he 
acknowledge (his own). 

The poor man, Lord, hearing this speech was 
astonished and amazed; he thought by himself: 
Unexpectedly have I obtained this bullion, gold, 
money and corn, treasures and granaries. 

Even so, O Lord, do we represent the sons of the 

1 The terms used in the text are, remarkably enough, 
kaj^in mamopabhogo'sti, which seems to differ from the fol- 
lowing ya&4a me km^id asti pratydtmaka^ dhanaa. 


Tathigata, and the TatMgata says to us : Ye are 
my sons, as the householder did. We were 
oppressed, O Lord, with three difficulties, viz. the 
difficulty of pain, the difficulty of conceptions 1 9 the 
difficulty of transition (or evolution) ; and in the 
worldly whirl we were disposed to what is low 2 . 
Then have we been prompted by the Lord to ponder 
on the numerous inferior laws (or conditions, things) 
that are similar to a heap of dirt. Once directed to 
them we have been practising, making efforts, and 
seeking for nothing but Nirvi?za as our fee 8 . We 
were content, O Lord, with the Nirv4a obtained, 
and thought to have gained much at the hands of 
the Tathgata because of our having applied our- 
selves to these laws, practised, and made efforts. 
But the Lord takes no notice of us, does not mix 
with us, nor tell us that this treasure of the Tathd- 
gata's knowledge shall belong to us, though the 
Lord skilfully appoints us as heirs to this treasure 
of the knowledge of the Tathdgata. And we, O Lord, 
are not (impatiently) longing to enjoy it, because we 
deem it a great gain already to receive from the 
Lord Nirvd^a as our fee. We preach to the Bodhi- 
sattvas Mah&sattvas a sublime sermon about the 
knowledge of the Tathdgata; we explain, show, 
demonstrate the knowledge of the TatMgata, O 
Lord, without longing. For the TatMgata by his 
skilfulness knows our disposition, whereas we our- 
selves do not know, nor apprehend. It is for this very 

1 Sa#zskra, which also means '(transitory) impressions (mental 
and moral).' 

2 Htn&dhimukta, 

8 DivasamudrS, implying the notion of the fee being paid at 
the end of the day. 


reason that the Lord just now tells us that we are to 
him as sons *, and that he reminds us of being heirs 
to the Tathagata. For the case stands thus: we 
are as sons 2 to the TatMgata, but low (or humble) 
of disposition 3 ; the Lord perceives the strength of 
our disposition and applies to us the denomination 
of Bodhisattvas; we are, however, charged with a 
double office in so far as in presence of Bodhisattvas 
we are called persons of low disposition and at the 
same time have to rouse them to Buddha-enlighten- 
ment. Knowing the strength of our disposition the 
Lord has thus spoken, and in this way, O Lord, do 
we say that we have obtained unexpectedly and 
without longing the jewel of omniscience, which we 
did not desire, nor seek, nor search after, nor expect, 
nor require ; and that inasmuch as we are the sons 
of the Tathigata. 

On that occasion the venerable Mahd-K^yapa 
uttered the following stanzas: 

1. We are stricken with wonder, amazement, and 
rapture at hearing a voice 4 ; it is the lovely voice, the 
leader's voice, that so unexpectedly we hear to-day. 

2. In a short moment we have acquired a great 
heap of precious jewels such as we were not think- 
ing of, nor requiring. All of us are astonished to 
hear it. 

3. It is like (the history of) a young 5 person who, 
seduced by foolish people, went away from his father 
and wandered to another country far distant 

1 And, the Lord's real sons. 2 And, the TatMgata's real sons. 

3 Rather, position. 4 Or call. 

5 B&a, the word used in the text, may mean young as well as 
ignorant and foolish. Burnouf translates b&la^anena by 'par une 
troupe d'enfants.' 


4. The father was sorry to perceive that his son 
had run away and in his sorrow roamed the country 
in all directions during no less than fifty years. 
^ 5- In search of his son he came to some great 
city, where he built a house and dwelt, blessed with 
all that can gratify the five senses. 

6. He had plenty of bullion and gold, money and 
corn, conch shells, stones (?), and coral ; elephants, 
horses, and footboys ; cows, cattle, and sheep; 

7- Interests, revenues, landed properties; male 
and female slaves and a great number of servants; 
was highly honoured by thousands of ko#s and a 
constant favourite of the king's. 

8. The citizens bow to him with joined hands, as 
well as the villagers in the rural districts; many 
merchants come to him, (and) persons charged with 
numerous affairs \ 

9. In such way the man becomes wealthy, but he 
gets old, aged, advanced in years, and he passes 
days and nights always sorrowful in mind on account 
of his son. 

10. * It is fifty years since that foolish son has run 
away. I have got plenty of wealth and the hour of 
my death draws near/ 

11. Meanwhile that foolish son is wandering from 
village to village, poor and miserable, seeking food 
and clothing, 

12. When begging, he at one time gets something, 
another time he does not He grows lean in his 
travels 2 , the unwise boy, while his body is vitiated 
with scabs and itch. 

1 Bahfthi kiryehi 

2 For parasaraeshu of the MSS., I read parisaraweshu, 


13. In course of time he in his rovings reaches 
the town where his father is living, and comes to his 
father's mansion to beg for food and raiment 

14. And the wealthy, rich man happens to sit at 
the door on a throne under a canopy expanded 
in the sky and surrounded with many hundreds of 
living beings. 

15. His trustees stand round him, some of them 
counting money and bullion, some writing bills, 
some lending money on interest 

1 6. The poor man, seeing the splendid mansion 
of the householder, thinks within himself: Where 
am I here? This man must be a king or a 

17. Let me not incur some injury and be caught 
to do forced labour. With these reflections he 
hurried away inquiring after the road to the street 
of the poor. 

1 8. The rich man on the throne is glad to see 
his own son, and despatches messengers with the 
order to fetch that poor man. 

19. The messengers immediately seize the man, 
but he is no sooner caught than he faints away (as he 
thinks) : These are certainly executioners who have 
approached me ; what do I want clothing or food ? 

20. On seeing it, the rich, sagacious man (thinks) : 
This ignorant and stupid person is of low disposi- 
tion and will have no faith in my magnificence 1 , nor 
believe that I am his father. 

21. Under those circumstances he orders persons 

a word known from classic Sanskrit and not wanting in Buddhistic 
Sanskrit, as appears from Lalita-vistara, p. 39. 

1 Or, have no liking for my magnificence ; the term used in the 
text, jraddadhSti, admitting of both interpretations. 


of low character, crooked, one-eyed, maimed, ill-clad, 
and blackish *, to go and search that man who shall 
do menial work. 

22. ' Enter my service and cleanse the putrid heap 
of dirt, replete with feces and urine ; I will give thee 
a double salary' (are the words of the message). 

23. On hearing this call the poor man comes and 
cleanses the said spot ; he takes up his abode there 
in a hovel 2 near the mansion. 

24. The rich man continually observes him 
through the windows (and thinks): There is my 
son engaged in a low occupation 3 , cleansing the 
heap of dirt. 

25. Then he descends, takes a basket, puts on 
dirty garments, and goes near the man. He chides 
him, saying : Thou dost not perform thy work 

26. I will give thee double salary and twice more 
ointment for the feet ; I will give thee food with salt, 
potherbs, and, besides, a cloak. 

27. So he chides him at the time, but afterwards 
he wisely conciliates 4 him (by saying) : Thou dost 
thy work very well, indeed; thou art my son, surely; 
there is no doubt of it 

28. Little by little he makes the man enter the 
house, and employs him in his service for fully 
twenty years, in the course of which time he suc- 
ceeds in inspiring him with confidence. 

29. At the same time he lays up in the house 

1 It is with this word, kr'sh#aka, that durvar#a above, p. 103, 
must agree. 

a Here nive$anasyopalikuwake, var. lect. ku#ike. 

8 Hfnddhimukta; one might render it, 'placed in a low or 
humble position/ but e disposition 1 would seem out of place, 

* Sa/0,rleshayate, 


gold, pearls, and crystal, draws up the sum total, 
and is always occupied in his mind with all that 

30. The ignorant man, who is living outside the 
mansion, alone in a hovel, cherishes no other ideas 
but of poverty, and thinks to himself : Mine are no 
such possessions! 

31. The rich man perceiving this of him (thinks): 
My son has arrived at the consciousness of being 
noble. He calls together a gathering of his friends 
and relatives (and says) : I will give all my property 
to this man. 

32. In the midst of the assembly where the king, 
burghers, citizens, and many merchantmen were 
present, he speaks thus : This is my son whom 
I lost a long time ago. 

33. It is now fully fifty years and twenty years 
more during which I have seen him that he dis- 
appeared from such and such a place and that in his 
search I came to this place. 

34. He is owner of all my property; to him I 
leave it all and entirely ; let him do with it what he 
wants ; I give him my whole family property. 

35. And the (poor) man is struck with surprise ; 
remembering his former poverty, his low disposi- 
tion \ and as he receives those good things of his 
father's and the family property, he thinks: Now 
am I a happy man. 

36. In like manner has the leader, who knows 
our low disposition (or position), not declared to us : 
'Ye shall become Buddhas/ but, 'Ye are, certainly, 
my disciples and sons/ 

1 Rather, position. 


37. And the Lord of the world enjoins us : Teach, 
Klsyapa, the superior path to those that strive to 
attain the highest summit of enlightenment, the 
path by following which they are to become 

38. Being thus ordered by the Sugata, we show 
the path to many Bodhisattvas of great might \ by 
means of myriads of ko/is of illustrations and proofs. 

39. And by hearing us the sons of Gina realise 
that eminent path to attain enlightenment, and in 
that case receive the prediction that they are to 
become Buddhas in this world. 

40. Such is the work we are doing strenuously 2 , 
preserving this law-treasure and revealing it to the 
sons of rina, in the manner of that man who had 
deserved the confidence of that (other man). 

41. Yet, though we diffuse the Buddha-treasure 3 
we feel ourselves to be poor ; we do not require the 
knowledge of the Crina, and yet, at the same time, 
we reveal it. 

42. We fancy an individual 4 NirvcL#a; so far, no 
further does our knowledge reach ; nor do we ever 
rejoice at hearing of the divisions of Buddha-fields. 

43. All these laws are faultless, unshaken, exempt 
from destruction and commencement ; but there is 
no law 5 in them. When we hear this, however, we 
cannot believe , 

1 Mahdbala; this term is obviously intended to be synonymous 
with mahtsattva. 

* Tdyin, which here I have ventured to render by ' strenuous/ 
on the strength of T?nim I, 3, 38, where we learn that t&yate, like 
kramate, denotes making progress, going on successfully. 

8 One MS. ghosha, call, instead of kosha, 

4 I. c. separate. 5 I. e. moral law. 

6 And, we cannot approve, agree. 

[21] I 


44. We have put aside all aspiration to superior 
Buddha-knowledge a long time ago ; never have we 
devoted ourselves to it. This is the last and decisive 
word spoken by the ina. 

45. In this bodily existence, closing with Nirvi^a, 
we have continually accustomed our thoughts to 
the void; we have been released from the evils 
of the triple world we were suffering from, and have 
accomplished the command of the ina. 

46. To whom(soever) among the sons of ina who 
in this world are on the road to superior enlighten- 
ment we revealed (the law), and whatever law we 
taught, we never had any predilection 1 for it. 

47. And the Master of the world, the Self-born 
one, takes no notice of us, waiting his time; he does 
not explain the real connection of the things 2 , as he 
is testing our disposition. 

48. Able in applying devices at the right time, 
like that rich man (he says) : ' Be constant in sub- 
duing your low disposition/ and to those who are 
subdued he gives his wealth. 

49. It is a very difficult task which the Lord of 
the world is performing, (a task) in which he dis- 
plays his skilfulness, when he tames his sons of 
low disposition and thereupon imparts to them his 

50. On a sudden have we to-day been seized with 
surprise, just as the poor man who acquired riches ; 
now for the first time have we obtained the fruit under 
the rule of Buddha, (a fruit) as excellent as faultless. 

51. As we have always observed the moral pre- 

1 Spr/hl One may also translate, 'we never were partial 
to it/ 

2 Bhfttapad&rthasandhi. 


cepts under the rule of the Knower of the world, we 
now receive the fruit of that morality which we have 
formerly practised. 

52. Now have we obtained the egregious, hal- 
lowed 1 , exalted, and perfect fruit of our having 
observed an excellent and pure spiritual life under 
the rule of the Leader. 

53. Now, O Lord, are we disciples, and we shall 
proclaim supreme enlightenment everywhere, reveal 
the word of enlightenment, by which we are formid- 
able disciples 2 . 

54. Now have we become Arhats 3 , O Lord ; and 
deserving of the worship of the world, including the 
gods, Mdras and Brahmas, in short, of all beings 4 . 

55. Who is there, even were he to exert himself 
during kotfs of JEons, able to thwart thee, who 
accomplishes in this world of mortals such difficult 
things as those, and others even more difficult 6 ? 

also, tranquil, ever free from disturbance. 

8 Srdvaka bhtshmakalpa. This may be rendered c disciples 
like Bhtshma.' Now it is well known from the MahSbh&rata that 
Bhfshma, the son of S&ntanu, was a great hero and sage, and it is 
by no means impossible that the word used in the text contains an 
allusion to that celebrated person. According to the dictionaries 
bhishma occurs as an epithet of 5Iva. 

3 We may translate it by * saints/ but properly arhat means any 
worthy, a master, an honoured personage, in short, Guru. On 
comparing the Greek fyxw, &pxc<rQai, we may infer that one of the 
oldest meanings of the word was ' a foregoer, 9 and in a restricted 
sense, a forefather, a departed one, an ancestor, so that the becoming 
an Arhat, an ancestor, and dying comes to be the same. The promi- 
nent part played by the Arhats is, in my opinion, a remnant of 
primeval Pitn-worship, the chiefest of the ancestors being Dhar- 
mar^a, Yama. 

* It is difficult not to perceive the true meaning of such passages. 

5 This passage is still more explicit, if possible, than the former. 

X 2 


56. It would be difficult to offer resistance with 
hands, feet, head, shoulder, or breast, (even were one 
to try) during as many complete JEons as there are 
grains of sand in the Ganges. 

57. One may charitably give food, soft and solid, 
clothing, drink, a place for sleeping and sitting, with 
clean coverlets ; one may build monasteries of 
sandal-wood, and after furnishing them with double 
pieces of fine white muslin 1 present them ; 

58. One may be assiduous in giving medicines 
of various kinds to the sick, in honour of the Sugata; 
one may spend alms during as many ^Eons as there 
are grains of sand in the Ganges even then one will 
not be able to offer resistance 2 , 

59. Of sublime nature, unequalled power, miracu- 
lous might, firm in the strength of patience is the 
Buddha ; a great ruler is the Crina, free from imper- 
fections. The ignorant cannot bear (or understand) 
such things as these 3 . 

60. Always returning, he preaches the law to 
those whose course (of life) is conditioned 4 , he, the 
Lord of the law, the Lord of all the world, the great 
Lord s , the Chief among the leaders of the world. 

The Buddha is here clearly Dharmar^a, Yama, the chief of Arhats, 
or Manes, the personification of death. 

1 Dftshyayugehi. 

2 Even virtuous actions cannot avert death, the tamer of men, 
the master of gods and men. 

9 Sahanti bal& na im' idrzVfcni. 

4 NimittaWrlwa. The corresponding Sanskrit form would 
be nimitta^ari^am I am not sure of the meaning of this term. 
Burnouf has ' ceux qui portent des signes favorables/ which points 
to a reading nimittadhdriwa. 

6 t jvaru sarvaloke, Mahejvaro; he, the DharmarS^a, Yama, 
&c v is also the same with twara and Mahemra, we'1-known epi- 
thets of Siva, the destroyer, time, death. 


6 1. Fully aware of the circumstances (or places) 
of (all) beings he indicates their duties, so multi- 
farious, and considering the variety of their dispo- 
sitions he inculcates the law with thousands of 

62. He, the TatMgata, who is fully aware of the 
course of all beings and individuals, preaches a 
multifarious law, while pointing to this superior 




Thereupon the Lord addressed the venerable 
Mahi-Klsyapa and the other senior great disciples, 
and said : Very well, very well, Klryapa ; you have 
done very well to proclaim the real qualities of the 
TatMgata. They are the real qualities of the 
Tathigata, Klryapa, but he has many more, innu- 
merable, incalculable, the end of which it would be 
difficult to reach, even were one to continue enume- 
rating them for immeasurable ^Eons. The Tathi- 
gata, KHryapa, is the master of the law, the king, 
lord, and master of all laws. And whatever law for 
any case has been instituted by the Tathigata, 
remains unchanged. All laws, Klryapa, have been 
aptly instituted by the Tathdgata. In his Tath- 
gata-wisdom he has instituted them in such a 
manner that all those laws finally lead to the stage 
of those who know all 1 . The TathUgata also dis- 
tinctly knows the meaning of all laws. The Tathl- 
gata, the Arhat, Sec. is possessed of the faculty of 
penetrating all laws, possessed of the highest per- 
fection of knowledge, so that he is able to decide 
all laws, able to display the knowledge of the all- 
knowing, impart the knowledge of the all-knowing, 

1 * All-knowing ' is one of the most frequent euphemistic phrases 
to denote the state of the dead. Hence all-knowing (sarva^fta) 
and knowing nothing (a^wa) virtually come to the same, and the 
commentator on BhSgavata-Pur&sa X, 78, 6 could therefore aplly 
identify a^-wa and sarva^wa. 

V. ON PLANTS. 119 

and lay down (the rules of) the knowledge of the 

It is a case, Klsyapa, similar to that of a great 
cloud big with rain, coming up in this wide universe 
over all grasses, shrubs, herbs, trees of various 
species and kind, families of plants of different 
names growing on earth, on hills, or in mountain 
caves, a cloud covering the wide universe to pour 
down its rain everywhere and at the same time. 
Then, K&yyapa, the grasses, shrubs, herbs, and wild 
trees in this universe, such as have young and 
tender stalks, twigs, leaves, and foliage, and such as 
have middle-sized stalks, twigs, leaves, and foliage, 
and such as have the same fully developed, all those 
grasses, shrubs, herbs, and wild trees, smaller and 
greater (other) trees will each, according to its 
faculty and power, suck the humid element from the 
water emitted by that great cloud, and by that 
water which, all of one essence, has been abundantly 
poured down by the cloud, they will each, according 
to its germ, acquire a regular development, growth, 
shooting up, and bigness ; and so they will produce 
blossoms and fruits, and will receive, each severally, 
their names. Rooted in one and the same soil, all 
those families of plants and germs are drenched and 
vivified by water of one essence throughout. 

In the same manner, Klyyapa, does the TathH- 
gata, the Arhat, &a appear in the world. Like 
unto a great cloud coming up, the Tathigata ap- 
pears and sends forth his call to the whole world, 
including gods, men, and demons *. And even as a 

1 Patg-anya or Indra, Jupiter pluvius, is at the same time the 
thunderer, Jupiter tonans. 


great cloud, K&yapa, extending over the whole uni- 
verse, in like manner, Ki^yapa, the TatMgata, the 
Arhat, &c., before the face of the world, including 
gods, men, and demons, lifts his voice and utters these 
words : I am the Tath&gata, O ye gods and men! the 
Arhat, the perfectly enlightened one; having reached 
the shore myself, I carry others to the shore ; being 
free, I make free; being comforted, I comfort; 
being perfectly at rest, I lead others to rest. By my 
perfect wisdom I know both this world and the next, 
such as they really are. I am all-knowing, all-seeing. 
Come to me, ye gods and men ! hear the law. I am 
he who indicates the path ; who shows the path, as 
knowing the path, being acquainted with the path. 
Then, Klryapa, many hundred thousand myriads of 
korfs of beings come to hear the law of the Tathi- 
gata ; and the Tathigata, who knows the difference 
as to the faculties and the energy of those beings, 
produces various Dharmapary&yas, tells many tales, 
amusing, agreeable, both instructive and pleasant, 
tales by means of which all beings not only become 
pleased with the law in this present life, but also 
after death will reach happy states, where they are 
to enjoy many pleasures and hear the law. By 
listening to the law they will be freed from hin- 
drances and in due course apply themselves to the 
law of the all-knowing, according to their faculty, 
power, and strength. 

Even as the great cloud, Klsyapa, after expanding 
over the whole universe, pours out the same water and 
recreates by it all grasses, shrubs, herbs, and trees; 
even as all these grasses, shrubs, herbs, and trees, 
according to their faculty, power, and strength, suck 
in the water and thereby attain the full development 


assigned to their kind; in like manner, Klsyapa, is 
the law preached by the TatMgata, the Arhat, &c., of 
one and the same essence, that is to say, the essence 
of it is deliverance, the final aim being absence of 
passion, annihilation, knowledge of the all-knowing *. 
As to that, Kasyapa, (it must be understood) that 
the beings who hear the law when it is preached 
by the Tathigata, who keep it in their memory 
and apply themselves to it, do not know, nor 
perceive, nor understand their own self. For, 
Klsyapa, the TatMgata only really knows who, 
how, and of what kind those beings are ; what 2 , how, 
and whereby they are meditating ; what, how, and 
whereby they are contemplating; what, why, and 
whereby they are attaining. No one but the Tathi- 
gata, Klsyapa, is there present, seeing all intuitively, 
and seeing the state of those beings in different 
stages, as of the lowest, highest, and mean grasses, 
shrubs, herbs, and trees. I am he, K^syapa, who, 
knowing the law which is of but one essence, viz. 
the essence of deliverance, (the law) ever peaceful, 
ending in Nirv&#a, (the law) of eternal rest, having 
but one stage and placed in voidness, (who knowing 
this) do not on a sudden reveal to all the knowledge 
of the all-knowing, since I pay regard to the disposi- 
tions of all beings. 

You are astonished, Klsyapa, that you cannot 
fathom the mystery 5 expounded by the TathcLgata. 
It is, Klryapa, because the mystery expounded by 

1 The dead man knows all, Le. has experienced all he was to 
experience in his span of life. 

2 The MSS. here and in the sequel have y a nk a instead of y a kk a, 
a trace of the original Prakrit text. 

8 Sandhibhdshita. 


the TatMgatas, the Arhats, &c. is difficult to be 

And on that occasion, the more fully to explain 
the same subject, the Lord uttered the following 
stanzas : 

1. I am the Dharmard^a, born in the world as 
the destroyer of existence *. I declare the law to 
all beings after discriminating their dispositions. 

2. Superior men of wise understanding 3 guard 
the word, guard the mystery, and do not reveal it to 
living beings. 

3. That science is difficult to be understood ; the 
simple, if hearing it on a sudden, would be per- 
plexed ; they would in their ignorance fall out of 
the way and go astray. 

4. I speak according to their reach and faculty ; 
by means of various meanings 8 I accommodate my 
view (or the theory). 

5. It is, Kisyapa 4 , as if a cloud rising above the 

1 It is known from the Ka/^a Upanishad that the DharmarS^a, 
Death, knows all about death and the next world, and is questioned 
about it by Na^iketas. 

2 Dhlrabuddhi. 

8 Or, permutable meanings, anyamanyehi arthehi. 

4 The translation is uncertain, because the MSS. most distinctly 
readK^yapo, which may be a clerical error for Klryap, a 
common form of the vocative in Prakrit. As, however, Ka,ryapo is 
a personification of gloom, the gray of twilight, the construction of 
kSsyapo megha^, as a gloomy or dark or gray cloud, is perfectly 
intelligible. As toK&yapain the vocative, this also maybe explained, 
because he is near the setting sun, the Dharmar^a delivering his 
speech on immortality at the third juncture. There he, MahS- 
Kajyapa (wrongly written K&ryapa), immediately succeeds the 
Buddha after the Nirv^a as the president of the first council of 
monks. I need not add that the prevailing opinion amongst 
scholars is different ; they see real history in the tradition about 
the first council. 


horizon shrouds all space (in darkness) and covers 
the earth. 

6. That great rain -cloud, big with water, is 
wreathed with flashes of lightning and rouses with 
its thundering call all creatures. 

7. By warding off the sunbeams, it cools the 
region; and gradually lowering so as to come in 
reach of hands, it begins pouring down its water 
all around. 

8. And so, flashing on every side, it pours out an 
abundant mass of water equally, and refreshes this 

9. And all herbs which have sprung up on the 
face of the earth, all grasses, shrubs, forest trees, 
other trees small and great; 

10. The various field fruits and whatever is 
green ; all plants on hills, in caves and thickets ; 

11. All those grasses, shrubs, and trees are vivi- 
fied by the cloud that both refreshes the thirsty 
earth and waters the herbs. 

12. Grasses and shrubs absorb the water of one 
essence which issues from the cloud according to 
their faculty and reach. 

13. And all trees, great, small, and mean, drink 
that water according to their growth and faculty, 
and grow lustily. 

14. The great plants whose trunk, stalk, bark, 
twigs, pith, and leaves are moistened by the water 
from the cloud develop their blossoms and fruits. 

15. They yield their products, each according to 
its own faculty, reach, and the particular nature of 
the germ ; still the water emitted (from the cloud) is 
of but one essence. 

1 6. In the same way, Klryapa, the Buddha 


comes into the world like a rain-cloud \ and, once 
born, he, the world's Lord, speaks and shows the 
real course of life. 

17. And the great Seer, honoured in the world, 
including the gods, speaks thus : I am the Tathi- 
gata, the highest of men, the Gina; I have appeared 
in this world like a cloud. 

1 8. I shall refresh all beings whose bodies are 
withered, who are clogged to the triple world. I 
shall bring to felicity those that are pining away 
with toils, give them pleasures and (final) rest. 

19. Hearken to me, ye hosts of gods and men; 
approach to behold me: I am the Tath&gata, the 
Lord, who has no superior, who appears in this 
world to save 2 . 

20. To thousands of ko/is of living beings I 
preach a pure and most bright law that has but one 
scope, to wit, deliverance and rest. 

21. I preach with ever the same voice, constantly 
taking enlightenment as my text. For this is equal 
for all; no partiality is in it, neither hatred nor 

22. I am inexorable 3 , bear no love nor hatred 
towards any one, and proclaim the law to all crea- 
tures without distinction, to the one as well as the 

1 In the legend, it is well known, he enters the womb of the 
Great Mother, Mah-My& (identical with PrakriB, Aditi, both 
Nature and Earth), as an elephant. The discrepancy between the 
two legends is more apparent than real, for in Indian poetry the 
clouds are called elephants. 

2 Like Apollo <rfi>n}/>. 

8 Anuniyata mahya na k&Kd asti. I suppose that anuntya 
answers to Sanskrit anuneya. 



23. Whether walking, standing, or sitting, I am 
exclusively occupied with this task of proclaiming 
the law. I never get tired of sitting on the chair 
I have ascended. 

24. I recreate the whole world like a cloud shed- 
ding its water without distinction ; I have the same 
feelings for respectable people as for the low; for 
moral persons as for the immoral ; 

25. For the depraved as for those who observe 
the rules of good conduct; for those who hold 
sectarian views and unsound tenets as for those 
whose views are sound and correct. 

26. I preach the law to the inferior (in mental 
culture) as well as to persons of superior under- 
standing and extraordinary faculties ; inaccessible to 
weariness, I spread in season the rain of the law. 

27. After hearing me, each according to his 
faculty, the several beings find their determined 
place in various situations, amongst gods, men, 
beautiful beings 1 , amongst Indras, Brahmas, or the 
monarchs, rulers of the universe. 

28. Hear, now, I am going to explain what is 
meant by those plants of different size, some of 
them being low in the world, others middle-sized 
and great. 

29. Small plants are called the men \vho walk in 
the knowledge of the law, which is free from evil 
after the attaining of Nirvdwa, who possess the six 
transcendent faculties and the triple science. 

1 Manorameshu, perhaps women are meant. A var. lect. has 
manoratheshu, i.e. amongst fancies, fanciful beings, chimeras. 
This reading would rather lead us to see in those beautiful or 
charming beings some kind of geniuses, cherubim, alias Vidya 1 - 


30. Mean plants are called the men who, dwelling 
in mountain caverns, covet the state of a Pra- 
tyekabuddha, and whose intelligence is moderately 

31. Those who aspire to become leading men 
(thinking), I will become a Buddha, a chief of gods 
and men, and who practise exertion and meditation, 
are called the highest plants. 

32. But the sons of Sugata, who sedulously prac- 
tise benevolence and a peaceful conduct, who have 
arrived at certainty about their being leading men, 
these are called trees. 

33. Those who move forward the wheel that 
never rolls back, and with manly strength stand firm 
in the exercise of miraculous power, releasing many 
ko/is of beings, those are called great trees 1 . 

34. Yet it is one and the same law which is 
preached by the Grina, like the water emitted by the 
cloud is one and the same ; different only are the 
faculties as described, just as the plants on the face 
of the earth. 

35. By this parable thou mayst understand the 
skilfulness of the Tathigata, how he preaches one 
law, the various developments whereof may be 
likened to drops of rain. 

36. I also pour out rain: the rain of the law 

1 It is not easy to make out what kind of terrestrial beings are 
severally alluded to in stanzas 29-33. I first thought that the small 
plants were simply the Brahma^rins, the mean ones the Vdna- 
prasthas or hermits, and the highest plants the Yatis ; but it seems 
more reasonable to suppose that real sons of Buddha are meant; 
cf. the stanzas 39-41. The Buddhists alluded to in stanza 32 are 
simple monks, whereas those of the following stanza are preachers, 
able exponents of the law, and clever propagandists of the Bauddha 

V. ON PLANTS. 127 

by which this whole world is refreshed ; and each 
according to his faculty takes to heart this well- 
spoken law 1 that is one in its essence. 

37. Even as all grasses and shrubs, as well as 
plants of middle size, trees and great trees at the 
time of rain look bright in all quarters ; 

38. So it is the very nature of the law to promote 
the everlasting weal of the world ; by the law the 
whole world is recreated, and as the plants (when 
refreshed) expand their blossoms, the world does 
the same when refreshed. 

39. The plants that in their growth remain 
middle-sized, are Arhats (saints) stopping when 
they have overcome frailties, (and) the Pratyeka- 
buddhas who, living in woody thickets 2 , accomplish 
this well-spoken law. 

40. (But) the many Bodhisattvas who, thoughtful 
and wise, go their way all over the triple world, 
striving after supreme enlightenment, they continue 
increasing in growth like trees. 

41. Those who, endowed with magical powers 
and being adepts in the four degrees of medita- 
tion, feel delight at hearing of complete voidness 8 
and emit thousands of rays, they are called the 
great trees on earth. 

42. So then, Kisyapa, is the preaching of the law, 
like the water poured out by the cloud everywhere 
alike; by which plants and men(?) thrive, endless 
(and eternal) blossoms (are produced) 4 . 

1 The term used might be rendered by 'gospel/ 

2 PratyekabuddhS. vanasha#</a^ri#o, &c. Burnouf must 
have had quite a different reading. 

8 Or unreality, jfinyatS. 

4 Yeht (the Sanskrit would require the dual) vivarddhanti 


43. I reveal the law which has its cause in itself; 
at due time I show Buddha-enlightenment; this is 
my supreme skilfulness and that of all leaders of 
the world. 

44. What I here say is true in the highest sense 
of the word; all my disciples attain Nirv^a; by 
following the sublime path of enlightenment all my 
disciples shall become Buddhas. 

And further, K&yapa, the Tathagata, in his edu- 
cating 1 creatures, is equal (i.e. impartial) and not 
unequal (i. e. partial). As the light of the sun and 
moon, Klsyapa, shines upon all the world, upon the 
virtuous and the wicked, upon high and low, upon 
the fragrant and the ill-smelling; as their beams 
are sent down upon everything equally, without 
inequality (partiality); so, too, KcLsyapa, the intel- 
lectual light of the knowledge of the omniscient, the 
Tath&gatas, the Arhats, &c., the preaching of the 
true law proceeds equally in respect to all beings 
in the five states of existence, to all who according to 
their particular disposition are devoted to the great 
vehicle, or to the vehicle of the Pratyekabuddhas, or 
to the vehicle of the disciples. Nor is there any defi- 
ciency or excess in the brightness of the Tathigata- 
knowledge 2 up to one's becoming fully acquainted 
with the law. There are not three vehicles, Kisyapa; 
there are but beings who act differently; therefore 
it is declared that there are three vehicles. 

When the Lord had thus spoken, the venerable 

(Sansk. nte) mahoshadhSyo manushya(Sansk.manushyO?) 
pushpin! anantakdni. 

1 And removing, 

2 Tathagata^Hnaprabhay^ ; var. lect. Tath^gatapra- 


Mah-Kl?yapa said to him : Lord, if there are not 
three vehicles, for what reason then is the designa- 
tion of disciples (.Sr&vakas), Buddhas, and Bodhisat- 
tvas kept up in the present times ? 

On this speech the Lord answered the venerable 
Mahi-Klsyapa as follows : It is, K&yyapa, as if 
a potter made different vessels out of the same 
clay. Some of those pots are to contain sugar, 
others ghee, others curds and milk; others, of in- 
ferior quality, are vessels of impurity. There is no 
diversity in the clay used ; no, the diversity of the 
pots is only due to the substances which are put 
into each of them. In like manner, Klryapa, is there 
but one vehicle, viz. the Buddha-vehicle ; there is no 
second vehicle, no third. 

The Lord having thus spoken, the venerable 
Mahi-Klsyapa said : Lord, if the beings are of 
different disposition, will there be for those who 
have left the triple world one Nirvana, or two, or 
three ? The Lord replied : Nirvi^a, KA^yapa, is a 
consequence of understanding that all laws (things) 
are equal. Hence there is but one NirvAwa, not two, 
not three 1 . Therefore, Klsyapa, I will tell thee a 
parable, for men of good understanding will generally 
readily enough catch the meaning of what is taught 
under the shape of a parable. 

It is a case, Klryapa, similar to that of a certain 
blind-born man, who says : There are no handsome 
or ugly shapes ; there are no men able to see hand- 
some or ugly shapes ; there exists no sun nor moon ; 
there are no asterisms nor planets; there are no 

1 Cf. Ecclesiastes ix. 2 : l All things come alike to all : there 
is one event to the righteous, and to the wicked ; to the good and 
to the clean, and to the unclean/ 

[31] K 


men able to see planets. But other persons say 
to the blind-born : There are handsome and ugly 
shapes; there are men able to see handsome and 
ugly shapes; there is a sun and moon; there 
are asterisms and planets; there are men able to 
see planets. But the blind-born does not believe 
them, nor accept what they say. Now there is a 
physician who knows all diseases. He sees that 
blind-born man and makes to himself this reflection : 
The disease of this man originates in his sinful 
actions in former times. All diseases possible to 
arise are fourfold : rheumatical, cholerical, phlegma- 
tical, and caused by a complication of the (corrupted) 
humours. The physician, after thinking again and 
again on a means to cure the disease, makes to him- 
self this reflection: Surely, with the drugs in common 
use it is impossible to cure this disease, but there 
are in the Himalaya, the king of mountains, four 
herbs, to wit : first, one called Possessed-of-all-sorts- 
of-colours-and-flavours ; second, Delivering-from-all- 
diseases ; third, Delivering-from-all-poisons ; fourth, 
Procuring-happiness-to-those-standing-in-the- right- 
place. As the physician feels compassion for the 
blind-born man he contrives some device to get to 
the Himalaya, the king of mountains. There he 
goes up and down and across to search. In doing 
so he finds the four herbs. One he gives after 
chewing it with the teeth ; another after pounding ; 
another after having it mixed with another drug and 
boiled; another after having it mixed with a raw 
drug; another after piercing with a lancet some- 
where a vein 1 ; another after singeing it in fire; 

1 SarirastMna;?* viddhvd, var. lect sarasth^na^ v., with a 
marginal correction sarirasthdna^ v. I consider the original 
reading to have been 


another after combining it with various other sub- 
stances so as to enter in a compound potion, food, 
&c. Owing to these means being applied the blind- 
born recovers his eyesight, and in consequence of 
that recovery he sees outwardly and inwardly 1 , far 
and near, the shine of sun and moon, the asterisms, 
planets, and all phenomena. Then he says: O how 
foolish was I that I did not believe what they told 
me, nor accepted what they affirmed. Now I see 
all; I am delivered from my blindness and have 
recovered my eyesight ; there is none in the world 
who could surpass me. And at the same moment 
Seers of the five transcendent faculties 2 , strong in the 
divine sight and hearing, in the knowledge of others 1 
minds, in the memory of former abodes, in magical 
science and intuition, speak to the man thus : Good 
man, thou hast just recovered thine eyesight, nothing 
more, and dost not know yet anything. Whence 
comes this conceitedness to thee ? Thou hast no 
wisdom, nor art thou a clever man. Further they 
say to him : Good man, when sitting in the interior 
of thy room, thou canst not see nor distinguish forms 

1 Bahir adhyatmam, (the things) external and in relation to 
one's own self. 

2 I. e. simply the five senses. The term Abhi^/ld can hardly 
originally have meant * transcendent faculty or knowledge,' because 
it is a derivation from a compound abhi^dn&ti. Neither in 
Sanskrit nor in PrSkrit can abhi^raa* denote anything else but 
perception, acknowledgment, recognition. Yet it cannot be denied 
that those who used it intended by it to convey the meaning of 
something grand and imposing, especially the senses of a spiritual 
man, as distinguished from the profanum vulgus. As to the 
Seers, 2?zshis, here mentioned, I think that they are the senses per- 
sonified, otherwise called devas, gods. Deva, to denote an organ 
of sense, occurs frequently, e. g. Muwdaka Upanishad III, i, 8. 

K 2 


outside, nor discern which beings are animated with 
kind feelings and which with hostile feelings ; thou 
canst not distinguish nor hear at the distance of five 
yo,f anas the voice of a man or the sound of a drum, 
conch trumpet, and the like ; thou canst not even 
walk as far as a kos without lifting up thy feet ; 
thou hast been produced and developed in thy 
mother's womb without remembering the fact ; how 
then wouldst thou be clever, and how canst thou 
say : I see all ? Good man, thou takest 1 darkness 
for light, and takest light for darkness. 

Whereupon the Seers are asked by the man : By 
what means and by what good work shall I acquire 
such wisdom and with your favour acquire those 
good qualities (or virtues) ? And the Seers say to 
that man : If that be thy wish, go and live in the 
wilderness or take thine abode in mountain caves, to 
meditate on the law and cast off evil passions. So 
shalt thou become endowed with the virtues of an 
ascetic 2 and acquire the transcendent faculties. The 
man catches their meaning and becomes an ascetic. 
Living in the wilderness, the mind intent upon one 
sole object, he shakes off worldly desires, and acquires 
the five transcendent faculties. After that acqui- 
sition he reflects thus : Formerly I did not do the 
right thing; hence no good accrued to me 8 . Now, 

j var. lect. sawz^intshe. 

* Dhutagu#a, Pli the same, besides dhfttagua. In TUi 
the dhutangas or dhft denote thirteen ascetic practices; see 
Childers, Pli Diet. s. v. The Dhutaguas are, accoiding to the 
same author's statement, other names for the Dhutstngas, but I 
venture to think that they are the twenty-eight virtues of a Dim* 
tSnga, as enumerated in Milinda Pawho (ed. Tienckner), p. 331. 

8 Pfirvam anyat karma kmavSn, tena me na ka^id guwo 


on seeing this he comes to the conclusion: Yon 
beings, according to the good works they have done 
in former states, have feeble aversions and strong 
attachments; (or) feeble attachments and strong 
aversions ; some have little wisdom, others are 
clever; some have soundly developed views, others 
have unsound views. To all of them the Tathgata 
skilfully shows three vehicles l . 

The Seers in the parable, those possessing the five 
transcendent faculties and clear-sight, are the Bodhi- 
sattvas 2 who produce enlightened thought, and by 
the acquirement of acquiescence in the eternal law 3 
awake us to supreme, perfect enlightenment. 

The great physician in the parable is the Tathi- 
gata. To the blind-born may be likened the creatures 

1 With this we may compare the term trivartman (of three 
paths), applied to the individual or living being, Svet&vatara Upa- 
nishad V, 7. Sankara explains it by devay&n&di; in the more 
ancient and natural meaning, the word may have been applied to 
the three divisions of time. Cf. the same Upanishad I, 4, where 
the brahma^akra, the brahma-wheel, is said to be trivrzt, 

2 In the Yoga called buddhisattva, the reasoning faculty. 
The Bodhisattvas are the five Dhydni-Bodhisattvas Samantabhadra, 
&c., who do no more differ from the five Dhydni-Buddhas Vai- 
rokana, &c., than the balas do from the indriyas. C Burnouf, 
Introd. p. 1 1 8. 

3 Anutpattikadharmakshdntim pratilabhya, var.lect.anut- 
pattikiflz kshintlm p. Anutpattika, being a Bahuvrihi, neces- 
sarily means 'having no origin, no beginning/ alias anddi. The 
eternal law is that of rise and decay, and in so far the purport of 
the phrase seems not materially to differ from the translation in 
Goldstucker's Diet., ' enduring conditions which have not yet taken 
place/ The word ' acquiescence ' in my version gives but one side 
of the meaning, for it also denotes * undergoing/ In reality the 
sanctimonious phrase comes to this : every thinking being suffers 
the eternal law, i. e, he must die. 


blind with infatuation. Attachment, aversion, and 
infatuation are likened to rheum, bile, and phlegm. 
The sixty-two false theories also must be looked 
upon as such (i. e, as doshas, ' humours and cor- 
rupted humours of the body/ 'faults and corrup- 
tions'). The four herbs are like vanity (or voidness), 
causelessness (or purposelessness), unfixedness, and 
reaching Nirvd^a. Just as by using different drugs 
different diseases are healed, so by developing the 
idea of vanity (or voidness), purposelessness, unfixed- 
ness, (which are) the principles of emancipation, is 
ignorance suppressed ; the suppression of ignorance 
is succeeded by the suppression of conceptions (or 
fancies) ; and so forth, up to the suppression of the 
whole huge mass of evils. And thus one's mind will 
dwell no more on good nor on evil. 

To the man who recovers his eyesight is likened 
the votary of the vehicle of the disciples and of Pra- 
tyekabuddhas. He rends the ties of evil passion in 
the whirl of the world ; freed from those ties he is 
released from the triple world with its six states of 
existence. Therefore the votary of the vehicle of the 
disciples may think and speak thus : There are no 
more laws to be penetrated; I have reached Nir- 
v&^a. Then the Tathagata preaches to him : How 
can he who has not penetrated all laws have reached 
Nirv&sa ? The Lord rouses him to enlightenment, 
and the disciple, when the consciousness of en- 
lightenment has been awakened in him, no longer 
stays in the mundane whirl, but at the same time 
has not yet reached Nirv&sa 1 . As he has arrived at 

1 Lc. he is not yet actually dead, but dead to the world; he is 
a (?ivan-mukta. 


true insight, he looks upon this triple world in every 
direction as void, resembling the produce of magic, 
similar to a dream, a mirage, an echo. He sees that 
all laws (and phenomena) are unborn and unde- 
stroyed, not bound and not loose, not dark and not 
bright. He who views the profound laws in such a 
light, sees, as if he were not seeing, the whole triple 
world full of beings of contrary and omnifarious 
fancies and dispositions. 

And on that occasion, in order to more amply 
explain the same subject, the Lord uttered the fol- 
lowing stanzas : 

45. As the rays of the sun and moon descend 
alike on all men, good and bad, without deficiency 
(in one case) or surplus (in the other); 

46. So the wisdom of the Tathagata shines like 
the sun and moon 1 , leading all beings without 

47. As the potter, making clay vessels, produces 
from the same clay pots for sugar, milk, ghee, or 
water ; 

48. Some for impurities, others for curdled milk, 
the clay used by the artificer 2 for the vessels being 
of but one sort ; 

49. As a vessel is made to receive all its dis- 
tinguishing qualities according to the quality of the 
substance laid into it 3 , so the TatMgatas, on account 
of the diversity of taste, 

1 TatMgatasya pra^a fa bhfisad' iditya&mdravat. Bhsad' 
stands for bh^sadi, SansL bhdsate. Avar. lect. has TatMgatasya 
pra^fidbha sam hy 1, i.e. 'the lustre of the TatMgata's wisdom is 
equal (to all), like the sun and moon.' 

2 BhSrgava, to which we may assign the meaning of <a skilful 
workman, artificer/ because it is one of the synonyms of tvash/r/. 

8 Yfidnk prakshipyate dravyam bh%anaw tena labhyate (read, 


the herbOf-all-colours-flavours-and-cases 1 , and others. 
These he intends to apply. 

57. He applies them in this manner: one he 
gives to the blind man after chewing it, another 
after pounding, again another by introducing it with 
the point of a needle into the man's body. 

58. The man having got his eyesight, sees the 
sun, moon, planets, and stars, and arrives at the 
conclusion that it was from sheer ignorance that he 
spoke thus as he had formerly done. 

59. In the same way do people of great ignorance, 
blind from their birth, move in the turmoil of the 
world, because they do not know the wheel of 
causes and effects, the path of toils 2 . 

60. In the world so blinded by ignorance appears 
the highest of those who know all, the Tathigata, 
the great physician, of compassionate nature. 

61. As an able teacher he shows the true law ; he 
reveals supreme Buddha-enlightenment to him who 
is most advanced. 

62. To those of middling wisdom the Leader 
preaches a middling enlightenment; again another 
enlightenment he recommends to him who is afraid 
of the mundane whirl. 

63. The disciple who by his discrimination has 
escaped from the triple world thinks he has reached 
pure, blest Nirvtoa 3 , but it is only by knowing all 

1 The reading is doubtful : sarvavanzarasastMn&n nagil labhata 
oshadhiflz, evamdfr fotasro 'tha, &c.; var. lect. sMnnuga>2 L, &c. 
This may mean, fit for all colours, flavours, and cases. 

2 Prati(t)yotpadaakrasya-~ du^khavartm&iaA 

8 In other words, he has indeed attained a qualified (sopadhi- 
sesha, Pali upSdisesa or sa-upSduesha) Niivfcw, or as non- 
Buddhists say, 


laws (and the universal laws) that the immortal 1 
Nirvana is reached. 

64. In that case it is as if the great Seers, moved 
by compassion, said to him : Thou art mistaken ; do 
not be proud of thy knowledge. 

65. When thou art in the interior of thy room, 
thou canst not perceive what is going on without 
fool as thou art. 

66.^ Thou who, when staying within, dost not 
perceive even now what people outside are doing 
or not doing, how wouldst thou be wise, fool as 
thou art? 

67. Thou art not able to hear a sound at a dis- 
tance of but five yo^-anas, far less at a greater 

68. Thou canst not discern who are malevolent or 
benevolent towards thee. Whence then comes that 
pride to thee? 

69. If thou hast to walk so far as a kos, thou 
canst not go without a beaten track 2 ; and what hap- 
pened to thee when in thy mother's womb thou 
hast immediately forgotten, 

70. In this world he is called all-knowing who 
possesses the five transcendent faculties, but when 
thou who knowest nothing pretendest to be all- 
knowing, it is an effect of infatuation. 

71. If thou art desirous of omniscience, direct thy 
attention to transcendent wisdom ; then betake thy- 

1 I. e. eternal, because in this system the dead is dead for ever, 
This immortal, everlasting Nirvdwa is, of course, the anupadhi- 
.yesha, Pli anup^disesa N. 

2 Or, perhaps, without a guide, padavin tu vinS, 'gati^. This 
does not agree with the prose version, but it is not rare to meet 
with such discrepancies. 


self to the wilderness and meditate on the pure law ; 
by it thou shalt acquire the transcendent faculties. 

72. The man catches the meaning, goes to the 
wilderness, meditates with the greatest attention, 
and, as he is endowed with good qualities, ere long 
acquires the five transcendent faculties. 

73. Similarly all disciples fancy having reached 
Nirv4#a, but the Gina instructs them (by saying): 
This is a (temporary) repose, no final rest. 

74. It is an artifice of the Buddhas to enunciate 
this dogma 1 . There is no (real) Nirvd^a without 
all-knowingness ; try to reach this. 

75. The boundless knowledge of the three paths 
(of time), the six utmost perfections (Pdramit4s), 
voidness, the absence of purpose (or object), the 
absence of finiteness 2 ; 

76. The idea of enlightenment and the other laws 
leading to Nirvi^a, both such as are mixed with 
imperfection and such as are exempt from it, such 
as are tranquil and comparable to ethereal space ; 

77. The four Brahma vihdras 3 and the four San- 
grahas 4 , as well as the laws sanctioned by eminent 
sages for the education of creatures ; 

78. (He who knows these things) and that all 
phenomena have the nature of illusion and dreams, 

1 Of temporary repose, it would seem. 

2 Or, absence of fixed purpose, prawidhinavivar^itam, 

8 Otherwise termed AppamawM in Pdli ; they are identical with 
the four bhvans, or exercises to develop benevolence, com- 
passion, cheerful sympathy, and equanimity, well known from the 
Yoga ; see Yoga^stra I, 33. 

* Commonly called sangrahavastuni,P&li sangahavatthftni, 
articles of sociability, viz. liberality, affability, promoting another's 
interest, and pursuit of a common aim; see e.g. Lalita-vistara, 
p. 39, 1. 1. 


that they are pithless as the stem of the plantain 1 , 
and similar to an echo; 

79. And who knows that the triple world through- 
out is of that nature, not fast and not loose, he 
knows rest. 

80. He who considers all laws 2 to be alike, void, 
devoid of particularity and individuality, not derived 
from an intelligent cause; nay, who discerns that 
nothingness is law 3 ; 

81. Such a one has great wisdom and sees the 
whole of the law entirely. There are no three 
vehicles by any means ; there is but one vehicle in 
this world. 

82. All laws (or the laws of all) are alike, equal, 
for all, and ever alike. Knowing this, one under- 
stands immortal, blest NirvS^a. 

1 Cf. the words of the funeral song in Y%avalkya III, 8: 
6 Foolish is he who would seek pithfulness in humanity, which is 
pithless as the plantain's stem and resembling a water bubble.' 

2 Or all things ; or the laws of all things. 

8 Sarvadharm^n sam&(7&) ^ilnyd(n) iumdnkara&tmaka'fl& (r. 
kn), na ait&i (I think ^aitt^n) prekshate npi ki/rz&d dhanntai 
(sic) vipasyate. The other MS. has sarvadharma*0z (r. c man) 
sam(n) junyan nirnHndkaradtmik^n, na fat&m prekshate napi 
ki#zid dharmaw vinasyati. The great difficulty lies in the second 
half verse, ^hich is evidently corrupt and wrongly Sanskritised, so 
that the correctness of the translation in this respect is pro- 




After pronouncing these stanzas the Lord addressed 
the complete assembly of monks: I announce to 
you, monks, I make known to you that the monk 
K&ryapa, my disciple, here present, shall do homage 
to thirty thousand koAs of Buddhas ; shall respect, 
honour, and worship them; and shall keep the 
true law of those Lords and Buddhas. In his last 
bodily existence 1 in the world Avabhdsa (i. e. lustre), 
in the age (^Eon) Mahdvyftha (Le. great division) 
he shall be a Tathigata, an Arhat, &c. &c., by the 
name of Ra^miprabhisa (i.e. beaming with rays). 
His lifetime shall last twelve intermediate kalpas, 
and his true law twenty intermediate kalpas; the 
counterfeit of his true law shall last as many inter- 
mediate kalpas. His Buddha-field will be pure, 
clean, devoid of stones, grit, gravel; of pits and 
precipices; devoid of gutters and dirty pools 2 ; 
even, pretty, beautiful, and pleasant to see ; consist- 
ing of lapis lazuli, adorned with jewel-trees, and 
looking like a checker-board with eight compart- 
ments set off with gold threads. It will be strewed 

1 Pa,rima samuraya, which also means western rise, 

2 Apagatasyandanikagfttho^illa,var.lect.tho<figalla. My 
rendering of the last part of the compound is conjectural. 


with flowers, and many hundred thousand Bodhi- 
sattvas are to appear in it. As to disciples, there 
will be innumerable hundred thousands of myriads 
of ko/is of them. Neither Mira the evil one, nor 
his host will be discoverable in it, though M&ra 
and his followers shall afterwards be there; for 
they will apply themselves to receive the true 
law under the command of that very Lord Ranni- 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the fol- 
lowing stanzas : 

1. With my Buddha-eye, monks, I see that the 
senior K&yapa here shall become a Buddha at a 
future epoch, in an incalculable ^Eon, after he shall 
have paid homage to the most high of men. 

2. This Klsyapa shall see fully thirty thousand 
koris of Ginas, under whom he shall lead a spiritual 
life for the sake of Buddha-knowledge. 

3. After having paid homage to those highest of 
men and acquired that supreme knowledge, he shall 
in his last bodily existence be a Lord of the world, a 
matchless, great Seer. 

4. And his field will be magnificent, excellent, 
pure, goodly, beautiful, pretty, nice, ever delightful, 
and set off with gold threads. 

5. That field, monks, (appearing like) a board 
divided into eight compartments, will have several 
jewel-trees, one in each compartment, from which 
issues a delicious odour. 

6. It will be adorned with plenty of flowers, and 
embellished with variegated blossoms ; in it are no 
pits nor precipices ; it is even, goodly, beautiful 

7. There will be found hundreds of ko/is of Bo- 
dhisattvas, subdued of mind and of great magical 


power, mighty keepers 1 of Sfttrintas of great ex- 

8. As to disciples, faultless, princes of the law, 
standing in their last period of life, their number 
can never be known, even if one should go on 
counting for JEons, and that with the aid of divine 

9. He himself shall stay twelve intermediate 
kalpas, and "his true law twenty complete -^Eons ; 
the counterfeit is to continue as many JEons, in the 
domain of Rasmiprabh&sa. 

Thereupon the venerable senior Mahi-Maudga- 
lyiyana, the venerable Subhftti, and the venerable 
Mahi-Kdtyiyana, their bodies trembling, gazed up 
to the Lord with unblenching eyes, and at the same 
moment severally uttered, in mental concert, the 
following stanzas: 

10. O hallowed one (Arhat), great hero, .S&kya- 
lion, most high of men ! out of compassion to us 
speak the Buddha-word. 

11. The highest of men, the ina, he who knows 
the fatal term, will, as it were, sprinkle us with nectar 
by predicting our destiny also. 

12. (It is as if) a certain man, in time of famine, 
comes and gets good food, but to whom, when the 
food is already in his hands, they say that he should 
wait 2 . 

13. Similarly it was with us, who after minding 

1 Vaipulyasfttr&ntadharaatayinam. HerethewoidtSyin 
would seem to be used in the sense of ' able/ agreeing with the 
meaning of tSyana in P&mm I, 3, 38. 

3 Durbhiksha dgata/5 kajin naro labdhvS subho^ana/w, e pratfksha' 
bhuya uyeta hastapiiptasmi bho^ane, The Pi&krit underlying this 
literary dialect is easily reconstrued. 


the lower vehicle, at the calamitous conjuncture of a 
bad time 1 , were longing for Buddha-knowledge. 

14. But the perfectly-enlightened great Seer has 
not yet favoured us with a prediction (of our des- 
tiny), as if he would say: Do not eat the food 
that has been put into your hand. 

15. Quite so, O hero, we were longing as we 
heard the exalted voice (and thought): Then shall 
we be at rest 2 , when we shall have received a 

1 6. Utter a prediction, O great hero, so benevo- 
lent and merciful ! let there be an end of our feeling 
of poverty! 

And the Lord, who in his mind apprehended the 
thoughts arising in the minds of those great senior 
disciples, again addressed the complete assembly of 
monks: This great disciple of mine, monks, the 
senior Subhftti, shall likewise pay homage to thirty 
hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of Buddhas ; 
shall show them respect, honour, reverence, venera- 
tion, and worship. Under them shall he lead a 
spiritual life and achieve enlightenment. After the 
performance of such duties shall he, in his last 
bodily existence, become a Tathgata in the world, 
an Arhat, &c. &c., by the name of .Skriketu s . 

His Buddha-field will be called Ratnasambhava 
and his epoch Ratnaprabh&sa 4 . And that Buddha- 
field will be even, beautiful, crystalline, variegated 
with jewel-trees, devoid of pits and precipices, devoid 

1 Dushkilabhagnasandhau. 

2 And felicitous, blest, beatified (nirvr/ta). 

8 I. e. moon-signal, or having the moon for ensign. 
4 Var. lect. Ratndvabh&sa. 

[21] L 


of sewers 1 , nice, covered with flowers. And there 
will men have their abode in palaces (or towers) 
given them for their use. In it will be many disci- 
ples, innumerable, so that it would be impossible to 
terminate the calculation. Many hundred thousand 
myriads of ko/is of Bodhisattvas also will be there. 
The lifetime of that Lord is to last twelve inter- 
mediate kalpas ; his true law is to continue twenty 
intermediate kalpas, and its counterfeit as many. 
That Lord will, while standing poised in the firma- 
ment 2 , preach the law to the monks, and educate 
many thousands of Bodhisattvas and disciples. 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the fol- 
lowing stanzas : 

17. I have something to announce, monks, some- 
thing to make known; listen then to me: The 
senior Subhfiti, my disciple, shall in days to come 
be a Buddha. 

1 8. After having seen of most mighty Buddhas 
thirty myriads of ko/is in full, he shall enter upon 
the straight 8 course to obtain this knowledge. 

19. In his last bodily existence shall the hero, 
possessed of the thirty-two distinctive signs, become 
a great Seer, similar to a column of gold, beneficial 
and bounteous to the world. 

20. The field where that friend of the world* 
shall save myriads of koris of living beings will be 
most beautiful, pretty, and delightful to people at 

1 Doubtful, the MSS. having gftthorfigilla and gutho<ftgalla. 

2 Properly, standing as a great meteor, mahavaihSyasa^ 
sthitvS; vaihSyasais exactly the Greek pm&pos. 

8 Anuloma, direct, straight; the reverse of vakragati, the 
retrograde motion of planets, &c. 
* Lokabandhu. 


21. In it will be many Bodhisattvas to turn the 
wheel that never rolls back (or never deviates); en- 
dowed with keen faculties they will, under that ina, 
be the ornaments of the Buddha-field. 

22. His disciples are so numerous as to pass cal- 
culation and measure; gifted with the six trans- 
cendent faculties, the triple science and magic 
power; firm in the eight emancipations. 

23. His magic power, while he reveals supreme 
enlightenment, is inconceivable. Gods and men, as 
numerous as the sands of the Ganges, will always 
reverentially salute him with joined hands. 

24. He shall stay twelve intermediate kalpas; 
the true law of that most high of men is to last 
twenty intermediate kalpas and the counterfeit of it 
as many. 

Again the Lord addressed the complete assembly 
of monks : I announce to you, monks, I make known 
that the senior Mahi-K&tyiyana here present, my 
disciple, shall pay homage to eight thousand ko/is 
of Buddhas; shall show them respect, honour, re- 
verence, veneration, and worship ; at the expiration 
of those Tath&gatas he shall build Stftpas, a thou- 
sand yo^anas in height, fifty yq^ianas in circumference, 
and consisting of seven precious substances, to wit, 
gold, silver, lapis lazuli, crystal, red pearl 1 , emerald, 
and, seventhly, coral 2 . Those Stftpas he shall worship 

1 Lohitamukti, according to Buddhist authorities, red pearl. 
The word is of so frequent occurrence that there can be no 
question of muktes in the genitive case being a clerical error for 
mukt^ya's. If the word ever had any existence out of Buddhist 
writings, mukti must have been a variation of mukti. 

2 Musstragalva; whether this precious stone really be coral, 
as Buddhist dictionaries assert, is rather doubtful. As the enu- 
merated substances represent the seven colours originally the 

L 2 


with flowers, incense, perfumed wreaths, ointments, 
powder, robes, umbrellas, banners, flags, triumphal 
streamers. Afterwards he shall again pay a similar 
homage to twenty koris of Buddhas; show them 
respect, honour, reverence, veneration, and worship. 
Then in his last bodily existence \ his last corporeal 
appearance, he shall be a Tath&gata in the world, an 
Arhat, &c. &c., named 6&mbftnada-prabhisa (i.e. gold- 
shine), endowed with science and conduct, &c. His 
Buddha-field will be thoroughly pure, even, nice, 
pretty, beautiful, crystalline, variegated with jewel- 
trees, interlaced with gold threads, strewed with 
flowers, free from beings of the brute creation, hell, 
and the host of demons, replete with numerous 
men and gods, adorned with many hundred thou- 
sand disciples and many hundred thousand Bodhi- 
sattvas. The measure of his lifetime shall be twelve 
intermediate kalpas ; his true law shall continue 
twenty intermediate kalpas and its counterfeit as 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the fol- 
lowing stanzas : 

25. Listen all to me, ye monks, since I am going 
to utter an infallible word 2 . K&ty&yana here, the 
senior, my disciple, shall render worship to the 

26. He shall show veneration of various kinds 
and in many ways to the Leaders, after whose 

rainbow colours, I think the interpretation either of lohitamukti 
01 of mus^ragalva must be wrong, perhaps both are false. 

1 Properly, western elevation or rise. 

2 The Buddha may in sober truth say so, because the astronomer 
can predict future risings and settings. He here shows himself to 
be Brahma, in his function of the first of astionomers, to whom 
the ancient Brahma-SiddMnta is referred. 


expiration he shall build Sttipas, worshipping them 
with flowers and perfumes. 

27. In his last bodily existence he shall be a 
Gina, in a thoroughly pure field, and after acquiring 
full knowledge he shall preach to a thousand ko/is 
of living beings. 

28. He shall be a mighty Buddha and illuminator, 
highly honoured in this world, including the gods, 
under the name of G&mbunada-prabhfisa *, and save 
ko/is of gods and men. 

29. Many Bodhisattvas as well as disciples, be- 
yond measure and calculation, will in that field adorn 
the reign of that Buddha, all of them freed from 
existence and exempt from existence a . 

Again the Lord addressed the complete assembly 
of monks : I announce to you, monks, I make known, 
that the senior Mah4-Maudgalyyana here present, 
my disciple, shall propitiate twenty-eight thousand 
Buddhas 8 and pay those Lords homage of various 
kinds; he shall show them respect, &c., and after 
their expiration build Sttipas consisting of seven 
precious substances, to wit, gold, silver, lapis lazuli, 
crystal, red pearl, emerald, and, seventhly, coral; 
(Stftpas) a thousand yq^anas in height and five 
hundred yq^anas in circumference, which Stftpas he 
shall worship in different ways, with flowers, incense, 
perfumed wreaths, ointments, powder, robes, um- 
brellas, banners, flags, and triumphal streamers. 

1 One MS. has a second-hand reading, dibh&sa. 

8 Vibhava; Bumouf must have read vibhaya, 'exempts de 

8 The number of twenty-eight the cyphers not being taken into 
account probably indicates the number of days (Buddhas) during 
which the planet is standing in some stage of its course. 


Aftenvards he shall again pay a similar worship to 
twenty 1 hundred thousand koris of Buddhas; he 
shall show respect, &c., and in his last bodily exist- 
ence become in the world a Tath&gata, &c., named 
Tamdlapatra^andanagandha 2 , endowed with science 
and conduct, &c. The field of that Buddha will be 
called Manobhirdma; his period Ratipratiptiraa. 
And that Buddha-field will be even, nice, pretty, 
beautiful, crystalline, variegated with jewel-trees, 
strewn with detached flowers, replete with gods and 
men, frequented by hundred thousands of Seers, that 
is to say, disciples and Bodhisattvas. The measure 
of his lifetime shall be twenty-four intermediate 
kalpas; his true law is to last forty intermediate 
kalpas and its counterfeit as many. 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the fol- 
lowing stanzas : 

30. The scion of the Mudgala-race, my disciple 
here, after leaving 3 human existence shall see twenty 
thousand mighty 4 Ginas and eight (thousand) more 
of these faultless beings* 

31. Under them he shall follow a course of duty, 
trying to reach Buddha-knowledge; he shall pay 
homage in various ways to those Leaders and to the 
most high of men. 

32. After keeping their true law, of wide reach 
and sublime, for thousands of ko/is of ^Eons, he shall 
at the expiration of those Sugatas worship their 

1 As many days in another stage. 

2 I. e. having the odour (or resemblance) of Xanthochymus and 
sandal. From the dark colour I infer that Saturn is meant, for 
this planet is represented as being black. 

8 ffahitva. * Tdyin. 


33. In honour of those most high inas, those 
mighty beings l so beneficial to the world, he shall 
erect Stftpas consisting of precious substances, and 
decorated with triumphal streamers, worshipping 
them with flowers, perfumes, and the sounds of 

34. At the period of his last bodily existence he 
shall, in a nice and beautiful field, be a Buddha 
bounteous and compassionate to the world, under 
the name of Tamiiapatra^andanagandha. 

35. The measure of that Sugata's life shall be 
fully twenty-four intermediate kalpas, during which 
he shall be assiduous in declaring the Buddha-rule 
to men and gods. 

36. That Gina shall have many thousands of 
kotis of disciples, innumerable as the sands of the 
Ganges, gifted with the six transcendent faculties 
and the triple science, and possessed of magic 
power, under the command of that Sugata. 

37. Under the reign of that Sugata there shall 
also appear numerous Bodhisattvas, many thousands 
of them, unable to slide back (or to deviate), de- 
veloping zeal, of extensive knowledge and studious 

38. After that Nina's expiration his true law 
shall measure in time twenty-four 2 intermediate 
kalpas in full ; its counterfeit shall have the same 

39. These are my five mighty disciples whom I 

1 Tdyin. 

2 The original reading has been meddled with; one MS, has 

ava/& (second-hand, a vim) sy&atarakalpa ; another, vi^zsa^ 
vi^ntarak . The onginal Prakrit may have had something like 


have destined to supreme enlightenment and to 
become in future self-born ^inas; now hear from 
me their course 1 . 

1 In this chapter only four disciples aie mentioned; the fifth 
must be *S3riputra, whose destination has been predicted before. 




Of yore, monks, in the past, incalculable, more 
than incalculable, inconceivable, immense, measure- 
less ^Eons since, nay, at a period, an epoch far 
beyond, there appeared in the world a Tathagata, 
&c., named Mah^bhi^i^Hnibhibhu, endowed with 
science and conduct 2 , a Sugata, &c. &c., in the sphere 
Sambhava (i. e. origin, genesis), in the period Mahi- 
rupa. (You ask), monks, how long ago is it that 
the Tathdgata was born ? Well, suppose some man 
was to reduce to powder the whole mass of the 
earth element as much as is to be found in this 
whole universe ; that after taking one atom of dust 
from this world he is to walk a thousand worlds 
farther in easterly direction to deposit that single 
atom ; that after taking a second atom of dust and 
walking a thousand worlds farther he deposits that 
second atom, and proceeding in this way at last gets 
the whole of the earth element deposited in eastern 

1 Purvayoga, which recurs as the heading of chaps. XXII and 
XXV, would at first sight seem to mean * former conjunction,' but 
that does not answer any more than ' ancient devotion/ I think 
that yoga here is an alteration of yuga, age, period, or a PrsL- 
kritism for yauga, Le. referring to an age. A Sanskrit pftrva- 
yauga would be formed like p-ftrva-ylySta, &c.; cf. P&rini 
VI, 2, 103. The original meaning of purva-yoga is, I sup- 
pose, pre-history. Cf. pubbayogo ti pubbakammaw, Milinda 
Pawho, p. 2. 

2 I. e. with light and motion. 


direction. Now, monks, what do you think of it, is 
it possible by calculation to find the end or limit 
of these worlds ? They answered : Certainly not, 
Lord ; certainly not, Sugata. The Lord said : On 
the contrary, monks, some arithmetician or master 
of arithmetic might, indeed, be able by calculation to 
find the end or limit of the worlds, both those where 
the atoms have been deposited and where they have 
not, but it is impossible by applying the rules of arith- 
metic to find the limit of those hundred thousands 
of myriads of ./Eons ; so long, so inconceivable, so 
immense is the number of sEons which have elapsed 
since the expiration of that Lord, the Tathigata 
Mah4bhif;H^dn^bhibhu. Yet, monks, I perfectly 
remember that Tathigata who has been extinct 
for so long a time 1 , as if he had reached extinction 
to-day or yesterday 2 , because of my possessing the 
mighty knowledge and sight of the Tathigata. 

And on that occasion the Lord pronounced the 
following stanzas ; 

1. I remember 3 the great Seer AbhJvzd?I&ni- 
bhibhu, the most high of men, who existed many 
ko/is of -^Eons ago as the superior Gins, of the 

2. If, for example, some men after reducing this 

1 Hence follows that the Buddha has existed since time imme- 
morial ; in other words, that he is Adibuddha. 

2 I have taken the liberty to render jvas by 'yesterday,' though 
I have no other warrant for the word ever being taken m this 
sense except the context and the fact that in sundry languages 
the notions of to-morrow and yesterday are occasionally expressed 
by the same term, e. g. Hind! kal (properly morning, to-morrow, 
Sansk. kalyam, klyam); the English 'yesterday' is the very same 
word with Gothic gistradagis, to-morrow. 

8 Anusmar&mi, omitted by Burnouf. 


universe to atoms of dust took one atom to deposit 
it a thousand regions farther on ; 

3. If he deposited a second, a third atom, and so 
proceeded until he had done with the whole mass of 
dust, so that this world were empty and the mass 
of dust exhausted ; 

4. To that immense mass of the dust of these 
worlds, entirely reduced to atoms, I liken the num- 
ber of JEons past 

5. So immense is the number of koris of yEons 
past since that extinct Sugata ; the whole of (ex- 
isting) atoms is no (adequate) expression of it ; so 
many are the ^Eons which have expired since. 

6. That Leader who has expired so long ago, those 
disciples and Bodhisattvas, I remember all of them 
as if it were to-day or yesterday. Such is the 
knowledge of the TatMgatas. 

7. So endless, monks, is the knowledge of the 
Tathigata; I know what has taken place many 
hundreds of JEons ago, by my precise and faultless 

To proceed, monks, the measure of the lifetime of 
the Tathigata MaMbhi^^mn&bhibhii, the Arhat, 
&c. was fifty-four hundred thousand myriads of 
kofis of -iEons. 

In the beginning when the Lord had not yet 
reached supreme, perfect enlightenment and had just 
occupied the summit of the terrace of enlighten- 
ment \ he discomfited and defeated the whole host 
of Mira, after which he thought: I am to reach 

1 Bodhima#dfavargragata eva; var. lect. bodhima7favargata eva, 
i. e. just having come to the terrace of enlightenment. Vara here 
is vara, circuit; it adds little to the notion of the simple bodhi- 
this also being a round terrace. 


perfect enlightenment l . But those laws (of perfect 
enlightenment) had not yet dawned upon him. He 
stayed on the terrace of enlightenment at the foot of 
the tree of enlightenment during one intermediate 
kalpa. He stayed there a second, a third inter- 
mediate kalpa, but did not yet attain supreme, per- 
fect enlightenment He remained a fourth, a fifth, a 
sixth, a seventh, an eighth, a ninth, a tenth inter- 
mediate kalpa on the terrace of enlightenment at 
the foot of the tree of enlightenment 2 , continuing 
sitting cross-legged without in the meanwhile rising. 
He stayed, the mind motionless, the body unstirring 
and untrembling, but those laws had not yet dawned 
upon him. 

Now, monks, while the Lord was just on the 
summit of the terrace of enlightenment, the gods of 
Paradise (Tr4yastri;was) prepared him a magnificent 
royal throne, a hundred yo/anas high, on occupying 
which the Lord attained supreme, perfect enlighten- 
ment ; and no sooner had the Lord occupied the seat 
of enlightenment than the Brahmakiyika gods scat- 
tered a rain of flowers all around the seat of en- 
lightenment over a distance of a hundred yo^ anas ; 
in the sky they let loose storms by which the flowers, 
withered, were swept away. From the beginning 
of the rain of flowers, while the Lord was sitting 
on the seat of enlightenment, it poured without 
interruption during fully ten intermediate kalpas 3 , 

1 It is difficult not to see that we have here, as well as in the 
opening of the MaMvagga and in Lahta-vistara, chap. 21, a 
description of the rising of the sun, the beginning of a kalpa, 
a myth of the creation of the visible world 

2 The so-called Bo-tree. 

8 An intermediate kalpa is the twentieth part of an incalculable 
kalpa, which in reality is equal to one day of twenty-four hours, 


covering the Lord. That rain of flowers having once 
begua falling continued to the moment of the Lord's 
complete Nirvi;za, The angels belonging to the 
division of the four guardians of the cardinal points 
made the celestial drums of the gods resound 1 ; they 
made them resound without interruption in honour 
of the Lord who had attained the summit of the 
terrace of enlightenment Thereafter, during fully 
ten intermediate kalpas, they made uninterruptedly 
resound those celestial musical instruments up to the 
moment of the complete extinction of the Lord. 

Again, monks, after the lapse of ten interme- 
diate kalpas the Lord Mahabhi^?7ag-;Hnibhibhu, the 
Tath^gata, &c., reached supreme, perfect enlighten- 
ment 3 . Immediately on knowing his having become 
enlightened the sixteen 3 sons bora to that Lord 
when a prince royal, the eldest of whom was named 
G^aLnikara which sixteen young princes, monks, 
had severally toys to play with, variegated and 
pretty those sixteen princes, I repeat, monks, left 
their toys, their amusements, and since they knew 
that the Lord Mahibh^ZS^S4nabhibhA, the Tatha- 
gata, &c.j had attained supreme, perfect knowledge, 
went, surrounded and attended by their weeping 
mothers and nurses, along with the noble, rich 
king -ATakravartin, many ministers, and hundred 
thousands of myriads of ko/is of living beings, to the 
place where the Lord Mahibhi^i^Hnabhibhti, the 

consequently ten intermediate kalpas are equal to one day (half day- 
night) of twelve hours, from sunrise until sunset at the equinox. 

1 It must have been a stormy day, far from rare about the time 
of the equinoxes. 

2 ]ust at sunset 

* Sixteen is the number of the kalis (digits) of the moon. 


Tathgata, &c., was seated on the summit of the 
terrace of enlightenment. They went up to the 
Lord in order to honour, respect, worship, revere, 
and venerate him, saluted his feet with their heads, 
made three turns round him keeping him to the 
right 1 / lifted up their joined hands, and praised the 
Lord, face to face, with the following stanzas : 

8. Thou art the great physician 2 , having no 
superior, rendered perfect in endless ^Eons 3 . Thy 
benign wish of saving all mortals (from darkness) 
has to-day been fulfilled. 

9. Most difficult things hast thou achieved 4 during 
the ten intermediate kalpas now past; thou hast 
been sitting all that time without once moving thy 
body, hand, foot, or any other part 5 . 

10. Thy mind also was tranquil and steady, mo- 
tionless, never to be shaken; thou knewest no 
distraction 6 ; thou art completely quiet and faultless. 

11. J oy with thee 7 ! that thou so happily and safely, 

1 And, moving from east to south, and so forth. 

2 Like Apollo. Therefore the Buddha immediately after his 
bodhi, i.e. awakening, pronounces the four Aryasatydni, which 
are nothing else but the well-known four chief points in the 
medical art, the disease, the cause of the disease, necessity to 
remove that cause, and the remedy. 

8 And, of infinite body; and, whose pharmacology is boundless; 
anantakalpa is the term used. 

4 Out of a figure similar and akin to Hercules, the active NdrS- 
ya#a has become a sage tranquil, peaceful, and refraining from 

6 Dessi. This immovability must be taken cum grano salis, 
in so far as the sun is represented to continue in the same portion 
of the ecliptic for one day. 

6 Vikshepaasan astronomical term means celestial latitude; 
the sun knows no deviation from the ecliptic, of course. 

f Dish/ysi. 


without any hurt, hast reached supreme enlighten- 
ment How great a fortune is ours ! we congratu- 
late ourselves, O Lion amongst kings ! 

12. These unhappy 1 creatures, vexed in all ways, 
deprived of eyes, as it were, and joyless, do not find 
the road leading to the end of toils, nor develop 
energy for the sake of deliverance. 

1 3. Dangers are for a long time on the increase, 
and the laws (or phenomena, things) are deprived of 
the (possession of a) celestial body ; the word of the 
Gina is not being heard; the whole world is plunged 
in thick darkness. 

14. But to-day (or now) hast thou, Majesty of the 
world, reached this hallowed, high, and faultless 
spot ; we as well as the world are obliged to thee, 
and approach to seek our refuge with thee, O 
Protector ! 

When, O monks, those sixteen princes in the 
condition of boys, childlike and young, had with 
such stanzas celebrated the Lord Mah&bhi^#&f$an&- 
bhibhft, the TathUgata, &c., they urged the Lord to 
move on the wheel of the law 2 : Preach the law, O 
Lord ; preach the law, O Sugata, for the weal of the 
public, the happiness of the public, out of compas- 
sion for the world ; for the benefit, weal, and happi- 
ness of the people generally, both of gods and men. 
And on that occasion they uttered the following 
stanzas : 

15. Preach the law, O thou who art marked with 
a hundred auspicious signs, O Leader, O incom- 
parable great Seer! thou hast attained exalted, 

1 An&yika, derived from an and ya. 

* I. e. to rise a second day, to awaken from his Nirvda. 


sublime knowledge ; let it shine in the world, includ- 
ing the gods. 

1 6. Release us as well as these creatures ; display 
the knowledge of the TatMgatas, that we also and, 
further, these beings may obtain this supreme 1 

17. Thou knowest every course (of duty) and 
knowledge ; thou knowest the (mental and moral) 
disposition and the good works done in a former 
state ; the (natural) bent of all living beings. Move 
on the most exalted, sublime wheel ! 

Then, monks, as the Lord Mahibhi^^ini- 
bhibhfi, the TatMgata, &c., reached supreme, per- 
fect enlightenment, fifty hundred thousand myriads 
of koris of spheres in each of the ten directions 
of space were shaken in six different ways and be- 
came illumined with a great lustre. And in the 
intervals between all those spheres, in the dreary 
places of dark gloom, where even the sun and moon, 
so powerful, mighty, and splendid, have no advan- 
tage of the shining power they are endowed with, 
have no advantage of the colour and brightness they 
possess, even in those places a great lustre arose 
instantly. And the beings who appeared 2 in those 
intervals behold each other, acknowledge each other, 
(and exclaim) : Lo, there are other beings also here 
appearing! lo, there are other beings also here 
appearing ! The palaces and aerial cars of the gods 
in all those spheres up to the Brahma-world shook 
in six different ways and became illumined with a 

1 Or, foremost ; the word used being agra. 

3 Upapanna, by so-called aupap&duka (P&li opap^tika), 
apparitional birth, birth by metamorphosis. Clouds e. g. are so 


great lustre, surpassing the divine majesty of the 
gods. So then, monks, a great earthquake and a 
great, sublime lustre arose simultaneously. And the 
aerial cars of the Brahma-angels to the east, in these 
fifty hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of spheres, 
began excessively to glitter, glow, and sparkle in 
splendour and glory. And those Brahma-angels 
made this reflection : What may be foreboded by 
these aerial cars so excessively glittering, glowing, 
and sparkling in splendour and glory ? Thereupon, 
monks, the Brahma-angels in the fifty hundred thou- 
sand myriads of koris of spheres went all to each 
other's abodes and communicated the matter to one 
another. After that, monks, the great Brahma-angel, 
named Sarvasattvatr4t^(i- e - Saviour of all beings) 1 , 
addressed the numerous host of Brahma-angels in 
the following stanzas : 

1 8. Our aerial cars to-day (or now) are all brist- 
ling 2 with rays in an extraordinary degree, and 
blazing in beautiful splendour and brilliancy. What 
may be the cause of it ? 

19. Come, let us investigate the matter, what 
divine being has to-day sprung into existence, 
whose power, such as was never seen before, here 
now appears ? 

20. Or should it be the Buddha, the king of 
kings, who to-day has been born somewhere in the 
world, and whose birth is announced by such a 
token that all the points of the horizon are now 
blazing in splendour? 

Thereupon, monks, the great Brahma-angels in the 

1 Probably a veiled name of the regent of the eastern quarter, 
Indra, one of whose epithets is Sutr&man. 
* Ha'rshita. 

[2!] M 


fifty hundred thousand myriads of kotis of spheres 
mounted all together their own divine aerial cars, 
took with them divine bags, as large as Mount 
Sumeru, with celestial flowers, and went through the 
four quarters successively until they arrived at the 
western quarter, where those great Brahma-angels, 
O monks, stationed in the western quarter, saw the 
Lord MahUbhi^^ianibhibhii, the Tath&gata, &c., 
on the summit of the exalted terrace of enlighten- 
ment, seated on the royal throne at the foot of the 
tree of enlightenment 1 , surrounded and attended 
by gods, Nigas, goblins, Gandharvas, demons, 
Garu^as, Kinnaras, great serpents, men, and beings 
not human, while his sons, the sixteen young princes, 
were urging him to move forward the wheel of the 
law. On seeing which the Brahma-angels came up to 
the Lord, saluted his feet with their heads, walked 
many hundred thousand times round him from left to 
right, strewing (flowers) and overwhelming both him 
and the tree of enlightenment, over a distance of ten 
yqgunas, with those flower-bags as large as Mount 
Sumeru. After that they presented to the Lord their 
aerial cars (with the words): Accept, O Lord, these 
aerial cars out of compassion to us ; use, O Sugata, 
those cars out of compassion to us. 

On that occasion, monks, after presenting their 
own cars to the Lord, the Brahma-angels celebrated 
the Lord, face to face, with the following seasonable 
stanzas : 

21. A (or the) wonderful, matchless ina, so 
beneficial and merciful, has arisen in the world. 
Thou art born a protector, a ruler (and teacher), a 
master ; to-day all quarters are blessed. 

1 The sun rises the second day. 


22. We have come as far as fully fifty thousand 
ko#s of worlds from here to humbly salute the ina 
by surrendering our lofty aeriel cars all together. 

23. We possess these variegated and bright cars, 
owing to previous works ; accept them to oblige us, 
and make use of them to thine heart's content, O 
Knower of the world ! 

After the great Brahma-angels, monks, had cele- 
brated the Lord Mah4bhj^;1^anabhibhil,the Tatha- 
gata, &c., face to face, with these seasonable stanzas, 
they besought him, saying: May the Lord move 
forward the wheel of the law! May the Lord preach 
final rest! May the Lord release all beings! Be 
favourable, O Lord, to this world! Preach the law, 
O Lord, to this world, including gods, Maras, and 
Brahma-angels ; to all people, including ascetics and 
Brahmans, gods l , men, and demons ! It will tend to 
the weal of the public, to the happiness of the public; 
out of mercy to the world, for the benefit and hap- 
piness of the people at large, both gods and men. 

Thereupon, monks, those fifty hundred thousand 
myriads of ko/is of Brahma-angels addressed the 
Lord, with one voice, in common chorus 2 , with the 
following stanza : 

24. Show the law, O Lord ; show it, O most high 
of men ! Show the power of thy kindness ; save the 
tormented beings. 

25. Rare 3 is the light* of the world like the 

1 The gods have been enumerated just before ; therefore it would 
seem that gods, men, and demons here are veiled expressions for 
kings or Kshatnyas, Vawyas, and Sftdras. 

2 MSS. sometimes samasangityfi, but more frequently samasw 
s., i. e. all together in chorus or concert. 

8 And, precious, durlabha. * Pradyota. 

M 2 


blossom of the glomerated fig-tree. Thou hast 
arisen, O great Hero ; we pray to thee, the 

And the Lord, O monks, silently intimated his 
assent to the Brahma-angels. 

Somewhat later, monks, the aerial cars of the 
Brahma-angels in the south-eastern quarter in the 
fifty hundred thousand myriads of spheres began 
excessively to glitter, glow, and sparkle in splendour 
and glory. And those Brahma-angels made this 
reflection : What may be foreboded by these aerial 
cars so excessively glittering, glowing, and sparkling 
in splendour and glory? Thereupon, monks, the 
Brahma-angels in the fifty hundred thousand myriads 
of kotis of spheres went all to each others abodes 
and communicated the matter to one another. 
After that, monks, the great Brahma-angel, named 
Adhimitrakiruwika (i.e. exceedingly compassionate), 
addressed the numerous host of Brahma-angels with 
the following stanzas : 

26. What foretoken is it we see to-day (or now), 
friends ? Who or what is foreboded by the celes- 
tial cars shining with such uncommon glory ? 

27. May, perhaps, some blessed divine being 
have come hither, by whose power all these aerial 
cars are illumined ? 

28. Or may the Buddha, the most high of men, 
have appeared in this world, that by his power these 
celestial cars are in such a condition as we see 

29. Let us all together go and search ; no trifle can 
be the cause of it ; such a foretoken, indeed, was 
never seen before l . 

1 Viz. in the same kalpa, i. e. on that same day. 


30. Come, let us go and visit ko^is of fields, along 
the four quarters ; a Buddha will certainly now have 
made his appearance in this world. 

Thereupon, monks, the great Brahma-angels in the 
fifty hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of spheres 
mounted all together their own divine aerial cars, 
took with them divine bags, as large as Mount 
Sumeru, with celestial flowers, and went through the 
four quarters successively until they arrived at the 
north-western quarter, where those great Brahma- 
angels, stationed in the north-western quarter, saw 
the Lord Mahibh^m/^nabhibhu [&C M as above 
till compassion to us]. 

On that occasion, monks, after presenting their 
own cars to the Lord the Brahma-angels celebrated 
the Lord, face to face, with the following seasonable 
stanzas : 

31. Homage to thee, matchless great Seer, chief 
god of gods, whose voice is sweet as the lark's 1 . 
Leader in the world, including the gods, I salute 
thee, who art so benign and bounteous to the world. 

32. How wonderful, O Lord, is it that after so 
long a time thou appearest in the world 2 . Eighty 
hundred complete ^Eons this world of the living was 
without Buddha 8 . 

3 Kalavinka, which I have freely rendered in this manner, 
commonly denotes a sparrow, but the corresponding PSli word 
kuravika is supposed to be the Indian cuckoo, the koil, which in 
Indian poetry may be said to answer to our nightingale ; in so far 
one might perhaps render kalavinka by nightingale. 

2 Consequently it was not for the first time that he appeared. 

3 I do not understand this reckoning, unless JSon (kalpa) here 
be taken in the sense of intermediate kalpa. A mah&kalpa is the 
period elapsing from the commencement of the world's destruction 
(L e. sunset) to its complete restoration (i. e. sunrise)* So, indeed, 


33. It was deprived of the most high of men; hell 
was prevailing and the celestial bodies constantly 
went on waning during eighty hundred complete 

34. But now he has appeared, owing to our good 
works, who is (our) eye, refuge, resting-place \ pro- 
tection, father, and kinsman 2 ; he, the benign and 
bounteous one, the King of the law. 

After the great Brahma-angels, monks, had cele- 
brated the Lord Mahdbhi^;1ai^;ldndbhibhli,the Tathi- 
gata, &c., face to face, with these seasonable stanzas, 
they besought him : May the Lord move forward the 
\vheel of the law! [as above till both gods and 

Thereupon, monks, those fifty hundred thousand 
myriads of ko/is of Brahma-angels addressed the 
Lord, with one voice, in common chorus, with the 
following stanzas : 

35. Move forward the exalted wheel, O great 
ascetic ! reveal the law in all directions ;" deliver all 
beings oppressed with suffering 3 ; produce amongst 
mortals gladness and joy ! 

36. Let them by hearing the law partake of en- 
lightenment and reach divine places. Let all shake 
off their demon body and be peaceful, meek, and at 
ease 4 . 

the Buddha has been absent for a kalpa, such a kalpa^mahdkalpa 
contains 4 asankhyeya-kalpas ; each asankhyeya-kalpa has 20 in- 
termediate kalpas ; hence a mah&kalpa=8o intermediate kalpas. 

1 Lena, Sansk. layana. In Burnouf's translation we find this 
word rendered by appui. 

2 The sun is lokabandhu s the kinsman and friend of the 
world, of mankind. 

3 Or relieve all beings oppressed with toil. 

* It is not easy to say what is really meant by those divine 


And the Lord, O monks, silently intimated his 
assent to these Brahma-angels also. 

Somewhat later, monks, the aerial cars of the 
Brahma-angels in the southern quarter [&c., as 
above till to one another]. After that, monks, the 
great Brahma-angel, named Sudharma 1 , addressed 
the numerous host of Brahma-angels in stanzas : 

37. It cannot be without cause or reason friends, 
that to-day (or now) all these celestial cars are so 
brilliant; this bespeaks some portent somewhere in 
the world. Come, let us go and investigate the 

38. No such portent has appeared in hundreds of 
-^Eons past. Either some god has been born or a 
Buddha has arisen in this world. 

Thereupon, monks, the great Brahma-angels in the 
fifty hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of spheres 
mounted [&c., as above 2 till compassion to us]. 

On that occasion, monks, after presenting their 
own cars to the Lord, the Brahma-angels celebrated 
the Lord, face to face, with the following seasonable 
stanzas : 

39. Most rare (and precious) is the sight of the 
Leaders. Be welcome, thou dispeller of worldly 
defilement. It is after a long time that thou now 
appearest in the world ; after hundreds of complete 
./Eons one (now) beholds thee. 

40. Refresh the thirsty creatures, O Lord of the 

places; I think the temples and shrines to be visited in the 

1 Of course Dharma, Yama, the regent of the south. The name 
here applied to him is derived from Sudharma, Yama's hall. 

2 Save the substitution of * northern quarter ' to 'north-western 


world! Now first thou art seen 1 ; it is not easy to 
behold thee. As rare (or precious) as the flowers of 
the glomerated fig-tree is thine appearance, O Lord. 

41. By thy power these aerial cars of ours are so 
uncommonly illumined now, O Leader. To show us 
thy favour accept them, O thou whose look pierces 
everywhere ! 

After the great Brahma-angels, monks, had cele- 
brated the Lord Mahabhi^^tfanibhibhti, the Tathi- 
gata, &c., face to face, with these seasonable stanzas, 
they besought him : May the Lord move forward the 
wheel of the law! [as above till gods and men.] 

Thereupon, monks, those fifty hundred thousand 
myriads of ko#s of Brahma-angels addressed the 
Lord, with one voice, in common chorus, with the 
following stanzas : 

42. Preach the law,O Lord and Leader 1 move for- 
ward the wheel of the law, make the drum of the law 
resound, and blow the conch-trumpet of the law. 

43. Shed the rain of the true law over this world 
and proclaim the sweet-sounding good word ; mani- 
fest the law required, save myriads of ko/is of 

And the Lord, monks, silently intimated his assent 
to the Brahma-angels. 

Repetition ; the same occurred in the south-west, 
in the west, in the north-west, in the north, in the 
north-east, in the nadir. 

Then, monks, the aerial cars of the Brahma- 
angels in the nadir 2 , in those fifty hundred thousand 
myriads of koris of spheres [&c., as above till 

* We must in thought add, in fuH glory, because we are at 

* Yenadhodigbhdga. 


to one another]. After that, monks, the great 
Brahma-angel, named .Sikhin, addressed the nu- 
merous host of Brahrna-angels with the following 
stanzas : 

44. What may be the cause, O friends, that our 
cars are so bright with splendour, colour, and light ? 
What may be the reason of their being so exceed- 
ingly glorious ? 

45. We have seen nothing like this before nor 
heard of it from others. These (cars) are now 
bright with splendour and exceedingly glorious ; 
what may be the cause of it ? 

46. Should it be some god who has been be- 
stowed upon 1 the world in recompense of good 
works, and whose grandeur thus comes to light? 
Or is perhaps a Buddha born in the world ? 

Thereupon, monks, the great Brahma-angels in the 
fifty hundred thousand myriads of kotfs of spheres 
mounted all together their own divine aerial cars, 
took with them divine bags, as large as Mount 
Sumeru, with celestial flowers, and went through the 
four quarters successively until they arrived at the 
zenith, where those great Brahma-angels, stationed 
at the zenith, saw the Lord Mahbh^#^&n&bhibhfl 
[&c., as above till compassion to us]. 

On that occasion, monks, after presenting their 
own cars to the Lord, the Brahma-angels celebrated 
the Lord, face to face, with the following seasonable 
stanzas : 

47. How goodly is the sight of the Buddhas, the 
mighty 2 Lords of the world; those Buddhas who 
are to deliver all beings in this triple world. 

1 Samarpita. * Tlyin. 


48. The all-seeing Masters of the world send 
their looks in all directions of the horizon, and by 
opening the gate of immortality l they make people 
reach the (safe) shore 2 . 

49. An inconceivable number of JEons now past 
were void, and all quarters wrapt in darkness, as the 
chief (-rinas did not appear. 

50. The dreary hells, the brute creation and 
demo nswere on the increase ; thousands of ko^is of 
living beings fell into the state of ghosts 3 . 

51. The heavenly bodies were on the wane ; after 
their disappearance they entered upon evil ways; 
their course became wrong because they did not 
hear the law of the Buddhas. 

52. All creatures lacked dutiful behaviour 4 , purity, 
good state 5 , and understanding; their happiness 
was lost, and the consciousness of happiness was 

53. They did not observe the rules of morality; 
were firmly rooted* in the false law 6 ; not being led 
by the Lord of the world, they were precipitated 
into a false course. 

54. Hail ! thou art come at last, O Light of the 
world! thou, born to be bounteous towards all 

1 In the Mahabhirata III, ig6, and Yogay&tri I, i, the sun 
is called 'the opened gate of deliverance,' mokshadvdram 

2 Atrenti; thevar.lect.avat&rentiisoutofplace and destroys 
the metre. 

8 P re t a, properly ' deceased, a deceased one.' The real meaning 
of the passage is that men at night fall asleep. 

4 Properly, movement, ary. 

5 Gati, going, gait; the latter is really meant. 

6 Asaddharmepratish/>5ita; the real meaning may be, 'firmly 
established in the condition of non-existence/ i. e. in sleep. 


55. Hail! thou hast safely arrived at supreme 
Buddha-knowledge; we feel thankful before thee, 
and so does the world, including the gods. 

56. By thy power, O mighty Lord, our aerial cars 
are glittering; to thee we present them, great 
Hero; deign to accept them, great Solitary. 

57. Out of grace to us, O Leader, make use of 
them, so that we, as well as all (other) beings, may 
attain supreme enlightenment. 

After the great Brahma-angels, O monks, had 
celebrated the Lord Mahibhi^;2a^2anibhibhii, the 
Tathdgata, &c., face to face, with seasonable stanzas, 
they besought him : May the Lord move forward 
the wheel of the law! [&c, as above till both 
gods and men.] 

Thereupon, monks, those fifty hundred thousand 
myriads of korfs of Brahma-angels addressed the 
Lord, with one voice, in common chorus, with the 
following two stanzas: 

58. Move forward the exalted, unsurpassed wheel! 
beat the drum of immortality! release all beings 
from hundreds of evils, and show the path of 

59. Expound the law we pray for; show thy 
favour to us and this world. Let us hear thy sweet 
and lovely voice which thou hast exercised during 
thousands of ko/is of ^Eons. 

Now, monks, the Lord Mahabhi^/l^zHnibhibhii, 
the Tathdgata, &c., being acquainted with the prayer 
of the hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of Brahma- 
angels and of the sixteen princes, his sons, com- 
menced at that juncture to turn the wheel that has 
three turns and twelve parts, the wheel never 
moved by any ascetic, Brahman, god, demon, nor 


by any one else. (His preaching) consisted in this : 
This is pain; this is the origin of pain; this is the 
suppression of pain ; this is the treatment leading 
to suppression of pain. He moreover extensively 
set forth how the series of causes and effects is 
evolved, (and said) : It is thus, monks. From ignorance 
proceed conceptions (or fancies) ; from conceptions 
(or fancies) proceeds understanding 1 ; from under- 
standing name and form ; from name and form the six 
senses 2 ; from the six senses proceeds contact; from 
contact sensation ; from sensation proceeds longing ; 
from longing proceeds striving 3 ; from striving as 
cause issues existence; from existence birth; from 
birth old age, death, mourning, lamentation, sorrow, 
dismay, and despondency. So originates this whole 
mass of misery. From the suppression of ignorance 
results the suppression of conceptions; from the sup- 
pression of conceptions results that of understand- 
ing ; from the suppression of understanding results 
that of name and form; from the suppression of 
name and form results that of the six senses ; from 
the suppression of the six senses results that of 
contact; from the suppression of contact results 
that of sensation ; from the suppression of sensation 
results that of longing ; from the suppression of 
longing results that of striving; from the sup- 
pression of striving results that of existence ; from 
the suppression of existence results that of birth ; 
from the suppression of birth results that of old age, 
death, mourning, lamentation, sorrow, dismay, and 

1 Or, distinctive knowledge, judgment. 

2 And, the objects of the six senses. 

8 Upddana, also taking up, and material 


~ _~_ ______^_ ^ 

despondency. In this manner the whole mass of 
misery is suppressed. 

And while this wheel of the law, monks, was 
being moved onward 1 by the Lord Mah4bh#w^#4- 
n&bhibhu, the TatMgata, &c., in presence of the 
world, including the gods, demons, and Brahma-angels ; 
of the assemblage, including ascetics and Brahmans; 
then, at that time, on that occasion, the minds of 
sixty 2 hundred thousand myriads of kotis of living 
beings were without effort freed from imperfections 
and became all possessed of the triple science, of the 
sixfold transcendent wisdom, of the emancipations 
and meditations. In due course, monks, the Lord 
Mahabh^#^inbhibM, the TathSgata, &c., again 
gave a second exposition of the law; likewise a 
third and a fourth exposition 3 . And at each exposi- 
tion, monks, the minds of hundred thousands of 
myriads of ko^is of beings, like the sands of the 
river Ganges, were without effort freed from imper- 
fections. Afterwards, monks, the congregation of 
disciples of that Lord was so numerous as to sur- 
pass all calculation. 

Meanwhile, monks, the sixteen princes, the youths, 
had, full of faith, left home to lead the vagrant life of 
mendicants, and had all of them become novices, 
clever, bright, intelligent, pious, followers of the 
course (of duty) under many hundred thousand 
Buddhas, and striving after supreme, perfect ea- 

1 Var. lect. sahapravartti eda*& buddhakshetraw tena Bhagavati, 
&c., 'and while this Buddha- field moved on along with the Lord, 1 
or ' while this B. moved on with the Lord.' 

2 Sixty is the number of gha/ikds, Indian half-hours, making 
one day. 

3 Cf. the four vy uhas, appearances, divisions of the Lord Vishmi. 


lightenment These sixteen novices, monks, said 
to the Lord Mah&bhi/7?%-#an&bhibhft, the Tathi- 
gata, &c., the following : O Lord, these many hun- 
dred thousand myriads of ko/is of disciples of the 
Tath&gata have become very mighty, very powerful, 
very potent, owing to the Lord's teaching of the 
law. Deign, O Lord, to teach us also, for mercy's 
sake, the law with a view to supreme, perfect en- 
lightenment, so that we also may follow the teaching 
of the Tath^gata \ We want, O Lord, to see the 
knowledge of the Tath^gata ; the Lord can himself 
testify to this, for thou, O Lord, who knowest the 
disposition of all beings, also knowest ours. 

Then, monks, on seeing that those princes, the 
youths, had chosen the vagrant life of mendicants 
and become novices, the half of the whole retinue 
of the king jSfakravartin, to the number of eighty 
hundred thousand myriads of kofis of living beings 2 , 
chose the vagrant life of mendicants. 

Subsequently, monks, the Lord Mahibhi^L^M- 
nbhibhft, the Tathgata, &c., viewing the prayer 
of those novices at the lapse 3 of twenty thousand 
JEons, amply and completely revealed the Dharma- 
pary&ya called ' the Lotus of the True Law/ a text 4 
of great extent, serving to instruct Bodhisattvas and 
proper for all Buddhas, in presence of all the four 
classes of auditors. 

1 Yad vayam-api TaMgatasy&nurikshemahi, which may also be 
rendered, that we also may profit by the teaching, &c. 

2 The use of the term prinln, a living being, an animal, to 
denote lifeless objects, is quite analogous to that of @ov in Greek. 

8 Or, within the lapse, atyayena. 

4 Sfttranta, a word formed after the model of Siddh&ata or 


In course of time, monks, those sixteen novices 
grasped, kept, and fully penetrated the Lord's 

Subsequently, monks, the Lord Mahibhi^/l^/ldnd- 
bhibhft, the Tathigata, &c., foretold those sixteen 
novices their future destiny to supreme, perfect en- 
lightenment. And while the Lord MahibhifSd- 
nibhibhti, the Tathigata, &c., was propounding the 
Dharmaparyiya of the Lotus of the True Law, the 
disciples as well as the sixteen novices were full of 
faith, and many hundred thousand myriads of kods 
of beings acquired perfect certainty 1 . 

Thereupon, monks, after propounding the Dhar- 
maparyiya of the Lotus of the True Law during 
eight thousand JEons without interruption, the 
Lord Mah&bhi^;1^;2dnibhibhli, the Tathdgata, &c., 
entered the monastery to retire for the purpose of 
meditation 2 , and in that retirement, monks, the 
Tathigata continued in the monastery during eighty- 
four thousand ko/is of ^Eons. 

Now, monks, when the sixteen novices perceived 
that the Lord was absorbed, they sat down on the 
seats, the royal thrones which had been prepared for 
each of them, and 3 amply expounded, during eighty- 
four hundred thousand myriads of ko/is 4 , the Dhar- 

1 Nirvi^ikitsiprSpta; a var. lect. has vi^ikitsdprSpta, which 
means exactly the reverse, at least if we take viikits in its usual 

8 Pratisaazlayana, seclusion, retirement for the purpose of 
meditation, absorbing oneself in meditation ; P&li pa/isallda. 

8 In one MS. added in the margin, ' after rendering homage to 
the Lord M., the TathSgata.' 

* One would expect eighty-four thousand ko/is, the same number 
as above. Burnouf has in both cases eighty-four thousand JEons, 
and that would seem to be the preferable reading. 


mapan aya of the Lotus of the True Law to the 
four classes. By doing this, monks, each of those 
novices, as Bodhisattvas fully developed, instructed, 
excited, stimulated, edified, confirmed l in respect to 
supreme, perfect enlightenment 60 x 6o 2 hundred 
thousand irn riads of ko/is of living beings, equal to 
the sands of the river Ganges. 

Xow, monks, at the lapse of eighty-four thousand 
-iiEons the Lord Mahabhi^a^/Hnabhibhu, the Tathd- 
gata. &c., rose from his meditation, in possession of 
memory and consciousness, whereafter he went up 
to the seat of the law, designed for him, in order to 
occupy it. 

As soon as the Lord had occupied the seat of the 
law, monks, he cast his looks over the whole circle 
of the audience and addressed the congregation of 
monks: They are wonderfully gifted, monks, they 
are prodigiously gifted, these sixteen novices, 
wise, servitors to many hundred thousand myriads 
of ko/is of Buddhas, observers of the course (of 
duty), who have received Buddha-knowledge, trans- 
mitted Buddha-knowledge, expounded Buddha- 
knowledge. Honour these sixteen novices, monks, 
again and again ; and all, be they devoted to the 
vehicle of the disciples, the vehicle of the Pra- 
tyekabuddhas. or the vehicle of the Bodhisattvas, 

1 Avadhamavan; var. leek avataritavdn, 'brought (them) to, 
initiated (them) in.' 

2 Shash/i/B shashrt (var. lect. shash/ishashri) Ganganadivalikasa- 
mdni prawiko^r.ayutajatasahasrim ; the second reading admits of 
being rendered, hundred thousands of myriads of ko/is of living 
beings, equal to the ?ands of 60x60 rhers (like the) Ganges. 
The number 360 is that of the days in a year, the five super- 
numerary days (avama) not being taken into account. 


who shall not reject nor repudiate the preaching of 
these young men of good family, O monks, shall 
quickly gain supreme, perfect enlightenment, and 
obtain TatMgata-knowledge. 

In the sequel also, monks, have these young men 
of good family repeatedly revealed this Dharma- 
paryAya of the Lotus of the True Law under the 
mastership of that Lord. And the 60 x 60 hundred 
thousand myriads of ko/is of living beings, equal to 
the sands of the river Ganges 1 , who by each of the 
sixteen novices, the Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas, in 
the quality of Bodhisattva, had been roused to en- 
lightenment, all those beings followed the example 
of the sixteen novices in choosing along with them 
the vagrant life of mendicants, in their several exist- 
ences; they enjoyed their sight and heard the 
law from their mouth. They propitiated forty 
ko Is 2 of Buddhas, and some are doing so up to 
tL3 day. 

I announce to you, monks, I declare to you : Those 
sixteen princes, the youths, who as novices under 
the mastership of the Lord were interpreters of the 
law, have all reached supreme, perfect enlighten- 
ment, and all of them are staying, existing, living 
even now, in the several directions of space, in 
different Buddha-fields, preaching the law to many 
hundred thousand myriads of kotfs of disciples and 
Bodhisattvas, to wit: In the east, monks, in the 
world 3 Abhirati the Tathigata named Akshobhya, 

1 Or, as above in note 2, page 1^6. 

* Var. lect. has 40 x 100,000 x 10,000 ko/is. 

3 Lokadhdtu ; it appears from this passage that this term, though 
it may be rendered by * world * or * universe/ in reality means what 
is implied by its etymology, viz. a fixed point of the world. It is 
needless to remark that the points of the compass are meant. 
[21] N 


the Arhat, c., and the Tathagata Meruku/a, the 
Arhat &c. 1 In the south-east, monks, is the Tatha- 
gata Sfwhaghosha, &c., and the Tathagata Sim- 
hadhvaj^, &c.- In the south, monks, is the Tatha- 
gata named Akasapratish/Aita, &C M and the Tathd- 
gata named Xityapariairvr/ta 5 , &c. In the south- 
west, monks, is the Tathagata named Indradhva^a, 
&c., and the Tathagata named Brahmadhva^a, &c. 
In the west, monks, is the Tathagata named Ami- 
tayus 4 , &c., and the Tathagata named Sarvalokadha- 
tupadravodve^apratyuttirwa, &c. In the north-west, 
monks, is the Tathagata named Tamalapatra/anda- 
nagandhabh:^;2a : , &c., and the Tathagata Meru- 
kalpa, &c. In the north, monks, is the Tathigata 
named Meghasvarapradlpa 6 , &c., and the Tathagata 

1 1 am at a loss to explain by what trick the S. E E. point is called 
- sammit of the 3Ieru.* 

- The names of these too Tathagatas mean severally, having 
a lion's \oice, and having a lion for ensign. ' Lion* is one of the 
constant veiled expressions for hari, yellow, ruddy, Vishwu, lion, 
&c., because hari possesses all these different meanings. The 
Buddhas here intended may be Agni and Anila or Antanksha 
(=%ayu, a:ri, both of them known by the name of hari. Cf. 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, VI ^ew series), p. 287 seq. 

3 So have my MSS.; XitVaparinivma, 'always extinct or quiet/ 
is Yama, Death. 

4 Identical \mh Amitabha: he is the ruler of the blessed dead 
in the city of Bliss iSukhavaii), and therefore a variety of Yama. 
His being placed in the west is explainable, because Yama and 
Varuwa in a ceriain function coincide, and the ktter otherwise 
appears as the ruler of the west. The following worthy with end- 
less name, ' Having past all worldly calamities and emotions/ is 
another designation of Amitayus, i. e. he uhose life is of unlimited 

5 According to the Camb. MSS.; the name 'cognizant of the 
scent of Xanthochymus and sandal* denotes the Wind, the ruler 
of the north-west. 

* Var. lect. Meghasvaradipa; Burnouf has a third form,Megha- 



named Meghasvarari^a, &c. In the north-east, 
monks, is the Tathigata named Sarvalokabhayafi- 
ta^^ambhitatvavidhva^sanakara 1 , the Arhat, &c., 
and, the sixteenth, myself, -Sakyamuni, the Tatha- 
gata, the Arhat, &c., who have attained supreme, 
perfect enlightenment in the centre of this Saha- 
world 2 . 

Further, monks, those beings who have heard the 
law from us when we were novices, those many 
hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of beings, nume- 
rous as the sands of the river Ganges, whom we 
have severally initiated in supreme, perfect enlighten- 
ment, they are up to this day standing on the stage 
of disciples and matured for supreme, perfect en- 
lightenment In regular turn they are to attain 
supreme, perfect enlightenment, for it is difficult, 
monks, to penetrate the knowledge of the Tathi- 
gatas. And which are those beings, monks, who, 

svara. Dipa or pradipa, torch, candle, light, is necessary, because 
the ruler of the north is the moon; meghasvara, sound of the 
clouds, must somehow denote the sky. Ra^-an, king, is king 
Soma (identified with the moon). 

1 Var. lect. c bhayadeviga&5a, and, according to Burnouf, bhay&- 
stambhitatva . The compound contains four epithets of *Siva, the 
ruler of the north-east; sarvalokabhaya, the terror of all the 
world; a^ita, unconquerable (the var. lect. deviga is probably 
devdgra, the chief or supreme of gods); ambhitatvakara, he 
who causes stiffness; vidhvazsanakara, the destroyer. A'am- 
bhita is the regular Prikrit form for stambhita, and here, without 
doubt, the original reading. 

8 Which seems to imply that S&kyamuni is both the ruler of 
the north-west and the central point. As a ruler of the north-west 
we find Sikhin inBrzhat Sajwhita*, chap. 53, 51 ; in Buddhist writings 
-Sikhin is synonymous with Brahma Sahdmpati. So it would seem 
as if *Skyamuni in this passage were considered to be one with 

N 2 


innumerable, incalculable like the sands of the 
Ganges, those hundred thousands of myriads of 
ko/is of living beings, whom I, when I was a Bodhi- 
sattva under the mastership of that Lord, have 
taught the law of omniscience ? Yourselves, monks, 
were at that time those beings. 

And those who shall be my disciples in future, 
when I shall have attained complete Nirvana, shall 
learn the course (of dut\ } of Bodhisattvas, without 
conceiving the idea of their being Bodhisattvas. 
And, monks, all who shall have the idea of complete 
Xirva//a. shall reach it. It should be added, monks, 
as 1 I stay under different names in other worlds, 
they shall there be born again seeking after the 
knowledge of the Tathagatas, and there they shall 
anew hear this dogma : The complete Nirvana of 
the Tathagatas is but one; there is no other, no 
second XIrva;/a of the Tathagatas. Herein, monks, 
one has to see a device of the Tathagatas and a 
direction 2 for the preaching of the law. When the 
Tathagata, monks, knows that the moment of his 
complete extinction has arrived, and sees that the 
assemblage is pure, strong in faith, penetrated with 
the law of voidness, devoted to meditation, devoted 
to great meditation, then, monks, the Tathigata, 
because the time has arrived, calls together all Bodhi- 
sattvas and all disciples to teach them thus : There 

1 Or, perhaps, ^hen : api tu khalu punar, bhikshavo, yad aham 
anyasu lokadhiitushu anyonvair (to r. anyanyair?) namadheyair 
viharami ; in one MS. a correcting hand has written in the margin 

* Abhinirhara; I am not sure of the correctness of this 
rendering; in Pali abhinihara is interpreted to be 'earnest wish 
or aspiration;' abhiniharati, to turn, direct. 


is, O monks, in this world no second vehicle at all, 
no second Nirvawa, far less a third. It is an able 
device of the Tathagata, monks, that on seeing 
creatures 1 far advanced on the path of perdition, 
delighting in the low and plunged in the mud of 
sensual desires, the Tathagata teaches them that 
NirvS^a to which they are attached. 

By way of example, monks, suppose there is some 
dense forest five hundred yo/anas in extent which 
has been reached by a great company of men. They 
have a guide to lead them on their journey to the Isle 
of Jewels, which guide, being able, clever, sagacious, 
well acquainted with the difficult passages of the 
forest, is to bring the whole company 2 out of the 
forest. Meanwhile that great troop of men, tired, 
weary, afraid, and anxious, say: ' Verily, Master, guide, 
and leader, know that we are tired, weary, afraid, and 
anxious; let us return; this dense forest stretches 
so far/ The guide, who is a man of able devices, 
on seeing those people desirous of returning, thinks 
within himself: It ought not to be that these poor 
creatures should not reach that great Isle of Jewels. 
Therefore out of pity for them he makes use of an 
artifice. In the middle of that forest he produces 
a magic city more than a hundred or two hundred 
yqgunas in extent. Thereafter he says to those 
men : ' Be not afraid, sirs, do not return ; there you 
see a populous place where you may take repose 
and perform all you have to do; there stay in 
the enjoyment of happy rest 3 . Let him who after 

1 Satvn, var. lect. satvadh&tftw; Burnouf has c la reunion 
des Stres.' 

* S &rt ha, usually a company of merchants, a caravan. 
3 And, of Nirv&a, nirvaapr.pta viharadhvam. 


reposing there wants to do so, proceed to the great 
Isle of Jewels.' 

Then, monks, the men who are in the forest are 
struck with astonishment and think: \Ve are out of 
the forest ; we have reached the place of happy rest ; 
let us stay here. They enter that magic city, in the 
meaning that they have arrived at the place of their 
destination, that they are saved and in the enjoy- 
ment of rest They think: \Ve are at rest, we are 
refreshed 1 . After a while, when the guide perceives 
that their fatigue is gone, he causes the magic 
city to disappear, and says to them : * Come, sirs, 
there you see the great Isle of Jewels quite near ; 
as to this great city, it has been produced by me for 
no other purpose but to give you some repose/ 

In the same manner, monks, is the Tathagata, the 
Arhat, &c., your guide, and the guideof all other beings. 
Indeed, monks, the Tathagata, &c., reflects thus : 
Great is this forest of evils which must be crossed, 
left, shunned. It ought not to be that these beings, 
after hearing the Buddha-knowledge, should suddenly 
turn back and not proceed to the end because they 
think : This Buddha-knowledge is attended with too 
many difficulties to be gone through to the end. 
Under those circumstances the Tathagata, knowing 
the creatures to be feeble of character, (does) as the 
guide (who) produces the magic city in order that 
those people may have repose, and after their having 
taken repose, he tells them that the city is one pro- 
duced by magic. In the same manner, monks, the 
Tathagata, &c., to give a repose to the creatures, 
very skilfully teaches and proclaims two stages of 

1 SUJbhuta. 


Nirvana, viz. the stage of the disciples and that of 
the Pratyekabuddhas. And, monks, when the crea- 
tures are there halting, then the Tathagata, &C M 
himself, pronounces these words: k You have not 
accomplished your task, monks; you have not 
finished what you had to do. But behold, monks ! 
the Buddha-knowledge is near; behold and be 
convinced l : what to you (seems) Xirvawa, that is 
not Nirvana. Nay, monks, it is an able device 
of the TathaLgatas, &c., that they expound three 

And in order to explain this same subject more 
in detail, the Lord on that occasion uttered the fol- 
lowing stanzas : 

60. The Leader of the world, Abhif;2af;Iina- 
bhibhti, having occupied the terrace of enlighten- 
ment, continued ten complete intermediate kalpas 
without gaining enlightenment, though he saw the 
things in their very essence. 

6 1. Then the gods, Nagas, demons, and goblins, 
zealous to honour the Gina, sent down a rain of 
flowers on the spot where the Leader awakened to 

62. And high in the sky they beat the cymbals 
to worship and honour the Gina, and they were 
vexed that the Gina delayed so long in coming to 
the highest place. 

63. After the lapse of ten intermediate kalpas 
the Lord An&bhibhti 2 attained enlightenment; then 

1 VyavaHrayadhvam; I have not met this word elsewhere, 
and am not certain of its precise meaning; Burnouf renders it by 

a Le. c he who has no one surpassing him;' it is virtually the 
same with Abhibhu. 


all gocK men, serpents, and demons were glad and 

64. The sixteen sons of the Leader of men, those 
heroes, being at the time young princes, rich in 
virtues, came along with thousands of ko#s of living 
beings to honour the eminent chiefs of men. 

65. And after saluting the feet of the Leader they 
prayed : Reveal the law and refresh us as well as 
this world with thy good word, O Lion amongst 

66. After a long time thou art seen (again) in the 
ten points of this world; thou appearest, great 
Leader, while the aerial cars of the Brahma-angels 
are stirring to reveal a token to living beings. 

67. In the eastern quarter fifty thousand ko/is of 
fields have been shaken, and the lofty angelic cars 1 
in them have become excessively brilliant. 

6S. The Brahma-angels on perceiving this fore- 
token went and approached the Chief of the Leaders 
of the world, and, covering him with flowers, pre- 
sented all of them their cars to him. 

69. They prayed him to move forward the wheel 
of the law, and celebrated him with stanzas and 
songs. But the king of kings was silent, (for he 
thought): The time has not yet arrived for me to 
proclaim the law. 

70. Likewise in the south, west, north, the nadir, 
zenith, and in the intermediate points of the compass 
there were thousands of kofis of Brahma-angels. 

71. Unremittingly covering the Lord (with flowers) 
they saluted the feet of the Leader, presented all 
their aerial cars, celebrated him, and again prayed : 

1 Literally, Brahma-cars. 


72. Move forward the wheel, O thou whose sight 
is infinite ! Rarely art thou met in (the course of) 
many kotis of ^Eons. Display the benevolence thou 
hast observed in so many former generations 1 ; open 
the gate of immortality. 

73. On hearing their prayer, he whose sight is 
infinite exposed the multifarious law and the four 
Truths, extensively. All existences (said he) spring 
successively from their antecedents. 

74. Starting from Ignorance, the Seer proceeded 
to speak of death, endless woe 2 ; all those evils 
spring from birth. Know likewise that death is 
the lot of mankind 3 . 

75. No sooner had he expounded the multifarious, 
different, endless laws, than eighty myriads of ko/is 
of creatures who had heard them quickly attained 
the stage of disciples. 

76. On a second occasion 4 the trina expounded 
many laws, and beings like the sands of the Ganges 
became instantly purified and disciples. 

77. From that moment the assembly of that 
Leader of the world was innumerable; no man 
would be able to reach the term (of its number), 
even were he to go on counting for myriads of ko/is 
of JEons. 

78. Those sixteen princes also, his own dear sons, 

1 Maitrim bahupfirvaseviUlm. 

2 MSS. prabMshate marawam ananta/ra du^kham; Burnouf has 
' parle de la mort dont la douleur est sans fin.' 

* The translation is uncertain ; rantyiw fa, mdnushyam imeva 
^Inatha. I take imeva, like emeva in other passages (e.g. in st. 
103), for the hemeva (Sansk. evam eva) of the Ajoka inscriptions. 
One might also render : ' Know that death (mortality) and humanity 
(human lot) are one and the same.' 

* Or, at a second moment, kshae. 


\vho had become mendicants 1 and novices, said to 
the Gina : * Expound, O Chief, the superior law ; 

79. * That we may become sages, knowers of the 
world, such as thyself art, O supreme of all ^rinas, 
and that all these beings may become such as thyself 
art, O hero, O clear-sighted one 2 / 

50. And the Gina, considering the wish of his 
sons, the young princes, explained the highest 
superior enlightenment by means of many myriads 
of ko/is of illustrations. 

51. Demonstrating with thousands of arguments 
and elucidating the knowledge of transcendent wis- 
dom, the Lord of the world indicated the veritable 
course \ of duty) such as was followed by the wise 

82. This very Sutra of great extension, this good 
Lotus of the True Law, was by the Lord delivered in 
many thousands of stanzas, so numerous as to equal 
the sands of the Ganges. 

83. After delivering this Sutra, the ina entered 
the monastery for the purpose of becoming absorbed 3 
in meditation; during eighty-four complete ./Eons 
the Lord of the world continued meditating, sitting 
on the same seat 

84. Those novices, perceiving that the Chief re- 
mained in the monastery without coming out of it, 
imparted to many ko/is of creatures that Buddha- 

1 A'ellakabhuta,var. lect.elukabh.andailakabhftta. The 
A'ailaka ' is he who contents himself with such a portion of clothes 
as barely suffices to cover his nakedness, rejecting everything more 
as superfluous.' Hodjson Essays, p. 52, cf. pp. 30 and 64. 

* Or, according to the reading followed by Burnouf, 'clear- 
sighted as thyself, O hero/ 

8 Vilakshayiti. 


knowledge, which is free from imperfections and 

85. On the seats which they had made to be pre- 
pared, one for each, they expounded this very- Sutra 
under the mastership of the Sugata of that period, 
A service of the same kind they render to me 1 . 

86. Innumerable as the sands of sixty thousand 
(rivers like the) Ganges were the beings then taught ; 
each of the sons of the Sugata converted (or trained) 
endless beings. 

87. After the Gina' s complete Nirvana they com- 
menced a wandering life and saw ko/is of Buddhas ; 
along with those pupils they rendered homage to 
the most exalted amongst men. 

88. Having observed the extensive and sublime 
course of duty and reached enlightenment in the 
ten points of space, those sixteen sons of the ina 
became themselves (S^nas, two by two, in each point 
of the horizon. 

89. And all those who had been their pupils be- 
came disciples of those dnas, and gradually obtained 
possession of enlightenment by various means. 

90. I myself was one of their number, and you 
have all been taught by me. Therefore you are rny 
disciples now also, and I lead you all to enlighten- 
ment by (my) devices. 

91. This is the cause dating from old, this is the 
motive of my expounding the law, that I lead you to 
superior enlightenment. This being the case, monks, 
you need not be afraid, 

92. It is as if there were a forest dreadful, terrific, 
barren, without a place of refuge or shelter, replete 

1 AdhikSru kurvanti mamaivar$pa/B. 


with wild beasts, deprived of water, frightful for 
persons of no experience. 

93. t'Suppose further that) many thousand men 
have come to the forest, that waste track of wilder- 
ness which is fully five hundred yo/anas in extent. 

94. And he who is to act as their guide through 
that rough and horrible forest is a rich man, 
thoughtful, intelligent, wise, well instructed, and un- 

95* And those beings, numbering many ko/fis, feel 
tired, and say to the guide: 'We are tired, Master; 
we are not able to go on ; we should like now to 

96. But he, the dexterous and clever guide, is 
searching in his mind for some apt device. Alas ! 
he thinks, by going back these foolish men will be 
deprived of the possession of the jewels. 

97. Therefore let me by dint of magic power now 
produce a great city adorned with thousands of kotis 
of buildings and embellished by monasteries and 

98. Let me produce ponds and canals; (a city) 
adorned with gardens and flowers, provided with 
walls and gates, and inhabited by an infinite number 
of men and women. 

99. After creating that city he speaks to them in 
this manner: 'Do not fear, and be cheerful; you 
have reached a most excellent city ; enter it and do 
your business, speedily. 

100. 'Be joyful and at ease; you have reached 
the limit of the whole forest.' It is to give them 
a time for repose that he speaks these words, and, in 
fact, they recover from their weariness. 

101. As he perceives that they have sufficiently 


reposed, he collects them and addresses them again : 
1 Come, hear what I have to tell you : this city have 
I produced by magic. 

102. < On seeing you fatigued, I have, lest you 
should go back, made use of this device ; now strain 
your energy to reach the Isle.' 

103. In the same manner, monks, I am the guide, 
the conductor of thousands of kotls of living beings ; 
in the same manner I see creatures toiling and un- 
able to break the shell of the egg of evils 1 . 

104. Then I reflect on this matter : These beings 
have enjoyed repose, have been tranquillised ; now 
I will remind 2 them of the misery of all things (and 
I say) : ' At the stage of Arhat you shall reach your 

105. At that time, when you shall have attained 
that state, and when I see all of you have become 
Arhats, then will I call you all together and explain 
to you how the law really is. 

1 06. It is an artifice of the Leaders, when they, 
the great Seers, show three vehicles, for there is 
but one vehicle, no second ; it is only to help (crea- 
tures) that two vehicles are spoken of. 

107. Therefore I now tell you, monks : Rouse to 
the utmost your lofty energy for the sake of the 
knowledge of the all-knowing ; as yet, you have not 
come so far as to possess complete Xirviwa. 

1 08. But when you shall have attained the know- 
ledge of the all-knowing and the ten powers proper 
to Ginas, you shall become Buddhas marked by 

8 The rendering of this passage is doubtful \ the text runs thus : 
sarvasya dufckhasya 'nubodha eshu. 


the thirty-two characteristic signs and have rest 
for ever. 

109. Such ib the teaching of the Leaders : in order 
to give qaiet they speak of repose, (but) when they 
see that (the creatures? have had a repose, they, 
knowing this to be no final resting-place, initiate 
them in the knowledge of the all-knowing. 




On hearing from the Lord that display of skilful- 
ness and the instruction by means of mysterious 
speech ; on hearing the announcement of the future 
destiny of the great Disciples, as well as the fore- 
going tale concerning ancient devotion and the 
leadership 1 of the Lord, the venerable Puraa, son of 
MaitrAya/rf, was filled with wonder and amazement, 
thrilled 2 with pure-heartedness 3 , a feeling of delight 
and joy. He rose from his seat, full of delight and 
joy, full of great respect for the law, and while pros- 
trating himself before the Lord's feet, made within 
himself the following reflection : Wonderful, O Lord ; 
wonderful, O Sugata; it is an extremely difficult 
thing that the Tathdgatas, &c,, perform, the con- 
forming to this world, composed of so many elements, 
and preaching the law to all creatures with many 
proofs of their skilfulness, and skilfully releasing 
them when attached to this or that. What could we 

1 Vr/shabhitva, a curious and irregular form instead of 

2 Sphu/a, in the sense of vyipta; Pili phu/a. 

3 Nirimisha^ittena. Nirimisha is both 'free from worldly 
taint, sensual desire/ and 'without having a lure, not eager for 
reward,' Le. disinterested. Both meanings are so intimately con- 
nected that it is not always easy to decide which we should prefer, 
e.g, Lalita-vistara, p. 215, and Manu VI, 49. 


do, O Lord, h such a case ? None but the Tatha- 
gata knows our inclination and our ancient course. 
Then, after saluting with his head the Lord's feet, 
Puma, went and stood apart, gazing up to the 
Lord with unmoved eyes and so showing his 
\ eneration. 

And the Lord, regarding the mental disposition of 
the venerable Pur/*'a, son of Maitraya#i, addressed 
the entire assembly of monks in this strain: Ye 
monks, see 1 this disciple, Pur//a, son of Maitra- 
ya;/i, whom I have designated as the foremost of 
preachers in this assembly, praised for his many 
virtues, and who has applied himself in various 
ways to comprehend the true law. He is the man 
to excite, arouse, and stimulate the four classes of 
the audience; unwearied in the preaching of the 
law; as capable to preach the law as to oblige his 
fellow-followers of the course of duty. The Tatha- 
gata excepted, monks, there is none able to equal 
Piirwa, son of Maitraya;*!, either essentially or in 
accessories. Xow, monks, do you suppose that he 
keeps my true la\\ only ? Xo, monks, you must not 
think so. For I remember, monks, that in the past, 
in the times of the ninety-nine Buddhas, the same 
Pur;/a kept the true law under the mastership of 
those Buddhas. Even as he is now with me, so he 
has, in all periods, been the foremost of the preachers 
of the law ; has in all periods been a consummate 
knower of Voidness ; has in all periods acquired the 
(four) distinctive qualifications of an Arhat 2 ; has in 
all periods reached mastership in the transcendent 

1 Pajyata, var. lect. pasyadhvam. 

s Pratisamid, in meaning answering to Pali pa/isambhida\ 


wisdom of the Bodhisattvas. He has been a 
strongly convinced 1 preacher of the law, exempt 
from doubt, and quite pure. Under the mastership 
of those Buddhas he has during his whole exist- 
ence observed a spiritual life, and everywhere they 
termed him ' the Disciple.' By this means he has 
promoted the interest of innumerable, incalculable 
hundred thousands of myriads of ko/is of beings, 
and brought innumerable and incalculable beings to 
full ripeness for supreme and perfect enlightenment. 
In all periods he has assisted the creatures in the func- 
tion of a Buddha, and in all periods he has purified 
his own Buddha-field, always striving to bring crea- 
tures to ripeness. He was also, monks, the fore- 
most among the preachers of the law under the 
seven Tathigatas, the first of whom is Yipasyin and 
the seventh myself 2 , 

And as to the Buddhas, monks, who have in 
future to appear in this Bhadra-kalpa, to the number 
of a thousand less four, under the mastership of 
them also shall this same Pftraa, son of Maitrayam, 
be the foremost among the preachers of the law 
and the keeper of the true law. Thus he shall keep 
the true law of innumerable and incalculable Lords 
and Buddhas in future, promote the interest of innu- 
merable and incalculable beings, and bring innumer- 
able and incalculable beings to full ripeness for 
supreme and perfect enlightenment. Constantly 
and assiduously he shall be instant in purifying his 
own Buddha-field and bringing creatures to ripeness. 

1 Suvini^ita. 

8 The seven so-called Manushi-Buddhas ; a rather transparent 
disguise of the fact that in cosmological mythology there are seven 
Manus, rulers of certain periods. 

[21] O 


After completing such a Bodhisattva-course, at the 
end of innumerable, incalculable sEons, he shall 
reach supreme and perfect enlightenment; he shall in 
the world be the Tathagata called Dharmaprabhasa, 
an Arhat, c., endowed with science and conduct, 
a Sugata, &c. He shall appear in this very Buddha- 

Further, monks, at that time the Buddha-field 
spoken of will look as if formed by thousands of 
spheres similar to the sands of the river Ganges. It 
will be even, like the palm of the hand, consist of seven 
precious substances, be without hills, and filled with 
high edifices of seven precious substances 1 . There 
will be cars of the gods stationed in the sky; the 
gods will behold men, and men will behold the gods. 
[Moreover, monks, at that time that Buddha-field 
shall be exempt from places of punishment and from 
womankind, as all beings shall be born by appari- 
tional birth. They shall lead a spiritual life, have 
ideal 2 bodies, be self-lighting, magical, moving in 
the firmament, strenuous, of good memory, wise, 
possessed of gold-coloured bodies, and adorned with 
the thirty-two characteristics of a great man. And 
at that time, monks, the beings in that Buddha-field 
will have two things to feed upon, viz. the delight in 
the law and the delight in meditation. There will 

1 The Buddha-field of Pur#a, i.e. full is so extremely pure, because 
he is, I suppose, the full moon. He is called the son of Maifti- 
yai, because the full moon is born on the i5th day of the month. 
Maitrayam is a slighdy disguised Maitri, otherwise called Anuradh, 
the r 5th asterism, in the ancient series. Hence we may infer that 
the story of Pura is comparatively old. No wonder that Punza 
is surpassed by none, the Buddha excepted. 

2 Manomaya, 


\vho (at first), lowly-disposed and somewhat lazy, in 
course of time all become Buddhas. 

5. They follow a course in ignorance (thinking): 
We, disciples, are of little use, indeed! In de- 
spondency they descend into all places of existence 
(successively), and (so) clear their own field. 

6. They show in their own persons that they are 
not free from affection, hatred, and infatuation ; and 
on perceiving (other) beings clinging to (heretical) 
views 1 , they go so far as to accommodate themselves 
to those views. 

7. By following such a course my numerous dis- 
ciples skilfully save creatures ; simple people would 
go mad, if they were taught the whole course of life 
(or story). 

8. Puma, here, monks, my disciple, has formerly 
fulfilled his course (of duty) under thousands of 
ko/is of Buddhas, he has got possession of this true 
law by seeking after Buddha-knowledge. 

9. And at all periods has he been the foremost 
of the disciples, learned, a brilliant orator, free from 
hesitation ; he has, indeed, always been able to 
excite to gladness and at all times ready to perform 
the Buddha-task. 

10. He has always been accomplished in the sub- 
lime transcendent faculties and endowed with the 
distinctive qualifications of an Arhat ; he knew the 
faculties and range of (other) beings, and has always 
preached the perfectly pure law. 

u. By exposing the most eminent of true laws 
he has brought thousands of ko/is of beings to full 
ripeness for this supreme, foremost vehicle, whilst 
purifying his own excellent field. 

1 Dr/sh/ivilagna. 


12. In future also he shall likewise honour thou- 
sands of ko/is of Buddhas, acquire knowledge of the 
most eminent of good laws, and clean his own field. 

13. Always free from timidity he shall preach the 
law with thousands of ko/is of able devices, and 
bring many beings to full ripeness for the knowledge 
of the all-knowing that is free from imperfections. 

14. After having paid homage to the Chiefs of 
men and always kept the most eminent of laws, he 
shall in the world be a Buddha self-born, widely 
reno\vned everywhere by the name of Dharma- 

1 5. And his field shall always be very pure and 
always set off with seven precious substances; his 
-^Eon shall be (called) Ratnavabhasa, and his world 

1 6. That world shall be pervaded with many 
thousand ko/is of Bodhisattvas, accomplished mas- 
ters in the great transcendent sciences, pure in every 
respect, and endowed with magical power. 

1 7. At that period the Chief shall also have an 
assemblage of thousands of ko/is of disciples, en- 
dowed with magical power, adepts at the meditation 
of the (eight) emancipations, and accomplished In 
the (four) distinctive qualifications of an Arhat 

1 8. And all beings in that Buddha-field shall be 
pure and lead a spiritual life. Springing into exist- 
ence by apparitional birth, they shall all be gold- 
coloured and display the thirty-two characteristic 

19. They shall know no other food but pleasure 
in the law and delight in knowledge. No woman- 
kind shall be there, nor fear of the places of punish- 
ments or of dismal states. 

1 98 ?ADDIIAI:MA-Pl\YjDARiK:A. Till. 

20. Sach shall be the excellent field of Puraa, vho 
is possessed of all good qualities ; it shall abound 
with all goodly things ! , a small part (only) of which 
Has here been mentioned. 

Then this thought arose in the mind of those 
twelve hundred self-controlled (Arhats): We are 
struck with wonder and amazement. (How) if the 
Tathagata would predict to us severally our future 
destiny as the Lord has done to those other great 
disciples ? And the Lord apprehending in his own 
mind what was going on in the minds of these great 
disciples addressed the venerable Maha-Karyapa : 
Those twelve hundred self-controlled hearers whom 
I am now beholding from face to face, to all those 
twelve hundred self-controlled hearers, Kasyapa, I 
will presently foretell their destiny. Amongst them, 
Kasyapa, the monk Kauw^mya, a great disciple, 
shall after sixty-two hundred thousand myriads of 
ko/is of Buddhas, become a Tathagata, an Arhat, 
&c., under the name of Samantaprabhasa, endowed 
with science and conduct, a Sugata, &c. &c.; but of 
those (twelve hundred*, Kasyapa, five hundred shall 
become Tathagatas of ihe same name. Thereafter 
shall all those five hundred great disciples reach 
supreme and perfect enlightenment, all bearing the 
name of Samantaprabhasa; viz. Gaya-K&ryapa, Nadi- 
Kasyapa, Uruvilva-Ka?yapa, Kala, Kaloddyin, Ani- 
ruddha, Kapphi;*a, Vakkula 2 , JTunda 3 , Svagata 4 , 

1 Akirwwa sarvehi subhadrakehi ; Burnouf takes it as a mascu- 
line, rendering it by ' creatures foromees.' 

2 Also spelt Vakula; see p. 2. 

3 Probably the same \uth Maha-JTunda in MahSvagga I, 6, 36 ; 
A'uliavaggal, 18, i. 

4 Pali Sagata, Mahavagga V, r } 3. 


and the rest of the five hundred self-controlled 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the fol- 
lowing stanzas: 

21. The scion of the Kundma family, my disciple 
here, shall in future be a Tathagata, a Lord of the 
world, after the lapse of an endless period ; he shall 
educate hundreds of kotis of living beings. 

22. After seeing many endless Buddhas, he shall 
in future, after the lapse of an endless period, be- 
come the ina Samantaprabh^sa, whose field shall 
be thoroughly pure. 

23. Brilliant, gifted with the powers of a Buddha, 
with a voice far resounding in all quarters, waited 
upon by thousands of kotis of beings, he shall 
preach supreme and eminent enlightenment. 

24. There shall be most zealous Bodhisattvas, 
mounted on lofty aereal cars, and moving, medi- 
tative, pure in morals, and assiduous in doing good. 

25. After hearing the law from the highest of 
men, they shall invariably go to other fields, to 
salute thousands of Buddhas and show them great 

26. But ere long they shall return to the field of 
the Leader called Prabh&sa, the Tath&gata 1 . So 
great shall be the power of their course (of duty). 

27. The measure of the lifetime of that Sugata 
shall be sixty thousand JEons, and, after the com- 
plete extinction of that mighty one 2 , his true law 
shall remain twice as long in the world. 

28. And the counterfeit of it shall continue three 

1 Var. lect. the most high (or best) of men.' 

2 Tiyin. 


times as long. When the true law of that holy one 
shall he exhausted, men and gods shall be vexed. 

29. There shall appear a complete number of five 
hundred Chiefs, supreme amongst men, who shall 
bear the same name with that {rina, Samantaprabha, 
and follow one another in regular succession. 

30. All shall have like divisions, magical powers, 
Buddha-fields, and hosts (of followers). Their true 
law also shall be the same and stand equally long. 

31. All shall have in this world, including the 
gods, the same voice as Samantaprabhasa, the 
highest of men, such as I have mentioned before. 

32. Moved by benevolence and compassion they 
shall in succession foretell each other's destiny, with 
the words : This is to be my immediate successor, 
and he is to command the world as I do at present 

33. Thus, Ka^yapa, keep now in view 1 here 
these self-controlled (Arhats), no less than five hun- 
dred ( in number), as well as my other disciples, and 
speak of this matter to the other disciples. 

On hearing from the Lord the announcement of 
their own future destiny, the five hundred Arhats, 
contented, satisfied, in high spirits and ecstasy, filled 
with cheerfulness, joy, and delight, went up to the 
place where the Lord was sitting, reverentially sa- 
luted with their heads his feet, and spoke thus : We 
confess our fault, O Lord, in having continually and 
constantly persuaded ourselves that we had arrived 

1 Dharehi. I am not sure of the correctness of this translation; 
the word usually means ; to keep/ but this seems out of place, 
unless it be assumed that the injunction is given in anticipation, 
because Kfijjapa succeeded to the Lord after the latter's Nirvana. 
Buraouf has : * Voila-conune tu dois considerer ici en ce jour ces 
Auditeurs/ &c. 


at final Nirvitfa, as (persons who are) dull, inept, 
ignorant of the rules. For, O Lord, whereas we 
should have thoroughly penetrated the knowledge 
of the TatMgatas, we were content with such a 
trifling degree of knowledge. 

It is, O Lord, as if some man having come to a 
friend's house got drunk or fell asleep, and that 
friend bound a priceless gem within l his garment, 
with the thought : Let this gem be his. After a 
while, O Lord, that man rises from his seat and 
travels further; he goes to some other country, 
where he is befallen by incessant difficulties, and has 
great trouble to find food and clothing. By dint of 
great exertion he is hardly able to obtain a bit of 
food, with which (however) he is contented and satis- 
fied. The old friend of that man, O Lord, who bound 
within the man's garment that priceless gem, hap- 
pens to see him again and says : How is it, good 
friend, that thou hast such difficulty in seeking food 
and clothing, while I, in order that thou shouldst 
live in ease, good friend, have bound within thy 
garment a priceless gem, quite sufficient to fulfil all 
thy wishes? I have given thee that gem, my good 
friend, the very gem I have bound within thy 
garment. Still thou art deliberating: What has 
been bound ? by whom ? for what reason and pur- 
pose ? It is something foolish 2 , my good friend, to 
be contented, when thou hast with (so much) difficulty 
to procure food and clothing. Go, my good friend, 
betake thyself, with this gem, to some great city, 

1 Vastrinte, vasan^nte; below in stanza 40 we find vasa- 
* Etad bdla^attyam. 


exchange the gem for money, and with that money 
do all that can be done with money. 

In the same manner, O Lord, has the Tathigata 
formerly, when he still followed the course of duty 
of a Bodhisattva, raised in us also ideas of omni- 
science, but we, O Lord, did not perceive, nor know it. 
We fancied, O Lord, that on the stage of Arhat we 
had reached Xirva/za. We live in difficulty, O Lord, 
because we content ourselves with such a trifling 
degree of knowledge. But as our strong aspiration 
after the knowledge of the all-knowing has never 
ceased, the Tathagata teaches us the right : ' Have 
no such idea of Xirva^a, monks: there are in your 
intelligence : roots of goodness which of yore I have 
fully developed. In this you have to see an able 
device of mine that from the expressions used by 
me, in preaching the law, you fancy Nirvana to 
take place at this moment 2 .' And after having 
taught us the right in such a way, the Lord now 
predicts our future destiny to supreme and perfect 

And on that occasion the five hundred self-con- 
trolled (Arhats), Af72ata-Kau;^inya and the rest, 
uttered the following stanzas : 

34. We are rejoicing and delighted to hear this 
unsurpassed word of comfort that we are destined 
to the highest, supreme enlightenment. Homage 
be to thee, O Lord of unlimited sight ! 

35. We confess our fault before thee ; we were 
so childish, nescient, ignorant that we were fully 
contented with a small part of Xirv#a, under the 
mastership of the Sugata. 

1 Santane, 2 Or, at present, etarhi 


36. This is a case like that of a certain man who 
enters the house of a friend, which friend, being rich 
and wealthy, gives him much food, both hard and 

37. After satiating him with nourishment, he 
gives him a jewel of great value. He ties it with a 
knot within the upper robe and feels satisfaction at 
having given that jewel. 

38. The other man, unaware of it, goes forth and 
from that place travels to another town. There he 
is befallen with misfortune and, as a miserable beg- 
gar, seeks his food in affliction. 

39. He is contented with the pittance he gets by 
begging without caring for dainty food ; as to that 
jewel, he has forgotten it; he has not the slightest 
remembrance of its having been tied in his upper 

40. Under these circumstances he is seen by his 
old friend who at home gave him that jewel. This 
friend properly reprimands him and shows him the 
jewel within his robe. 

41. At this sight the man feels extremely happy. 
The value of the jewel is such that he becomes a 
very rich man, of great power, and in possession of 
all that the five senses can enjoy* 

42. In the same manner, O Lord, we were un- 
aware of our former aspiration \ (the aspiration) laid 
in us by the Tathigata himself in previous existences 
from time immemorial. 

43. And we were living in this world, O Lord, 
with dull understanding and in ignorance, under the 

1 Prawidhana; from the context one would gather that the 
real meaning had been e predestination/ 


mastership of the Sugata ; for we were contented with 
a little of Nirvana ; we required nothing higher, nor 
even cared for it. 

44. But the Friend of the world has taught us 
better: l This is no blessed Rest 1 at all: the full 
knowledge of the highest men 2 , that is blessed Rest, 
that is supreme beatitude/ 

45. After hearing this sublime, grand, splendid, 
and matchless prediction, O Lord, we are greatly 
elated with joy, when thinking of the prediction 
/we shall have to make to each other) in regular 

= Pur*jshotts.mdnam. 




On that occasion the venerable Ananda made 
this reflection: Should we also receive a similar 
prediction ? Thus thinking, pondering, wishing, he 
rose from his seat, prostrated himself at the Lord's 
feet and uttered the following words. And the 
venerable Rahula also, in whom rose the same 
thought and the same wish as in Ananda, prostrated 
himself at the Lord's feet, and uttered these words : 
' Let it be our turn also, O Lord ; let it be our turn 
also, O Sugata. The Lord is our father and pro- 
creator, our refuge and protection. For in this 
world, including men, gods, and demons, O Lord, we 
are particularly distinguished 1 , as people say : These 
are the Lord's sons, the Lord's attendants ; these are 
the keepers of the law-treasure of the Lord. There- 
fore, Lord, it would seem meet 2 , were the Lord ere 
long to predict our destiny to supreme and perfect 

Two thousand other monks, and more, both such 
as were still under training and such as were not, 
likewise rose from their seats, put their upper robes 
upon one shoulder, stretched their joined hands 

1 Or respected, itr!kr*ta ; cf. Pali ittikra and Sansk. itri- 
k&ra, Lahta-vistara, p. 347. 
3 Pratirftpa. 


towards the Lord and remained gazing up to him, 
all pre-occupied with the same thought, viz. of this 
very Buddha-knowledge : Should we also receive 
a prediction of our destiny to supreme and perfect 

Then the Lord addressed the venerable Ananda 
in these words : Thou, Ananda, shalt in future 
become a Tathagata by the name of Sagaravaradha- 
rabuddhivikrufitabhif ;2a l , an Arhat, &c., endowed 
with science and conduct, &c. After having honoured, 
respected, venerated, and worshipped sixty-two ko/is 
of Buddhas, kept in memory the true law of those 
Buddhas and received this command, thou shalt 
arrive at supreme and perfect enlightenment, and 
bring to full ripeness for supreme, perfect enlighten- 
ment twenty hundred thousand myriads of koris of 
Bodhisattvas similar to the sands of twenty Ganges 2 . 
And thy Buddha-field shall consist of lapis lazuli 
and be superabundant. The sphere shall be named 
Anavanamita-vai^ayanta and thevEon Mano/^a- 
sabdabhigargita. The lifetime of that Lord Sagara- 
varadharabuddhivikri^Itabhi^a, the Tathdgata, &c., 
shall measure an immense number of ;Eons, 

1 The epithet Sagaravaradharavipulabuddrii. i.e. having the great 
intelligence of Sagaravaradlnra, is bestowed on the Bodhisattva 
destined to be born as Sakyamuni, Lalita-vistara, p. 10. As the 
next preceding epithet, I. c. mahapadmagarbheksha/za, seems 
to point to the sun, I infer that Sslgaravara, the choicest of oceans, 
denotes Soma, and Sagara\aradhara, the keeper of that ocean, the 

* According to the reading vtauatbn Ganganadlvalikopamini ; 
var. lect. has viflz,rati-Ganga s , so that Burnouf s rendering ' e*gal a 
celui des sables de vingt fleuves du Gange' is admissible. On the 
other hand it must be remarked that we shall meet in the sequel 
with the phrase bahuni Ganganadivalikopamlni Buddhako/inayuta- 
jata sahasrawi 


the term of which is not to be found by calculation. 
So many hundred thousand myriads of ko^is of 
incalculable ^Eons shaft last the lifetime of that 
Lord. Twice as long, Ananda, after the complete 
extinction of that Lord, shall his true law stand, 
and twice as long again shall continue its counter- 
feit. And further, Ananda, many hundred thousand 
myriads of ko*is of Buddhas, similar to the sands of 
the river Ganges, shall in all directions of space speak 
the praise of that Tathdgata Sagaravaradharabud- 
dhivikrldTit&bhi^ #a, the Arhat, &c. 

1. I announce to you, congregated monks, that 
Ananda-Bhadra, the keeper of my law, shall in 
future become a Gina, after having worshipped sixty 
ko/is of Sugatas. 

2. He shall be widely renowned by the name of 
SaLgarabuddhidhdrin Abhi^mprapta \ in a beautiful, 
thoroughly clear field, (termed) Anavanata Vaifayantt 
(i. e. triumphal banner unlowered). 

3. There shall be Bodhisattvas like the sands of the 
Ganges and even more, whom he shall bring to full 
ripeness; he shall be a ina endowed with great 
(magical) power, whose word shall widely resound in 
all quarters of the world. 

4. The duration of his life shall be immense. He 
shall always be benign and merciful to the world. 
After the complete extinction of that Gina and 
mighty saint 2 , his true law shall stand twice as 

5. The counterfeit (shall continue) twice as long 

1 These names may be translated by 'possessor of an intellect 
(unfathomable) as the ocean, having arrived at transcendent 


under the rule 1 of that G'ma. Then also shall 
beings like grains of sand of the Ganges produce in 
this world what is the cause of Buddha-enlighten- 

In that assembly were eight thousand Bodhisat- 
tvas who had newly entered the vehicle. To them 
this thought presented itself: Never before did we 
have such a sublime prediction to Bodhisattvas, far 
less to disciples. What may be the cause of it ? 
what the motive ? The Lord, who apprehended in 
his mind what was going on in the minds of those 
Bodhisattvas, addressed them in these words : Young 
men of good family, I and Ananda have in the same 
moment, the same instant conceived the idea of 
supreme and perfect enlightenment in the presence 
of the Tathagata Dharmagahanabhyudgatarifa 2 , the 
Arhat, &c. At that period, young men of good family, 
he (Ananda) constantly and assiduously applied him- 
self to great learning, whereas I was applying my- 
self to strenuous labour. Hence I sooner arrived at 
supreme and perfect enlightenment, whilst Ananda- 
Bhadra was the keeper of the law-treasure of the 
Lords Buddhas ; that is to say, young men of good 
family, he made a vow 3 to bring Bodhisattvas to full 

When the venerable Ananda heard from the 
Lord the announcement of his own destiny to 
supreme and perfect enlightenment, when he learned 
the good qualities of his Buddha-field and its divi- 
sions, when he heard of the vow he had made in the 

1 Le. reignj epoch inaugurated by him. 

2 Var. lect. Dharmagagana and Dharmagamana . 
5 Pra^idhana. 


past, he felt pleased, exultant, ravished, joyous, filled 
with cheerfulness and delight And at that juncture 
he remembered the true law of many hundred thou- 
sand myriads of ko#s of Buddhas and his own vow 
of yore. 

And on that occasion the venerable Ananda 
uttered the following stanzas: 

^6. Wonderful, boundless are the Chinas 1 who re- 
mind us of the law preached by the extinct inas 
and mighty saints 2 . Now I remember it as if it 
had happened to-day or yesterday 3 . 

7- I am freed from all doubts ; I am ready for 
enlightenment Such is my skilfulness, (as) I am 
the servitor *, and keep the true law for the sake 
of enlightenment. 

Thereupon the Lord addressed the venerable 
Rahula-Bhadra in these words : Thou, Rahula, shalt 
be in future a Tathagata of the name of Saptaratna- 
padmavikrantagjlmin 5 , an Arhat, &c., endowed with 
science and conduct, &c. After having honoured, 
respected, venerated, worshipped a number of Tatha- 
gatas, &c., equal to the atoms of ten worlds, thou 
shalt always be the eldest son of those Lords 
Buddhas, just as thou art mine at present And, 
Rahula, the measure of the lifetime of that Lord 
Saptaratnapadmaviknlntagamin, the Tathagata, &c., 
and the abundance of all sorts of good qualities 
(belonging to him) shall be exactly the same as of 

1 This may be interpreted as being a pluralis raajestatis, 

2 Tiyin. 

8 Adya ^vo vi; cf. note 2, p. 154. 

4 Pari^lraka, synonymous with upasthdyaba s one who is in 
attendance, in readiness, an attendant, a servitor, a satellite. 

5 So my MSS.; Burnouf has Saptaratnapadmavikramin. 

[21] F 


the Lord Sagara\-aradharabi:ddhivikri^/itabhif;2a, the 
Tathagata, c. ; likewise shall the divisions of the 
Bucdha-fielcl and its qualities be the same as those 
possessed by that Lord And, Rahuia, thou shalt 
be the eldest son of that Tathagata Sagaravara- 
dharabudchivikrwTitabh^/la. the Arhat, &c. After- 
wards thou shalt arrive at supreme and perfect 

S. Rahuia here, my own eldest son, who was born 
to me when I was a prince royal, he, my son, after 
my reaching enlightenment, is a great Seer, an heir 
to the law *. 

9. The great number of ko/is of Buddhas which he 
shall see in future, is immense. To all these Ginas 
he shall be a son, striving after enlightenment. 

10. Unknown is this course (of duty) to Rlhula 2 , 
but I know his {former) vow. He glorifies the 
Friend of the world D (by saying) : I am, forsooth, the 
Tathagata's son. 

11. Innumerable myriads of ko/is of good quali- 
ties, the measure of which is never to be found, 
appertain to this Rahuia, my son ; for it has been 
said : He exists by reason of enlightenment. 

The Lord now again regarded those two thousand 
disciples, bcth such as were still under training and 
such as were not, uho were looking up to him with 
serene, mild, placid minds. And the Lord then 
addressed the venerable Ananda : Seest thou, 
Ananda, these two thousand disciples, both such as 
are still under training and such as are not ? ' I 

1 Cf. the myth according to which Rahu, the personified eclipse, 
came in for his share before Brahma, the father of the world. 

2 Or of Rahuia. 

3 Lokabandhu, from elsewhere known as an epithet of the sun. 


do, Lord; I do, Sugata.' The Lord proceeded. 
All these two thousand monks, Ananda, shall 
simultaneously accomplish the course of Bodhi- 
sattvas, and after honouring, respecting, venerating, 
worshipping Buddhas as numerous as the atoms 
of fifty worlds, and after acquiring the true law. 
they shall, in their last bodily existence, attain 
supreme and perfect enlightenment at the same 
time, the same moment, the same instant, the same 
juncture in all directions of space, in different worlds, 
each in his own Buddha-field. They shall become 
Tathagatas, Arhats, &c., by the name of Ratnake- 
turagias l . Their lifetime shall last a complete /Eon. 
The division and good qualities of their Buddha- 
fields shall be equal ; equal also shall be the number 
of the congregation of their disciples and Bodhi- 
sattvas ; equal also shall be their complete extinction, 
and their true law shall continue an equal time. 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the fol- 
lowing stanzas : 

12. These two thousand disciples, Ananda, uho 
here are standing before me, to them, the sages, 
I now predict that in future they shall become 

13. After having paid eminent worship to the 
Buddhas, by means of infinite comparisons and 
examples, they shall, when standing in their last 
bodily existence, reach my extreme enlightenment. 

14. They shall all, under the same name, in every 
direction, at the same moment and instant, and 

1 In astrological works, in the enumeration of Grahas (sun, 
moon, planets, &c.), the Ketus are constantly named after Rahu. 
It is hardly fortuitous that here we find these 'kings of Ketus' 
mentioned immediately after Rahula. 

P 2 


sitting at the foot of the most exalted tree, become 
Buddhas, after they shall have reached the know- 

i;. All shall bear the same name of Ketus 1 of 


the Ratna, by which they shall be widely famed in 
this world. Their excellent fields shall be equal, 
and equal the congregation of disciples and Bodhi- 

1 6. Strong in magic power, they shall all simul- 
taneously, in ever\^ direction of space, reveal the law 
in this world and all at once 3 become extinct ; their 
true law shall last equally long. 

And the disciples, both such as were still under 
training and such as were not, on hearing from the 
Lord, face to face, the prediction concerning each of 
them, were pleased, exultant, ravished, joyous, filled 
with cheerfulness and delight, and addressed the 
Lord with the following stanzas : 

1 7. We are satisfied, Light of the world, to hear 
this prediction ; we are pleased, Tathigata, as if 
sprinkled with nectar. 

1 8. We have no doubt, no uncertainty that we 
shall become supreme amongst men; to-day we 
have obtained felicity, because we have heard that 

1 Ketumala, apparently * cluster of Ketus/ is the appellation 
of the western region; Ketumat is a ruler of the western quarter, 
i. e. the personification of the west. The phrase rendered by 
'standing in their last bodily existence' (paj/Jime samu^raye), 
in stanza 13, also means f standing in their elevation in the west/ 

2 MSS. ha\e sadapi, but this is obviously a clerical error for 





The Lord then addressed the eighty thousand 
Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas by turning to Bhaisha- 
^yarfjfa as their representative. Seest them, Bhai- 
sha^yarfg-a, in this assembly the many gods, Xagas, 
goblins, Gandharvas, demons, Garu^as, Kinnaras, 
great serpents, men, and beings not human, monks, 
nuns, male and female lay devotees, votaries of the 
vehicle of disciples, votaries of the vehicle of Pratye- 
kabuddhas, and those of the vehicle of Bodhi- 
sattvas, who have heard this Dharmaparyaya from 
the mouth of the Tathagata ? * I do, Lord ; I do. 
Sugata.' The Lord proceeded: Well, Bhaisha- 
^gyarijti, all those Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas \vho in 
this assembly have heard, were it but a single stanza, 
a single verse (or word), or who even by a single 
rising thought have joyfully accepted this Stitra, to 
all of them, Bhaishagyarsl^a, among the four classes 
of my audience I predict their destiny to supreme and 
perfect enlightenment. And all whosoever, Bhai- 
sha^yar^a, who, after the complete extinction of the 
Tathigata, shall hear this Dharmaparyaya and after 
hearing, were it but a single stanza, joyfully accept 
it, even with a single rising thought, to those also, 
Bhaisha^yar^a, be they young men or young ladies 
of good family, I predict their destiny to supreme and 
perfect enlightenment Those young men or ladies 


of good family, Bhaishajyaraja, shall be worship- 
pers of many hundred thousand myriads of ko/is 
of Buddhas. Those young men or ladies of good 
family, Bhaishafyarafa, shall have made a vow 
under hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of 
Buddhas. They must be considered as being 
reborn amongst the people of ^ambudvipa 1 , out of 
compassion to all creatures. Those who shall take, 
read, make known, recite, copy, and after copying 
always keep in memory and from time to time 
regard were it but a single stanza of this Dharma- 

Ocirvava; who bv that book-' shall feel veneration 

* * * * 

for the Tathagatas, treat them with the respect due 
to Masters , honour, revere, worship them; who 
shall worship that book with flowers, incense, per- 
fumed garlands, ointment, powder, clothes, umbrellas, 
flags, banners, music, c., and with acts of reverence 
such as bowing and joining hands; in short, Bhai- 
shayara"a, any young men or young ladies of 
good family who shall keep or joyfully accept were 
it but a single stanza of this Dharmaparyaya, to 
all of them, Bhaisha^arafa, I predict their being 
destined to supreme and perfect enlightenment. 

Should some man or woman, Bhaishagyarij-a, 
happen to ask: How now have those creatures to 
be who in future are to become Tathigatas, Arhats, 
&c. ? then that man or woman should be referred to 
the example of that young man or young lady of good 
family. ' Whoever is able to keep, recite, or teach, 

1 I.e. India. 

2 Tasmin pustake, literally e at that book/ i. e. when that book 
is being read, written, heard, &c. 

3 5astr*gauravea satkarishyanti. I take the instrumental 
case here to be the instrumental of manner. 


were it but a single stanza of four lines, and who- 
ever shows respect for this Dharmaparya} a, that 
young man or young lady of good family shall in 
future become a Tathagata, &c. : be persuaded of 
it/ For, Bhaisha^-yarag-a, such a young man or 
young lady of good family must be considered to 
be a Tathagata, and by the whole world, including 
the gods, honour should be done to such a Tatha- 
gata who keeps were it but a single stanza of 
this Dharmaparyaya, and far more, of course, to 
one who grasps, keeps, comprehends, makes known, 
copies, and after copying always retains in his memory 
this Dharmaparyaya entirely and completely, and who 
honours that book with flowers, incense, perfumed 
garlands, ointment, powder, clothes, umbrellas, flags, 
banners, music, joined hands, reverential bows and 
salutations. Such a young man or young lady of 
good family, Bhaisha^yara^a, must be held to be 
accomplished in supreme and perfect enlightenment , 
must be held to be the like of a Tathagata, who out 
of compassion and for the benefit of the world, by 
virtue of a former vow, makes his appearance here 
in ambudvipa, in order to make this Dharmapar- 
yaya generally known. Whosoever, after leaving 1 
his own lofty conception of the law 2 and the lofty 
Buddha-field occupied by him, in order to make 
generally known this Dharmaparyaya, after rm 

1 Sthapayitva, which commonly means 'apart from, barring. 1 

2 Ya>& svaz0 (var. lect yas ta/#) dharm&bmsawskaraflz. If \ve 
follow the former reading, sthipayitva can hardly be taken in 
the sense of ' apart from ;* in the other case it \\ould be possible, 
though I should be at a loss to guess the purport of the phrase. 
The real meaning of dharm&bhisafl* ska 1 ra is, probably, ' position 
in life ' or * religion.' C stanza 4 below* 


complete Nirvana, may be deemed to have ap- 
peared 1 in the predicament of a Tathagata 2 , such 
a one, Bhaisha^yarag-a, be it a young man or a 
young lady of good family, must be held to perform 
the function of the Tathagata, to be a deputy of the 
Tathagata. As such, Bhaisha^yarli^a, should be 
acknowledged the young man or the young lady of 
good family, who communicates this Dharma- 
paryaya, after the complete Nirv#a of the Tathd- 
gata, were it but in secret or by stealth or to one 
single creature that he communicated or told it. 

Again, Bhaisha^yara^a, if some creature vicious, 
wicked, and cruel-minded should in the (current) 
Age speak something injurious in the face of the 
Tathagata, and if some should utter a single harsh 
word, founded or unfounded, to those irreproachable 
preachers of the law and keepers of this Sutr&nta, 
whether lay devotees or clergymen, I declare that 
the latter sin is the graven For, Bhaisha^arl^a, 
such a young man or young lady of good family 
must be held to be adorned with the apparel of the 
Tathagata. He carries the Tathigata on his 
shoulder, Bhaish&gyaraga, who after having copied 
this Dharmaparyaya and made a volume of it, 
carries it on his shoulder. Such a one, wherever he 
goes, must be saluted by all beings with joined 
hands, must be honoured, respected, worshipped, 
venerated, revered by gods and men with flowers, 
incense, perfumed garlands, ointment, powder, clothes, 
umbrellas, flags, banners, musical instruments, with 

1 Upapanna, an ambiguous term ; it may also mean 'fit/ 

2 Tathagata-bhuta; avar. lect. has Tath gat a-dftt a, a mes- 
senger, a deputy of the TatMgata. 


food, soft and hard, with nourishment and drink, with 
vehicles, with heaps of choice and gorgeous jewels. 
That preacher of the law must be honoured by 
heaps of gorgeous jewels being presented to that 
preacher of the law. For it may be that by his 
expounding this Dharmaparyaya, were it only once, 
innumerable, incalculable beings who hear it shall 
soon become accomplished in supreme and perfect 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the fol- 
lowing stanzas: 

1. He who wishes to be established in Buddha- 
hood and aspires to the knowledge of the Self-born \ 
must honour those who keep this doctrine. 

2. And he who is desirous of omniscience and 
thinks : How shall I soonest reach it ? must try to 
know this Sfttra by heart, or at least honour one 
who knows it. 

3. He has been sent by the Lord of the world to 
convert (or catechise) men, he who out of compas- 
sion for mankind recites this Sfttra 2 . 

4. After giving up a good position, that great 
man 3 has come hither, he who out of compassion 
for mankind keeps this Sutra (in memory). 

5. It is by force of his position, that in the last 
times he is seen preaching this unsurpassed Stitra. 

6. That preacher of the law must be honoured 

1 Svayambhfi^wdna, which, to my apprehension, is an altera- 
tion of brahmavidysi. 

2 From such a passage as this one might be tempted to believe 
that it had been the intention of the author of this verse to repre- 
sent Buddha as eternal ; cf. BurnouFs remarks in his Introduction, 
p. 119. 

8 L e. the preacher or catechiser. 


with divine and human flowers and all sorts of per- 
fumes ; be decked with divine cloth and strewed 
with jewels. 

7. One should always reverentially salute him 
with joined hands, as if he were the Chief of Ginas 
or the Self-born, he who in these most dreadful, last 
days keeps this Sutra of the Extinct (Buddha). 

S. One should give food, hard and soft, nourish- 
ment and drink, lodging in a convent, ko/is of robes 
to honour the son of Gana, when he has propounded, 
be it but once, this Sutra. 

9. He performs the task of the Tathagatas and 
has been sent by me to the world of men, he who in 
the last days shall copy, keep, or hear this Sutra. 

10. The man who in wickedness of heart or with 
frowning brow should at any time of a whole yon 
utter something injurious in my presence, commits a 
great sin. 

1 1 . But one who reviles and abuses those guar- 
dians of this Sutranta, when they are expounding 
this Sutra, I say that he commits a still greater sin. 

12. The man who, striving for superior enlighten- 
ment, shall in a complete sEon praise me in my 
face with joined hands, with many myriads of ko/is 
of stanzas, 

13. Shall thence derive a great merit, since he 
has glorified me in gladness of heart. But a still 
greater merit shall he acquire who pronounces the 
praise of those (preachers). 

14. One who shall during eighteen thousand 
ko/is of /Eons pay worship to those objects of 
veneration 1 , with words, visible things, flavours, 
with divine scents and divine kinds of touch, 

1 Fusteshu. I think that these pustas, models, images, denote 


15. If such a one, by his paying that worship to 
the objects of veneration during eighteen thousand 
koris of JEons, happens to hear this Sutra, were it 
only once, he shall obtain an amazingly great 

I announce to thee, Bhaisha^yarafa, I declare to 
thee,that many are the Dharmaparyayas which I have 
propounded, am propounding, and shall propound. 
And among all those Dharmaparyayas, Bhaisha^a- 
rdgf a, it is this which is apt to meet with no acceptance 
with everybody, to find no belief with everybody. 
This, indeed, Bhaisha^'ara^a, is the transcendent 
spiritual esoteric lore of the law, preserved by the 
power of the Tathagatas, but never divulged ; it is 
an article (of creed) 1 not yet made known. By the 
majority of people, Bhaishafyarafa, this Dharmapar- 
yaya is rejected during the lifetime of the Tathagata ; 
in far higher degree such will be the case after his 
complete extinction. 

Nevertheless, Bhaisha^yara^a, one has to consider 
those young men or young ladies of good family to 
be invested with the robes of the Tathagata ; to be 
regarded and blessed by the Tath&gatas living in 
other worlds, that they shall have the force of indi- 
vidual persuasion, the force that is rooted in virtue, 

the exemplary preachers who are likened to the Tathagata, and 
sent by him (Tathigata-bhuta andTathagata-duta), spoken of 
in the preceding verses as well as in the prose passages above. 
Instead of models, I have used the phrase, objects of veneration, 
for clearness sake. Burnouf s original rendering * images ' is, so 
far as I can see, preferable to his correction of it into e books.' 
There is no question of books, only of a single work, the Lotus ; 
and it is clear that we must try to make the contents of the last 
two stanzas agree with the final part of the preceding prose. 
1 Or point of view, standpoint. 


and the force of a pious vow. They shall dwell 
apart in the convents of the Tathagata, Bhaisha- 
fyaraja, and shall have their heads stroked by the 
hand of the Tathagata, those young men and young 
ladies of good family, who after the complete extinc- 
tion of the Tathagata shall believe, read, write, honour 
this Dharmapary^ya and recite it to others. 

Again, Bhaishag-yar^a, on any spot of the earth 
where this Dharmaparyaya is expounded, preached, 
written, studied, or recited in chorus, on that spot, 
Bhaisha^'arag'a, one should build a Tathagata- 
shrine, magnificent, consisting of precious substances, 
high, and spacious ; but it is not necessary to depose in 
it relics of the Tathagata. For the body of the Tatha- 
gata is, so to say, collectively deposited there. Any 
spot of the earth where this Dharmaparyliya is ex- 
pounded or taught or recited or rehearsed in chorus 
or written or kept in a volume, must be honoured, 
respected, revered, worshipped as if it were a Sttipa, 
with all sorts of flowers, incense, perfumes, garlands, 
ointment, powder, clothes, umbrellas, flags, banners, 
triumphal streamers, with all kinds of song, music, 
dancing, musical instruments, castanets *, and shouts 
in chorus. And those, Bhaisha^yara^a, who approach 
a Tathagata-shrine to salute or see it, must be held 
to be near supreme and perfect enlightenment. For, 
Bhaisha^yarifa, there are many laymen as well as 
priests who observe the course of a Bodhisattva 
without however, coming so far as to see, hear, 
write or worship this Dharmaparydya. So long as 
they do not hear this Dharmaparydya, they are not 
yet proficient in the course of a Bodhisattva. But 


those who hear this Dharmaparyiya and thereupon 
accept, penetrate, understand, comprehend it, are at 
the time near supreme, perfect enlightenment, so to 
say, immediately near it. 

It is a case, Bhaisha^yarafa, similar to that of a 
certain man, who in need and in quest of water, in 
order to get water, causes a well to be dug in an arid 
tract of land. So long as he sees that the sand 
being dug out is dry and white, he thinks: the water 
is still far off. After some time he sees that the sand 
being dug out is moist, mixed with water, muddy, 
with trickling drops, and that the working men who 
are engaged in digging the well are bespattered 
with mire and mud. On seeing that foretoken, 
Bhaishafyaragu, the man will be convinced and 
certain that water is near. In the same manner, 
Bhaisha^yarifa, will these Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas 
be far away from supreme and perfect enlightenment 
so long as they do not hear, nor catch, nor penetrate, 
nor fathom, nor mind this Dharmaparyiya. But 
when the Bodhisattvas Mahisattvas shall hear, 
catch, penetrate, study, and mind this Dharmapar- 
ydya, then, Bhaisha^arS^a, they will be, so to say, 
immediately near supreme, perfect enlightenment 
From this Dharmaparyiya, Bhaishafyara^a, will ac- 
crue to creatures supreme and perfect enlightenment 
For this Dharmaparyiya contains an explanation of 
the highest mystery, the secret article 1 of the law 
which the Tathigatas, &c., have revealed for the 
perfecting of the Bodhisattvas Mahisattvas, Any 
Bodhisattva, Bhaisha^arS^a, who is startled, feels 
anxiety, gets frightened at this Dharmapary&ya, 

1 Or point 


may be held, Bhaishaf yara^a, to have (but) newly 
entered the vehicle \ If, however, a votary of the 
vehicle of the disciples is startled, feels anxiety, gets 
frightened at this Dharmapary&ya, such a person, de- 
voted to the vehicle of the disciples, Bhaisha^yare^a, 
may be deemed a conceited man. 

Any Bodhisattva Mahisattva, Bhaisha/yar^a, 
who after the complete extinction of the Tathagata, 
in the last times, the last period shall set forth this 
Dharmapary&ya to the four classes of hearers, 
should do so, Bhaisha^yari^a, after having entered 
the abode - of the Tath&gata, after having put on the 
robe of the Tathagata, and occupied the pulpit of the 
Tathagata. And what is the abode of the Tath&gata, 
Bhaishagyari^a ? It is the abiding 3 in charity (or 
kindness) to all beings; that is the abode of the 
Tathagata, Bhaisha^ yardf a, which the young man of 
good family has to enter. And what is the robe of 
the Tathagata, Bhaishagyarifa ? It is the apparel of 
sublime forbearance ; that is the robe of the Tathi- 
gata, Bhaisha^yarif a, which the young man of good 
family has to put on. What is the pulpit of the 
Tathagata, Bhaisha/yard^a ? It is the entering into 
the voidness (or complete abstraction) of all laws (or 
things) ; that is the pulpit, Bhaishafyail^a, on which 
the young man of good family has to sit in order to 
set forth this Dharmaparyiya to the four classes of 
hearers. A Bodhisattva ought to propound this 
Dharmaparyaya with unshrinking mind, before the 
face of the congregated Bodhisattvas, the four classes 

1 The MahdySna, apparently. 

3 Layana, recess, retreat, refuge, cell, lair, stronghold, asylum, 
8 Vihdra, both walk and abode, and further, monasteiy. 


of hearers, who are striving for the vehicle of Bodhi- 
sattvas, and I, staying in another world, Bhaishafya- 
rifa, will by means of fictious creatures 1 make the 
minds of the whole congregation favourably disposed 
to that young man of good family, and I will send 
fictious monks, nuns, male and female lay devotees 
in order to hear the sermon of the preacher, who 
are unable to gainsay or contradict him 2 . If after- 
wards he shall have retired to the forest I will send 
thither many gods, Nigas, goblins, Gandharvas, 
demons, GaiWas, Kinnaras, and great serpents to 
hear him preach, while I, stajing in another world, 
Bhaisha^yara^a, will show my face to that young 
man of good family, and the words and syllables 
of this Dharmapary&ya which he happens to have 
forgotten will I again suggest to him 3 when he 
repeats his lesson. 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the fol- 
lowing stanzas: 

1 6. Let one listen to this exalted Stitra, avoiding 
all distractedness ; for rare is the occasion (given) for 
hearing it, and rare also the belief in it. 

1 Nirmitai^ ; the word is masculine, as appears from the 

2 1 cannot tell what real phenomena are underlying these crea- 
tions of the Buddha after his Nirvfina ; but this much seems clear, 
that we have in this piece a description of the practical course 
a young preacher has to go through in order to become fit for 
his task. 

3 Pratyudrayishy&mi, literally, I will cause him to re-utter. 
The real purport, unless I am much mistaken, is : on a following 
day (Buddha) will restore what the student has forgotten from his 
lesson, provided he reads the passage again; or, if we take the 
words in a spiritual sense, the mental light of the student will again 
supply what he has forgotten of his lesson. Cf. stanza 31. 


1 7. It is a case similar to that of a certain man 
who in want of water goes to dig a well in an arid 
tract of land, and sees how again and again only dry 
sand is being dug up. 

1 8. On seeing which he thinks: the water is far 
off; a token of its being far off is the dry white 
sand which appears in digging. 

19. But when he (afterwards) sees again and again 
the sand moist and smooth, he gets the conviction 
that water cannot be very far off. 

20. So, too, are those men far from Buddha- 
knowledge who have not heard this Sutra and have 
failed to repeatedly meditate on it. 

21. But those who have heard and oft meditated 
on this profound king amongst Sutras, this authorita- 
tive book l for disciples, 

22. Are wise and near Buddha-knowledge, even 
as from the moisture of sand may be inferred that 
water is near. 

23. After entering the abode of the Gina, putting 
on his robe and sitting down on my seat, the 
preacher should, undaunted, expound this Stitra. 

24. The strength of charity (or kindness) is my 
abode ; the apparel of forbearence is my robe ; and 
voidness (or complete abstraction) is my seat; let 
(the preacher) take his stand on this and preach. 

25. Where clods, sticks, pikes, or abusive words 
and threats fall to the lot of the preacher, let him 
be patient, thinking of me. 

26. My body has existed entire in thousands of 

decision, here hardly differing from tantra or 
siddhanta. After the model of the latter has been framed the 
term Sutranta; and the Lotus, as -we know, is a Sfttranta. 


ko/is of regions ; during a number of ko/is 
beyond comprehension I teach the law to creatures. 

27. To that courageous man who shall proclaim 
this Sutra after my complete exf 'action I will also 
send many creations x . 

28. Monks, nuns, lay devotees, male and female, 
will honour him as well as the classes of the 

29. And should there be some to attack him with 
clods, sticks, injurious words, threats, taunts, then 
the creations shall defend him. 

30. And when he shall stay alone, engaged in 
study, in a lonely place, in the forest or the hills, 

31. Then will I show him my luminous body and 
enable him to remember the lesson he forgot \ 

32. While he is living lonely in the wilderness, I 
will send him gods and goblins in great number to 
keep him company. 

33- Such are the advantages he is to enjoy; 
whether he is preaching to the four classes, or living, 
a solitary, in mountain caverns and studying his 
lesson, he will see me. 

34. His readiness of speech knows no impedi- 
ment; he understands the manifold requisites of 
exegesis ; he satisfies thousands of ko#s of beings 
because he is, so to say, inspired (or blessed) by the 
Buddha 3 . 

1 Bahunirmitan. As a class of angels is called Parininnita 
Vajavartm, it may be that the idea the word nirmita was intended 
to convey to the simple-minded is that of angels. 

2 Here the Buddha seems to be the personification of the faculty 
of memory, of mental light. 

8 Buddhena. Burnouf seems to have read BuddhaiA, the 

[21] Q 


35. And the creatures who are entrusted to his 
care shall very soon all become Bodhisattvas, and 
by cultivating his intimacy they shall behold Bud- 
uhas as numerous as the sands of the Ganges. 




Then there arose a Stupa, consisting of seven 
precious substances, from the place of the earth op- 
posite the Lord, the assembly being in the middle *, 
a Stupa five hundred yo^anas in height and pro- 
portionate in circumference. After its rising, the 
Stftpa, a meteoric phenomenon 2 , stood in the sky 
sparkling, beautiful, nicely decorated with five thou- 
sand 3 successive terraces of flowers 4 , adorned 
with many thousands of arches, embellished by 
thousands of banners and triumphal streamers, hung 
with thousands of jewel-garlands and with hoxir- 
plates and bells, and emitting the scent of Xan- 
thochymus and sandal, which scent filled this whole 
world. Its row of umbrellas rose so far on high as 
to touch the abodes of the four guardians of the 

1 Between the Lord (i.e. the Sun) and the Stupi of seven 
Ratnas, i. e. here, it would seem, the rainbow of seven colours. 
We shall see that the Stupa has also another function, that of 
symbolising the celestial dhish^ya in which sun and moon are 
standing. Cf. E Senart, Essai sur la Idgende du Buddha, p. 436. 

2 Vaihdyasam, in the neuter gender, \shereas stupa is 

8 The number of colours is now five, the a seven. Moreover 
there ought to be a parallelism between the five colours and the 
five planets, and, on the other hand, between the seven ratnas, 
or colours, and the grahas, including sun and moon. In Rig- 
veda we find saptara^mi and panarani. 

* Pushpagrahamvedika. 



horizon and the gods. It consisted of seven precious 
substances, viz. gold, silver, lapis lazuli, Musiragalva, 
emerald, red coral, and K arke tana-stone \ This 
Stupa of precious substances once formed, the gods 
of paradise strewed and covered it with Mandrava 
and great Mandftra flowers 2 . And from that StApa 
of precious substances there issued this voice : Ex- 
cellent, excellent, Lord Sakyamuni ! thou hast well 
expounded this Dharmaparyaya of the Lotus of the 
True Law. So it is, Lord ; so it is, Sugata. 

At the sight of that great Stupa of precious sub- 
stances, that meteoric phenomenon in the sky, the 
four classes of hearers were filled with gladness, 
delight, satisfaction and joy. Instantly they rose 
from their seats, stretched out their joined hands, and 
remained standing in that position. Then the Bodhi- 
sattva Mahasattva Mahapratibhina, perceiving the 
world, including gods, men, and demons, filled with 
curiosity, said to the Lord: O Lord, what is the 
cause, what is the reason of so magnificent a Stftpa 
of precious substances appearing in the world ? Who 
is it, O Lord, who causes that sound to go out from 
the magnificent Stupa of precious substances ? Thus 
asked, the Lord spake to Mahapratibhina, the Bodhi- 
sattva Mahasattva, as follows : In this great Sttipa 
of precious substances, MahapratitMna, the proper 
body 3 of the Tathagata is contained condensed ; his 
is the Sttipa ; it is he who causes this sound to go out 

1 The raising of a seven-jewelled Stupa is also narrated in the 
Vinaya Pi/aka of the Mahasdnghika school, according to Beal in the 
Indian Antiquary, voL xi, p. 47. The particulars of the description 
in that narrative bear little resemblance to those found in our text. 

a There fell smaller and bigger drops of rain. 

* AtmabhSva, also the very nature, the essential being. 


In the point of space below, Mahapratibhana, there 
are innumerable thousands of worlds *. Further on 
is the world called RatnavLmddha 2 , there is the 
Tathigata named Prabhtitaratna, the Arhat, &c. 
This Lord of yore made this vow : Formerly, when 
following the course of a Bodhisattva, I have not 
arrived at supreme, perfect enlightenment before I 
had heard this Dharmaparyaya of the Lotus of the 
True Law, serving for the instruction of Bodhi- 
sattvas. But from the moment that I had heard 
this Dharmaparydya of the Lotus of the True Law, 
I have become fully ripe for supreme, perfect 
enlightenment Now, Mahapratibhana, that Lord 
Prabhutaratna, the Tathagata, &c., at the juncture of 
time when his complete extinction was to take place, 
announced in presence of the world, including the 
gods : After my complete extinction, monks, one 
Sttipa must be made of precious substances of this 
frame (or form) of the proper body of the Tatha- 
gata 3 ; the other Sttipas, again, should be made 
in dedication (or in reference) to me. Thereupon, 
Mahipratibhdna, the Lord Prabhfttaratna, the Tatha- 
gata, &c., pronounced this blessing : Let my Stupa 
here, this Stftpa of my proper bodily frame (or form), 
arise wherever in any Buddha-field in the ten direc- 
tions of space, in all worlds, the Dharmaparyaya of 
the Lotus of the True Law is propounded, and let 

1 Var, lect innumerable hundred thousand myriads of koAs of 

2 I. e. clear by jewels (stars), or, quite the reverse, cleared from 
jewels. Most probably, however, we have to take it in the former 
sense. The world so called is, apparently, the starry vault, beyond 
the atmosphere where the rainbow is glittering. 

8 Asya Tathagatdtmabhavavigrahasya, 


it stand in the sky above the assembled congrega- 
tion when this Dharniaparyaya of the Lotus of the 
True Law is being preached by some Lord Buddha 
or another, and let this Stupa of the frame (or form) 
of my proper body give a shout of applause to those 
Buddhas while preaching this Dharmaparyiya of 
the Lotus of the True Law 1 . It is that Stupa, 
Mahapratibhana, of the relics of the Lord Prabhu- 
taratna, the Tathagata, &c., which, while I was 
preaching this Dharmaparyiya of the Lotus of the 
True Law in this Saha-world, arose above this 
assembled congregation and, standing as a meteor 
in the sky, gave its applause. 

Then said Mahapratibhana, the Bodhisattva Maha- 
sattva, to the Lord: Show us, O Lord, through thy 
power the frame of the afore-mentioned TatMgata. 
Whereon the Lord spake to the Bodhisattva Mahd- 
sattva Mahapratibhana as follows : This Lord Pra- 
bhutaratna, Mahapratibhana, has made a grave and 
pious vow. That vow consisted in this : When the 
Lords, the Buddhas, being in other Buddha-fields, 
shall preach this Dharmaparyava of the Lotus of the 

1 We shall see that the * extinct Lord Prabhutaratna ' is to sit 
in the middle of the Stupa along with the Buddha. The moon is 
'completely extinct' when in conjunction with the sun, and 
it seems sufficiently clear that Prabhfitaratna, the Tathdgata, the 
Arhat, &c., is the moon at the time of am^vasya*, conjunction. 
The Stupa, in the centre of which sun and moon are sitting 
together at that period, cannot be the rainbow, so that we have 
m the sequel again to take Stupa in the sense of dhishwya, 
asterism ; see note i, p. 227. The crescent surmounting the Stupa- 
symbols on coins (see Senart, 1. c.) is not exactly the representa- 
tion of the * extinct Lord' who is difficult to be represented but 
of the same nature. The appearance of this symbol on those 
coins is by itself sufficient to show the high antiquity of a refined 
nature- worship in Buddhism. 


True Law, then let this Stupa of the frame of m> 
proper body be near the Tathagata 1 to hear fron 
him this Dharmaparyaya of the Lotus of the True 
Law. And when those Lords, those Buddhas wish to 
uncover the frame of my proper body and show it 
to the four classes of hearers, let then the Tatha- 
gata-frames, made by the Tathagatas in all quarters, 
in different Buddha-fields, from their own proper 
body, and preaching the law to creatures, under 
different names in several Buddha-fields, let all those 
Tathagata-frames, made from the proper body, united 
together, along with this Stupa containing the frame 
of my own body, be opened and shown to the four 
classes of hearers. Therefore, Mahapratibhana, have 
I made many Tathagata-frames 2 which in all quarters, 
in several Buddha-fields in thousands of worlds, 
preach the law to creatures. All those ought to be 
brought hither. 

Thereupon the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Maha- 
pratibhana said to the Lord : Then, O Lord, shall 
we reverentially salute all those bodily emanations 
of the Tathagata and created by the Tathagata. 

And instantly the Lord darted from the circle of 
hair on his brow a ray, which was no sooner darted 
than the Lords, the Buddhas stationed in the east in 
fifty hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of worlds, 
equal to the sands of the river Ganges, became all visi- 
ble, and the Buddha-fields there, consisting of crystal 
became visible, variegated with jewel trees, decorated 

1 The place of the moon just before entering Nirvana must of 
course be near the sun's seat of the law. 

2 It is hardly necessary to remark that by the luminous bodies, 
the attendants of Prabhfttaratna, i. e. the stars, are meant. 


with strings of fine cloth, replete with many hundred 
thousands of Bodhisattvas, covered with canopies, 
decked with a network of seven precious substances 
and gold *. And in those fields appeared the Lords, 
the Buddhas, teaching with sweet and gentle voice the 
law to creatures; and those Buddha-fields seemed 
replete with hundred thousands of Bodhisattvas. 
So, too, it was in the south-east; so in the south; 
so in the south-west; so in the west; so in the 
north-west ; so in the north ; so in the north-east ; 
so in the nadir ; so in the zenith ; so in the ten 
directions of space ; in each direction were to be 
seen many hundred thousand myriads of ko#s of 
Buddha-fields, similar to the sands of the river 
Ganges, in many worlds similar to the sands of the 
river Ganges, Lords Buddhas in many hundred 
thousand myriads of ko/is of Buddha-fields. 

Those Tath^gatas, &c., in the ten directions of 
space then addressed each his own troop of Bodhi- 
sattvas : We shall have to go, young men of good 
family, to the Saha-world near the Lord .Sikyamuni, 
the Tathagata, &c., to humbly salute the Stftpa 
of the relics of Prabhiitaratna, the Tathdgata, &c. 
Thereupon those Lords, those Buddhas resorted with 
their own satellites, each with one or two, to this 
Saha-world At that period this all-embracing world 
was adorned with jewel trees ; it consisted of lapis 
lazuli, was covered with a network of seven precious 
substances and gold, smoking with the odorous 
incense of magnificent jewels, everywhere strewn 
with Mandarava and great Mandirava flowers, 

1 Here we see that gold does not belong to the seven ratnas. 
The whole list of the seven colours seems to have undergone 
some alterations. 


decorated with a network of little bells \ showing a 
checker board divided by gold threads into eight 
compartments, devoid of villages, towns, boroughs, 
provinces, kingdoms, and royal capitals, without 
Kdla-mountain, without the mountains Mu&linda 
and great Mu&linda, without a mount Sumeru, 
without a ^Takravala (i. e. horizon) and great -ATakra- 
vsila (i. e. extended horizon), without other principal 
mountains, without great oceans, without rivers 
and great rivers, without bodies of gods, men, and 
demons, without hells, without brute creation, with- 
out a kingdom of Yama. For it must be understood 
that at that period all beings in any of the six states 
of existence in this world had been removed to 
other worlds, with the exception of those who were 
assembled at that congregation \ Then it was that 
those Lords, those Buddhas, attended by one or two 
satellites, arrived at this Saha-world and went one 
after the other to occupy their place close to the 
foot of a jewel tree. Each of the jewel trees was 
five hundred yo^anas in height, had boughs, leaves, 
foliage, and circumference in proportion 3 , and was 
provided with blossoms and fruits. At the foot of 
each jewel tree stood prepared a throne, five yo^anas 
in height, and adorned with magnificent jewels. Each 
Tathslgata went to occupy his throne and sat on it 
cross-legged. And so all the Tathagatas of the whole 
sphere sat cross-legged at the foot of the jewel trees. 

2 The hells at least, which are places of darkness, could not be 
present when the stars are shining brightly. 

8 My MSS. read paw^ayo^najatSny uaistvenibhiit, anupftrva- 
$aiMpatrapaiarapariaha& In the sequel we meet with another 
reading agreeing with Buraouf s, 


At that moment the whole sphere was replete 
with Tathagatas, bat the beings produced from the 
proper body of the Lord 6akyamuni had not yet 
arrived, not even from a single point of the horizon. 
Then the Lord vSakyamuni, the Tathagata, &c., pro- 
ceeded to make room for those Tathagata-frames 
that were arriving one after the other. On every 
side in the eight directions of space (appeared) 
twenty hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of Bud- 
dha-fields of lapis lazuli, decked with a network of 
seven precious substances and gold, decorated with 
a fringe of little bells, strewn with Mandarava and 
great Mandarava flowers, covered with heavenly 
awnings, hung with wreaths of heavenly flowers, 
smoking with heavenly odorous incense. All those 
twenty hundred thousand myriads of koris of Bud- 
dha-fields were without villages, towns, boroughs, 
c; without Kala-mountain, &c.; without great 
oceans, &c.; without bodies of gods, &c. All those 
Buddha-fields were so arranged by him as to form 
one Buddha-field, one soil even, lovely, set off with 
trees of seven precious substances, trees five hun- 
dred yq^anas in height and circumference, provided 
with boughs, flowers, and fruits in proportion \ At 
the foot of each tree stood prepared a throne, five 
ycganas in height and width, consisting of celestial 
gems, glittering and beautiful. The Tathigatas 
arriving one after the other occupied the throne 
near the foot of each tree, and sat cross-legged. In 
like manner the TatMgata .Sakyamuni prepared 
twenty hundred thousand myriads of ko^is of other 

1 The reading is somewhat doubtfiil: Srohapariwihomipftrva- 
(var. lect. ha^, anupftrva-)rakhapatrapushpaphalopeta(/&). 


worlds, in every direction of space, in order to give 
room to the Tathagatas who were arriving one after 
the other. Those twenty hundred thousand myriads 
of ko/is of worlds in every direction of space were 
likewise so made by him as to be without villages, 
towns, &c. [as above]. They were without bodies 
of gods, &c. [as above]; all those beings had been 
removed to other worlds. These Buddha-fields also 
were of lapis lazuli, &c. [as above]. All those 
jewel trees measured five hundred yq^anas, and near 
them were thrones, artificially made and measuring 
five yq^anas. Then those Tathagatas sat down 
cross-legged, each on a throne at the foot of a 
jewel tree. 

At that moment the Tathagatas produced by the 
Lord vS&kyamuni, who in the east were preaching the 
law to creatures in hundred thousands of myriads of 
ko^is of Buddha-fields, similar to the sands of the river 
Ganges, all arrived from the ten points of space and 
sat down in the eight quarters. Thereupon thirty 
ko#s of worlds in each direction were occupied 1 by 
those Tathigatas from all the eight quarters. Then, 
seated on their thrones, those Tathagatas deputed 
their satellites into the presence of the Lord .Sakya- 
muni, and after giving them bags with jewel flowers 
enjoined them thus: Go, young men of good family, 
to the Grzdhrakti/a mountain, where the Lord iSa- 
kyamuni, the Tathagata, &c., is; salute him reveren- 
tially and ask, in our name, after the state of health, 
well-being, lustiness, and comfort both of himself 
and the crowd of Bodhisattvas and disciples. Strew 

1 Burnouf seems to have read atikrinta } for his translation has 
' franchirent/ whereas my MSS. have Ukrdnta. One of the ^1 
has lokadhtuko/ibhyo instead of c ko/yo. 


him with this heap of jewels and speak thus: Would 
the Lord Tathagata deign to open this great Stupa 
of jewels ? It was in this manner that all those 
Tathagatas deputed their satellites. 

And when the Lord .Sakyamuni, the Tathagata, 
perceived that his creations, none wanting, had 
arrived ; perceived that they were severally seated 
on their thrones, and perceived that the satellites of 
those Tathagatas, &c., were present, he, in considera- 
tion of the wish expressed by those Tathagatas, &c., 
rose from his seat and stood in the sky, as a 
meteor. And all the four classes of the assembly 
rose from their seats, stretched out their joined hands, 
and stood gazing up to the face of the Lord. The 
Lord then, with the right fore-finger *, unlocked the 
middle of the great Stupa of jewels, which showed 
like a meteor, and so severed the two parts. Even 
as the double doors of a great city gate separate 
when the bolt is removed, so the Lord opened the 
great Stftpa, which showed like a meteor, by un- 
locking it in the middle with the right fore-finger. 
The great Stiipa of jewels had no sooner been opened 
than the Lord Prabhiitaratna, the Tathigata, &c., 
was seen sitting cross-legged on his throne, with 
emaciated 2 limbs and faint body, as if absorbed in 
abstract meditation, and he pronounced these words : 
Excellent, excellent, Lord iSakyamuni; thou hast 
well expounded this Dharrnaparyaya of the Lotus 
of the True Law. I repeat, thou hast well expounded 
this DharmaparyaLya of the Lotus of the True Law, 

1 Dakshi^ayd hastangulyl 

8 Parifushkagatra, var. lect parunddha , with thoroughly 
pure or correct limbs. Eurnouf had committed no mistake in reading 
pari jushka , though he accuses himself of having done so. 


Lord -SSkyamuni, to the (four) classes of the 
assembly. I myself, Lord, have come hither to 
hear the Dharmaparyaya of the Lotus of the True 

Now the four classes of the assembly, on per- 
ceiving the Lord PrabMtaratna, the Tathagata, &c., 
who had been extinct for many hundred thousand 
myriads of koris of JEons, speaking in this way, 
were filled with wonder and amazement Instantly 
they covered the Lord Prabhtitaratna, the Tatha- 
gata, &c., and the Lord Sakyamuni, the Tathigata, 
&c., with heaps of divine and human flowers. And 
then the Lord Prabhutaratna, the Tathagata, &C M 
ceded to the Lord ^alkyamuni, the Tathagata, &c., 
the half of the seat on that very throne within that 
same great Stupa of jewels and said : Let the Lord 
.Sikyamuni, the Tathigata, &c., sit down here. 
Whereon the Lord Sakyamuni, the Tathagata, &c., 
sat down upon that half-seat together with the other 
Tathdgata, so that both Tathigatas were seen as 
meteors in the sky, sitting on the throne in the 
middle of the great Sttipa of jewels. 

And in the minds of those four classes of the 
assembly rose this thought : We are far off from 
the two Tath^gatas ; therefore let us also, through 
the power of the Tathagata, rise up to the sky. As 
the Lord apprehended in his mind what was going 
on in the minds of those four classes of the as- 
sembly, he instantly, by magic power, established 
the four classes as meteors in the sky. Thereupon 
the Lord 6&kyamuni, the Tathagata, addressed the 
four classes: Who amongst you, monks, will en- 
deavour to expound this Dharmaparyiya of the 
Lotus of the True Law in this Saha-world ? The 


fatal term, the time (of death I is now at hand ; the 
Tathagata longs for complete extinction, monks, 
after entrusting to you this Dharmapar) aya of the 
Lotus of the True Law. 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the fol- 
lowing stanzas : 

1. Here you see, monks, the great Seer, the ex- 
tinct Chief, within the Stupa of jewels, who now has 
come to hear the law. Who would not call up his 
energy for the law's sake ? 

2. Albeit completely extinct for many ko/is of 
/Eons, he yet now comes to hear the law ; for the 
law's sake he moves hither and thither ; very rare 
(and very precious) is a law like this. 

3. This Leader practised 1 a vow when he was 
in a former existence ; even after his complete ex- 
tinction he wanders through this whole world in all 
ten points of space. 

4. And all these (you here see) are my proper 
bodies, by thousands of ko/is, like 2 the sands of the 
Ganges ; they have appeared that the law may be 
fulfilled J and in order to see this extinct Master. 

5. After laying out* for each his peculiar field, as 
well as having (created) all disciples, men and gods, 
in order to preserve the true law, as long as the reign 
of the law shall last, 

6. I have by magic power cleared many worlds, 

1 Nishevita. 2 Yathl 

3 Dharmakr/tyasya kr/tena, literally, for the sake of the 
task or office of the law. 

4 -Ooritva, Sanskr&fcuritvl. and >S^orayitvd, to inlay, make 
inlaid work, cut figures, fashion. Sakyamuni is most distinctly 
represented as a creator in the Indian sense, of course in the 
same way as Brahma Hira#yagarbha is a creator. 



destined as seats for those Buddhas, and transported 
all creatures. 

7. It has (always) been my anxious care how this 
line of the law might be manifested. So Cjou see; 
Buddhas here in immense number staying at the 
foot of trees like a great multitude of lotuses. 

8. Many ko#s of bases of trees are brightened by 
the Leaders sitting on the thrones which are per- 
petually occupied by them and brightened as dark- 
ness is by fire. 

9. A delicious fragrance spreads from the Leaders 
of the world over all quarters, (a fragrance) by which, 
when the wind is blowing, all these creatures are 

10. Let him who after my extinction shall keep 
this Dharmaparyiya quickly pronounce his declara- 
tion in the presence of the Lords of the world 

11. The Seer Prabhutaratna who, though com- 
pletely extinct, is awake, will hear the lion's roar of 
him who shall take this resolution 1 . 

12. Myself, in the second place, as well as the 
many Chiefs who have flocked hither by kofis, will 
hear that resolution from the son of Gina, who is to 
exert himself to expound this law. 

13. And thereby shall I always be honoured as 
well as Prabhtitaratna, the self-born ina,who perpe- 
tually wanders through the quarters and intermediate 
quarters in order to hear such a law as this. 

14. And these (other) Lords of the world here 
present, by whom this soil is so variegated and 
splendid, to them also will accrue ample and mani- 
fold honour from this Sfttra being preached. 

1 Vyavas&ya, 


15. Here on this seat you see me, together with 
the Lord next to me, in the middle of the Sttapa ; 
likewise many other Lords of the world here present, 
in many hundreds of fields. 

1 6. Ye, young men of good family, mind, for 
mercy's sake towards all beings, that it is a very 
difficult task to which the Chief urges you. 

17. One might expound many thousands of Sfttras, 
like to the sands of the Ganges, without overmuch 

1 8. One who after grasping the Sumeru in the 
fist were to hurl it a distance of ko/is of fields, would 
do nothing very difficult. 

19. Nor would it be so very difficult if one could 
shake this whole universe by the thumb to hurl it a 
distance of ko/is of fields. 

20. Nor would one who, after taking stand on the 
limit of the existing world, were to expound the law 
and thousands of other Sutras, do something so very 

21. But to keep and preach this Stitra in the 
dreadful period succeeding the extinction of the 
Chief of the world, that is difficult 1 . 

22. To throw down the totality of ether-element 
after compressing it in one fist, and to leave it 
behind after having thrown it away, is not difficult. 

23. But to copy a Stitra like this in the period 
after my extinction, that is difficult 2 . 

24. To collect the whole earth-element at a nail's 

1 Yet the stars perform that extremely difficult task apparently 
with the greatest ease. 

a Nay, it is impossible, if one does not avail oneself of a lamp or 
other artificial light 


end, cast it away, and then walk off to the Brahma- 
world 1 , 

25. Is not difficult, nor would it require a strength 
surpassing everybody' s strength to do this work of 

26. Something more difficult than that will he do 
who in the last days after my extinction shall pro- 
nounce this Sutra, were it but a single moment 

27. It will not be difficult for him to walk in the 
midst of the conflagration at the (time of the) end 
of the world, even if he carries with him a load 
of hay. 

28. More difficult it will be to keep this Stitra 
after my extinction and teach it to a single creature. 

^ 29. One may keep the eighty-four thousand divi- 
sions of the law- and expound them, with the 

1 Brahmaloka may mean either one of the twenty Brahma 
heavens, or all of them collectively. There are four arftpabrah- 
malokas, and sixteen riipabrahmalokas. 

2 Dharmaskandha, Pali Dhammakkhandha; see Bumouf, 
Introd. p. 34 seq.; B. H. Hodgson, Essajs, p. 14 ; Childers, Pali 
Diet. p. 1 17, where the following definition is given: ' The Tipi/aka 
is dhided into eighty-four thousand dhammakkhandhas, articles" 
or " sections of the Law." They are divisions according to sub- 
ject. Buddhaghosa, as an illustration of the meaning of this term, 
says that a Sutta, or discourse, dealing with one subject forms one 
dh., while a Sutta embracing several subjects forms several/ It is 
worth while to compare this number of divisions with the eighty- 
four thousand monasteries erected by king Ajoka in the eighty-four 
(thousand) to^ns of India, as \\e know from the historical work 
Dipavawsa VI, 95 seq., where we read (according to Dr.Oldenberg's 
transl.): 'Full and complete eighty-four thousand most precious 
sections of the Truth (dhammakkhandha) have been taught by 
the most excellent Buddha; I will build eighty-four thousand 
monasteries, honouring each single section of the Truth by one 

[21] R 


instructions and such as they have been set forth, to 
ko/is of living beings ; 

30. This is not so difficult ; nor is it, to train at 
the present time monks, and confirm my disciples in 
the five parts of transcendent knowledge. 

31. But more difficult is it to keep this Stitra, 
believe in it, adhere to it, or expound it again and 

32. Even he who confirms many thousands of 
ko/is of Arhats, blest with the possession of the 
six transcendent faculties (Abhif^as), like sands of 
the Ganges 1 , 

33. Performs something not so difficult by far as 
the excellent man does who after my extinction shall 
keep my sublime law. 

34. I have often, in thousands of worlds, preached 
the law, and to-day also I preach it with the view 
that Buddha-knowledge may be obtained. 

35. This Sutra is declared the principal of all 
Sutras ; he who keeps in his memory this Sutra, 
keeps the body of the ina. 

36. Speak, O young men of good family, while 
the Tathagata is (still) in your presence, who 
amongst you is to exert himself 2 in later times to 
keep the Sutra. 

37. Not only I myself shall be pleased, but the 
Lords of the world in general, if one would keep for 
a moment this Sutra so difficult to keep. 

38. Such a one shall ever be praised by all the 
Lords of the world, famed as an eminent hero, and 
quick in arriving at transcendent wisdom. 

1 The latter half of the stanza runs thus : 
bhagan yatha Gafigava vilikl 
fl Or, shall be capable. 


39. He shall be entrusted with the leadership 
amongst the sons of the Tathagatas, he who, after 
having reached the stage of meekness \ shall keep 
this Sutra. 

40. He shall be the eye of the world, including 
gods and men, who shall speak this Sutra after the 
extinction of the Chief of men. 

41. He is to be venerated by all beings, the wise 
man who in the last times shall preach this Sutra 
(were it but) a single moment. 

Thereupon the Lord addressed the whole company 
of Bodhisattvas and the world, including gods and 
demons, and said: Of yore, monks, in times past 
I have, unwearied and without repose, sought after 
the Stitra of the Lotus of the True Law, during im- 
mense, immeasurable JEons ; many -^Eons before 
I have been a king, during many thousands of 
JEons. Having once taken the strong resolution 
to arrive at supreme, perfect enlightenment, my 
mind did not swerve from its aim. I exerted myself 
to fulfil the six Perfections (Piramitas), bestowing 
immense alms : gold, money, gems, pearls, lapis 
lazuli, conch-shells, stones (?), coral, gold and silver, 
emerald, Mus&ragalva, red pearls; villages, towns, 
boroughs, provinces, kingdoms, royal capitals; wives, 
sons, daughters, slaves, male and female ; elephants, 
horses, cars, up to the sacrifice of life and body, of 
limbs and members, hands, feet, head. And never 
did the thought of self-complacency 3 rise in me. In 

1 Dhuravdha. 

8 D&ntabhftmi. DSnta is tamed, subject, meek; and also a 
young tamed bullock. 
3 Agraha^ittam. 

K 2 


those days the life of men lasted long, so that for a 
time of many hundred thousand years I was exer- 
cising the rule of a King of the Law for the sake of 
duty, not for the sake of enjoyment 1 . After install- 
ing in government the eldest prince royal, I went in 
quest of the best law in the four quarters, and had 
promulgated with sound of bell the following pro- 
clamation : He who procures for me the best law 2 or 
points out what is useful, to him will I become a 
servant At that time there lived a Seer ; he told 
me : Noble king, there is a Sutra, called the Lotus 
of the True Law, which is an exposition of the best 
law. If thou consent to become my servant, I will 
teach thee that law. And I, glad, content, exulting 
and ravished at the words I heard from the Seer, 
became his pupil 3 , and said: I will do for thee the 
work of a servant. And so having agreed upon 
becoming the servant of the Seer, I performed the 
duties of a servitor, such as fetching grass, fuel, 
water, bulbs, roots, fruit, &c. I held also the office 
of a doorkeeper. When I had done such kind of 
work at day-time, I at night kept his feet while he 

1 This golden age evidently coincided with the reign of king 
Yima in Iran, of king Fr68i in Denmark, of king Manu in 
India ; in short, with the dawn of humanity. 

2 Or, the best right. 

s Upeyitavdn. The original must have had upeyiv^n. The 
whole story, so different in language, style, phraseology, choice of 
words and spirit from anything else in the Lotus, has been so 
profoundly altered that almost every word must be taken in 
another sense than what originally was attached to it. I am not 
sure that those who modified the ancient tale understood the 
meaning of upeyivan; even the grammatical form was a puzzle., 
if not to them, at least to the scribes. 


was lying on his couch 1 , and never did I feel fatigue 
of body or mind. In such occupations I passed 
a full millennium. 

And for the fuller elucidation of this matter the 
Lord on that occasion uttered the following stanzas : 

42. I have a remembrance of past ages when I 
was Dhirmika 2 , the King of the Law, and exercised 
the royal sway for duty's sake, not for love's sake, in 
the interest of the best law 3 . 

43- I let go out in all directions this proclamation: 
I will become a servant to him who shall explain 
Dharma 4 . At that time there was a far-seeing Sage, 
a revealer of the Sutra called the True Law 6 , 

44. He said to me : If thou wish to know Dharma, 
become my servant 6 ; then I will explain it to thee. 
As I heard these words I rejoiced and carefully per- 
formed such work as a servant ought to do. 

45. I never felt any bodily nor mental weariness 
since I had become a servant for the sake of the 
true law. I did my best 7 for real truth's sake 8 , not 
with a view to win honour or enjoy pleasure. 

1 Sayanasya maw^afe pSd&n dhSraySmlsa, which is sheer non- 
sense; we have to read jay&nasya. The plural padan shows 
that not the feet are meant for that is pSdau in the dual but 
the lower end of the couch; the plural, if applied to one person. 
is always metaphorical. 

9 The text of these verses is one mass of corruption, as is proved 
by the repeated offences against the metre. 

3 Perhaps those who changed the original text intended to join 
the last sentence to the following. 

4 In the intention of the original author : (what is) Right 

5 Sfitrasya saddharmandmnaA; this term being prosodically 
inadmissible, the original must have bad another word. 

6 Rather absurd; the original must have had 'my pupil.* 

7 Prawidhi, here synonymous with avadhdna,prayatna, 

8 Vastutvaheto^, which is nonsense; probably to read ^as- 


46. That king meanwhile, strenuously and without 
engaging in other pursuits, roamed in every direction 
during thousands of ko/is of complete JEons without 
being able to obtain the Sfttra called Dharma 1 . 

Xow, monks, what is your opinion ? that it was 
another who at that time, at that juncture was the 
king? No, you must certainly not hold that view. 
For it was myself, who at that time, at that juncture 
was the king. What then, monks, is your opinion ? 
that it was another who at that time, at that junc- 
ture was the Seer? No, you must certainly not 
hold that view. For it was this Devadatta himself, 
the monk 2 , who at that time, at that juncture was 
the Seer. Indeed, monks, Devadatta was my good 
friend. By the aid of Devadatta 3 have I accom- 
plished the six perfect virtues (Pramitds). Noble 
kindness, noble compassion, noble sympathy, noble 
indifference, the thirty-two signs of a great man, the 
eighty lesser marks 4 , the gold-coloured tinge, the 
ten powers, the fourfold absence of hesitation 5 , the 
four articles of sociability, the eighteen uncommon 

tutatvaheto^. A later hand has added a marginal reading sar- 
vasatva, obviously intended to give a Buddhistic tinge to the tale. 

1 The traces of alteration are so clearly visible that it is not 
necessary to point them out 

2 Ayam-eva sa Devadatto bhikshus tena kdlena tena samayena 
nshir abhiit. Hence it follows that Devadatta is present at the 
gathering. His name not being mentioned before, he must be 
concealed under another name; I take him to be identical with 

s De vadattam 4gamya s properly, having come to or reached D. 

4 Anuvyafi^ana; they have been thoroughly treated of by 
Burnouf in an Appendix to the Lotus, p. 583 seq.; cf. Hodgson's 
Essays, p. 90, and S. Hardy's Manual, p. 369. 

5 Vaijiradya; Burnouf, Lotus, p. 396; S. Hardy, Eastern 
Monachism, p. 291. 


properties, magical power, ability to save beings in all 
directions of space, all this (have I got) after having 
come to Devadatta. I announce to you, monks, I 
declare to you : This Devadatta, the monk, shall in 
an age to come, after immense, innumerable ^Eons, 
become a Tathagata named Devara^a (i. e. King of 
the gods), an Arhat, &c., in the world Devasopana 
(i. e. Stairs of the gods). The lifetime of that Tatha- 
gata Devara/a, monks, shall measure twenty inter- 
mediate kalpas. He shall preach the law in extension, 
and beings equal to the sands of the river Ganges 
shall through him forsake all evils and realise Arhat- 
ship. Several beings shall also elevate their minds 
to Pratyekabuddhaship, whereas beings equal to the 
sands of the river Ganges shall elevate their minds to 
supreme, perfect enlightenment, and become endowed 
with unflinching patience. Further, monks, after the 
complete extinction of the Tathagata Devaraja, his 
true law shall stay twenty intermediate kalpas. His 
body shall not be seen divided into different parts 
(and relics) ; it shall remain as one mass within a Stupa 
of seven precious substances, which Sttipa is to be 
sixty hundred yqfanas in height and forty yqfanas 
in extension *. All, gods and men, shall do worship 
to it with flowers, incense, perfumed garlands, un- 
guents, powder, clothes, umbrellas, banners, flags, 
and celebrate it with stanzas and songs. Those who 
shall turn round that Sttipa from left to right or 
humbly salute it, shall some of them realise Arhat- 
ship, others attain Pratyekabuddhaship ; others, gods 
and men, in immense number, shall raise their minds 
to supreme, perfect enlightenment, never to return. 

1 Aydmena, which also means length. 


Thereafter the Lord again addressed the assembly 
of monks : "\Yhosoever in future, monks, be he a 
young man or a young lady of good family, shall 
hear this chapter of the Sfttra of the Lotus of the 
True Law, and by doing so be relieved from doubt, 
become pure-minded, and put reliance on it, to such 
a one the door of the three states of misfortune shall 
be shut : he shall not fall so low as to be born in 
hell, among beasts, or in Yama's kingdom. When 
born in the Buddha-fields in the ten points of space 
he shall at each repeated birth hear this very Sutra, 
and when born amongst gods or men he shall attain 
an eminent rank. And in the Buddha-field where 
he is to be born he shall appear by metamorphosis 
on a lotus of seven precious substances, face to face 
with the Tathigata. 

At that moment a Bodhisattva of the name of 
Praf#akft&, having come from beneath the Buddha- 
field of the Tathagata Prabhutaratna, said to the 
Tathagata Prabhtitaratna : Lord, let us resort to 
our own Buddha-field. But the Lord .S&kyamuni, 
the TathSgata, said to the Bodhisattva Pra^ #&ktife : 
Wait a while, young man of good family, first have 
a discussion with my, Bodhisattva Ma%urrf, the 
prince royal, to settle some point of the law. And 
at the same moment, lo, Ma/wrl, the prince royal, 
rose seated on a centifolious lotus that was large as 
a carriage yoked with four horses, surrounded and 
attended by many Bodhisattvas, from the bosom of 
the sea, from the abode of the Ndga-king Sdgara 
(i. e. Ocean). Rising high into the sky he went 
through the air to the Gr/dhraktoa mountain to the 
presence of the Lord There Ma%*u,rri, the prince 
royal, alighted from his lotus, reverentially saluted 


the feet of the Lord vSakyamuni and Prabhutaratna, 
the Tathagata, went up to the Bodhisattva Prafwa- 
ku/a and, after making the usual complimentary 
questions as to his health and welfare, seated him- 
self at some distance. The Bodhisattva Pra^vlaku/a 
then addressed to Ma;%usri, the prince royal, the 
following question: 3Ma;lfu$rl, how many beings 
hast thou educated 1 during thy stay in the sea? 
Ma%unrl answered: Many, innumerable, incalcu- 
lable beings have I educated, so innumerable that 
words cannot express it, nor thought conceive it 
Wait a while, young man of good family, thou shalt 
presently see a token. No sooner had Ma;2/u,rr! t 
the prince royal, spoken these words than instan- 
taneously many thousands of lotuses rose from the 
bosom of the sea up to the sky, and on those 
lotuses were seated many thousands of Bodhisattvas, 
who flocked through the air to the Gr/dhraku/a 
mountain, where they stayed, appearing as meteors. 
All of them had been educated by Ma;1gusri. the 
prince royal, to supreme, perfect enlightenment 2 . 
The Bodhisattvas amongst them who had formerly 
striven after the great vehicle extolled the virtues 
of the great vehicle and the six perfect virtues 
(Piramitis). Such as had been disciples extolled 
the vehicle of disciples. But all acknowledged the 
voidness (or vanity) of all laws (or things), as well 
as the virtues of the great vehicle. Ma/2/usri, the 
prince royal, said to the Bodhisattva Pra^/7aku/a : 
Young man of good family, while I was staying in 
the bosom of the great ocean I have by all means 

1 Properly, lead, lead out. 

2 Here Ma?lgurri appears in the character of Hermes ^xwro/wnfe. 


educated creatures, and here thou seest the result. 
Whereupon the Bodhisattva Pra^;7aku/a questioned 
Mawgusri, the prince royal, in chanting the following 
stanzas : 

47. O thou blessed one, who from thy wisdom art 
called the Sage 1 , by whose power is it that thou 
to-day (or now) hast educated those innumerable 
beings ? Tell it me upon my question, O thou god 
amongst men 2 . 

48. What law hast thou preached, or what Stitra, in 
showing the path of enlightenment, so that those who 
are there with you have conceived the idea of enlight- 
enment ? that, once having gained a safe ford 3 , they 
have been decisively established in omniscience ? 

Maflguni answered: In the bosom of the sea 
I have expounded the Lotus of the True Law and no 
other Stitra. Pra^v/aku/a said : That Sfitra is pro- 
found, subtle, difficult to seize ; no other Sfttra equals 
it. Is there any creature able to understand this 
jewel of a Stitra or to arrive at supreme, perfect 
enlightenment? Ma%usrt replied : There is, young 
man of good family, the daughter of Sigara, the 
Naga-king, eight years old, very intelligent, of keen 
faculties, endowed with prudence in acts of body, 
speech, and mind, who has caught and kept all the 
teachings, in substance and form, of the TatMgatas, 
who has acquired in one moment a thousand medi- 
tations and proofs of the essence of all laws 4 . She 

1 Mahabhadra pra^ayd sftraniman. I take sura in the sense of 
sun, though it is also possible that sura stands for jura, a hero. 

* Naradeva. 

3 Labdhagsitha^; I think we have to read labdhagSdhO, 
and have translated accordingly. 

* The reading is uncertain ; sarvadharmasatvasamadhanasami- 


does not swerve from the idea of enlightenment has 
great aspirations, applies to other beings the same 
measure as to herself; she is apt to display all vir- 
tues and is never deficient in them. With a bland 
smile on the face and in the bloom of an extremely 
handsome appearance she speaks words of kindliness 
and compassion 1 . She is fit to arrive at supreme, 
perfect enlightenment. The Bodhisattva Praf;7a- 
kftfo said: I have seen how the Lord Sakvamuni, 
the Tath%ata, when he was striving after enlighten- 
ment, in the state of a Bodhisattva, performed innu- 
merable good works 2 , and during many -nEons never 
slackened in his arduous task. In the whole universe 
there is not a single spot so small as a mustard-seed 
where he has not surrendered his body for the sake 
of creatures 3 . Afterwards he arrived at enlighten- 
ment. Who then would believe that she should have 
been able to arrive at supreme, perfect knowledge 
in one moment? 

At that very moment appeared the daughter of 
Sdgara, the N&ga-king, standing before their face. 
After reverentially saluting the feet of the Lord she 
stationed herself at some distance and uttered on 
that occasion the following stanzas: 

dhisahasraikakshaapratil&bhim\ A marginal correction by a later 
hand adds sarva between dharma and satva. 

1 The daughter of SSgara, the Ocean, is Lakshmi, the smiling 
goddess of Beauty and Fortune, but from some traits in the sequel 
it would seem that she is identified with Tara, the wife of Br/ha- 
spati and the Moon. 

2 As Hercules performed his 26Xa. 

3 As the sun shoots his rays everywhere, it is quite natural that 
his dh situs, i.e. particles, relics, have been spread all over the 
surface of the earth, and it is no untruth that the footprints (the 
padas, rays) of the Lord Slkyamuni are to be found in Laos, 
in Ceylon, &c. 


49. Spotless, bright, and of unfathomable light is 
that ethereal body, adorned with the thirty -two cha- 
racteristic signs, pervading space in all directions. 

50. He is possessed of the secondary marks and 
praised by every being, and accessible to all, like 
an open market-place 1 . 

51. I have obtained enlightenment according to 
my wish ; the Tathagata can bear witness to it ; I 
will extensively reveal the law that releases from 

Then the venerable .Sariputra said to that daughter 
of Sagara, the Xaga-king : Thou hast conceived the 
idea of enlightenment young lady of good family, 
without sliding back, and art gifted with immense 
wisdom, but supreme, perfect enlightenment is not 
easily won. It may happen, sister, that a woman 
displays an unflagging energy, performs good works 
for many thousands of /Eons, and fulfils the six 
perfect virtues (PaLramit&s), but as yet there is no 
example of her having reached Buddhaship, and that 
because a woman cannot occupy the five ranks, viz. 
i. the rank of Brahma ; 2. the rank of Indra ; 3. the 
rank of a chief guardian of the four quarters ; 4. the 
rank of Aakravartin ; 5. the rank of a Bodhisattva 
incapable of sliding back 2 . 

Now the daughter of S&gara, the Niga-king, had at 
the time a gem which in value outweighed the whole 
universe. That gem the daughter of Sigara, the 
Xaga-king, presented to the Lord, and the Lord 
graciously accepted it. Then the daughter of Sigara, 

1 Antarapa^avad yatha. I am not certain of the correctness 
of my translation. Burnouf has * s'il &ait leur concitoyen.* 

a All these beings are in Sanskrit of masculine gender; hence 
their rank cannot be taken by beings having feminine names. 


the Nftga-king, said to the Bodhisattva Praf/Ta- 
kii/a and the senior priest *Sariputra: Has * the 
Lord readily accepted 1 the gem I presented him or 
has he not? The senior priest answered : As soon 
as it was presented by thee, so soon it was accepted 
by the Lord The daughter of Sagara, the Xdga- 
king, replied : If I were endowed with magic power, 
brother .S&riputra, I should sooner have arrived at 
supreme, perfect enlightenment, and there would 
have been none to receive this gem. 

At the same instant, before the sight of the whole 
world and of the senior priest .Sariputra, the female 
sex of the daughter of Sagara, the Xaga-king, dis- 
appeared; the male sex appeared 2 and she mani- 
fested herself as a Bodhisattva, who immediately 
went to the South to sit down at the foot of a tree 
made of seven precious substances, in the world 
Vimala (i.e. spotless), where he showed himself 
enlightened and preaching the law, while filling all 
directions of space with the radiance of the thirty- 
two characteristic signs and all secondary marks. 
All beings in the Saha-world beheld that Lord while 
he received the homage of all, gods, Nagas, goblins, 
Gandharvas, demons, Gammas, Kinnaras, great ser- 
pents, men, and beings not human, and was engaged 

1 A marginal reading from a later hand adds: anukampam 
upSdiya, by grace, by mercy, graciously. 

2 In ancient times such a change of sex is nothing strange. 
Sundry words for 'star/ e.g. tdrd, tarakd, Latin Stella, are 
feminine, whereas the names of some particular stars are mascu- 
line; so T^r &, the daughter of the Sea, Stella Marina, may have 
been identified with Tishya, or the Iranian Tishtrya, who equally 
rises from the sea; cf. Tishter Yasht (ed. Westergaard, p. 177). 
The daughter of the ocean seems to be identical with Ard\i Sura, 
celebrated in Abin Yasht. 


in preaching the law. And the beings who heard 
the preaching of that Tath&gata became incapable 
of sliding back in supreme, perfect enlightenment. 
And that world Vimala and this Saha-world shook 
in six different ways. Three thousand living beings 
from the congregational circle of the Lord .Sakya- 
muni gained the acquiescence in the eternal law l , 
whereas three hundred thousand beings obtained the 
prediction of their future destiny to supreme, perfect 

Then the Bodhisattva Pra^/Iaku/a and the senior 
priest .Sariputra were silent. 

1 Anutpattikadharmakshdnti. 




Thereafter the Bodhisattva Bhaishafyaraga and 
the Bodhisattva Mahapratibhdna, with a retinue of 
twenty hundred thousand Bodhisattvas, spoke before 
the face of the Lord the following words : Let the 
Lord be at ease in this respect ; we will after the ex- 
tinction of the Tathagata expound this Paryaya to 
(all) creatures 1 , though we are aware, O Lord, that 
at that period there shall be malign beings, having 
few roots of goodness, conceited, fond of gain and 
honour, rooted in unholiness, difficult to tame, 
deprived of good will, and full of unwillingness. 
Nevertheless, O Lord, w r e will at that period read, 
keep, preach, write, honour, respect, venerate, wor- 
ship this Sutra ; with sacrifice of body and life, O 
Lord, we will divulge this S&tra. Let the Lord be 
at ease. 

Thereupon five hundred monks of the assembly, 
both such as were under training and such as were 
not, said to the Lord : We also, O Lord, will exert 
ourselves to divulge this Dharmaparyaya, though in 
other worlds. Then all the disciples of the Lord, 
both such as were under training and such as were 

1 One would expect that this speech immediately followed st. 41 
in the foregoing chapter, but the rules of composition in Buddhistic 
writings are so peculiar that it is unsafe to apply criticism. 


not, who had received from the Lord the prediction 
as to their (future) supreme enlightenment, all the 
eight thousand monks raised their joined hands 
towards the Lord and said: Let the Lord be at 
ease. We also will divulge this Dharmaparydya, 
after the complete extinction of the Lord, in the 
last days, the last period, though in other worlds. 
For in this Saha-world, O Lord, the creatures are 
conceited, possessed of few roots of goodness, 
always vicious in their thoughts, wicked, and natu- 
rally perverse. 

Then the noble matron Gautami, the sister of 
the Lord's mother, along with six hundred 1 nuns, 
some of them being under training, some being not, 
rose from her seat, raised the joined hands towards 
the Lord and remained gazing up to him. Then the 
Lord addressed the noble matron Gautaml: Why 
dost thou stand so dejected, gazing up to the 
Tathagata? (She replied): I have not been men- 
tioned by the Tathagata, nor have I received from 
him a prediction of my destiny to supreme, perfect 
enlightenment (He said): But, Gautaml, thou hast 
received a prediction with the prediction regarding 
the whole assembly. Indeed, Gautami, thou shalt 
from henceforward, before the face of thirty- eight 

1 Ciphers do not count, so that only sis must be reckoned. These 
six with Gautami form the number of seven. The seven Matres 
or Mother-goddesses are known from Indian mythology. Kumira, 
the prince royal (Skanda), is sometimes said to have six mothers, 
sometimes seven, sometimes one. The six are said to be the six 
clearly visible Kr/ttikas (Pleiads) ; the seventh is the less distinct 
star of the Pleiads. His one mother is Durgt. It is by mistake 
that the dictionaries fix the number of Kr/ttika's at six ; there are 
seven, as appears e.g. from Mahabharata III, 230, n. 


hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of Buddhas l , be 
a Bodhisattva and preacher of the law. These six 
thousand- nuns also, partly perfected in discipline, 
partly not, shall along with others become Bodhi- 
sattvas 3 and preachers of the law before the face of 
the Tathagatas. lAfterwards, when thou shalt have 
completed the course of a Bodhisattva, thou shalt 
become, under the name of Sarvasattvapriyadar^ana 
(i.e. lovely to see for all beings;, a Tathagata, an 
Arhat, &c., endowed with science and conduct, c. 
&c. And that Tathagata Sarvasattvapriyaclarsana, 
O Gautami, shall give a prediction by regular succes- 
sion to those six thousand Bodhisattvas concerning 
their destiny to supreme, perfect enlightenment. 

Then the nun Yasodhara, the mother of Rahula, 
thought thus: The Lord has not mentioned my name. 
And the Lord comprehending in his own mind what 
was going on in the mind of the nun Yasodhara said 
to her : I announce to thee, Yasodhara, I declare to 
thee : Thou also shalt before the face often thousand 
ko/is 4 of Buddhas become a Bodhisattva and preacher 
of the law, and after regularly completing the course 
of a Bodhisattva thou shalt become a Tathagata, 
named Ranni^atasahasraparipur^adhva^a, an Arhat, 
&c., endowed with science and conduct, &c. &C M in the 

1 In the margin has been added by a later hand : * after paying 
honour, respect, reverence, worship, and veneration/ A little 
further on we find the same marginal addition. 

2 A few lines before the number was six hundred. Both 
numbers come to the same, for ciphers do not count. 

3 Here it is not added that Gautami cum suis has to change 
sex (i.e. gender) in order to be fit for Bodhisattvaship, In fact, 
the Kr/ttik&s are always feminine in Sanskrit. 

4 Burnouf has read, ten hundred thousand myriads of ko/is. 

[21] S 


world Bhadra ; and the lifetime of that Lord Rsunni- 
jatasahasraparipuraadhva^a shall be unlimited. 

When the noble matron Gautami, the nun, with 
her suite of six thousand nuns, and Ya^odhara, the 
nun, with her suite of four thousand nuns, heard from 
the Lord their future destiny to supreme, perfect 
enlightenment, they uttered, in wonder and amaze- 
ment, this stanza : 

i. O Lord, thou art the trainer, thou art the 
leader ; thou art the master of the world, including 
the gods ; thou art the giver of comfort, thou who 
art worshipped by men and gods. Now, indeed, we 
feel satisfied. 

After uttering this stanza the nuns said to the 
Lord : We also, O Lord, will exert ourselves to 
divulge this Dharmaparyaya in the last days, though 
in other worlds. 

Thereafter the Lord looked towards the eighty 
hundred thousand Bodhisattvas who were gifted 
with magical spells and capable of moving forward the 
wheel that never rolls back. No sooner were those 
Bodhisattvas regarded by the Lord than they rose 
from their seats, raised their joined hands towards 
the Lord and reflected thus: The Lord invites 
us to make known the Dharmaparyiya, Agitated 
by that thought they asked one another : What 
shall we do, young men of good family, in order 
that this Dharmaparyaya may in future be made 
known as the Lord invites us to do ? Thereupon 
those young men of good family, in consequence 
of their reverence for the Lord and their own pious 
vow in their previous course, raised a lion's roar 1 
before the Lord : We, O Lord, will in future, after the 

1 One might say, a cry of martial exultation. 


complete extinction of the Lord, go in all directions 
in order that creatures shall write, keep, meditate, 
divulge this Dharmaparyaya, by no other s power but 
the Lord's. And the Lord, sta} ing in another world, 
shall protect, defend, and guard us. 

Then the Bodhisattvas unanimously in a chorus 
addressed the Lord with the following stanzas : 

2. Be at ease, O Lord. After thy complete ex- 
tinction, in the horrible last period of the world, we 
will proclaim this sublime Sutra. 

3. We will suffer, patiently endure, O Lord, the 
injuries, threats, blows and threats with sticks 1 at 
the hands of foolish men. 

4. At that dreadful last epoch men will be malign, 
crooked, wicked, dull, conceited, fancying to have come 
to the limit when they have not. 

5. 'We do not care but to live in the wilderness 
and wear a patched cloth; we lead a frugal life;* 
so will they speak to the ignorant 2 . 

6. And persons greedily attached to enjoyments 
will preach the law to laymen and be honoured as 
if they possessed the six transcendent qualities. 

7. Cruel-minded and wicked men, only occupied 
with household cares, will enter our retreat in the 
forest and become our calumniators. 

8. The Tlrthikas 3 , themselves bent on profit and 
honour, will say of us that we are so, and shame on 
such monks ! they will preach their own fictions 4 . 

1 Da#<?a-udgira0a, for which I think we have to read daaufa- 

2 Durmattn. 

3 Dissenters, as the foremost of whom generally appear the 
Crainas, from the Buddhist point of view. 

4 Ttrthikd vat* ime bhikshft svini Hvy&m de^ayuA. Here 

S 2 


9. Prompted by greed of profit and honour they 
will compose Sutras of their own invention and then, 
in the midst of the assembly, accuse us of plagiarism 1 . 

10. To kings, princes, king's peers, as well as to 
Brahmans and commoners, and to monks of other 

1 1. They will speak evil of us and propagate the 
Tirtha-doctrine 2 . We will endure all that out of 
reverence for the great Seers. 

12. And those fools who will not listen to us, 
shall (sooner or later) become enlightened 3 , and 
therefore will we forbear to the last 

13. In that dreadful, most terrible period of fright- 
ful general revolution will many fiendish monks stand 
up as our revilers. 

14. Out of respect for the Chief of the world we 
will bear it, however difficult it be ; girded with the 
girdle of forbearance will I 4 proclaim this Sutra. 

15. I 5 do not care for my body or life, O Lord, 

we have the interjection vata (bata) in the sense of a nindd, 
reproach, contempt. The Buddhists are fond of denouncing schis- 
matics or heretics as impostors, and their works as forgeries ; 
a model of such an accusation brought forward by the orthodox 
against the ' wicked' monks, the Va^giputtafcas, is to be found in 
Dipavawsa V, 30 seqq. 

1 Or, perhaps, speak slander of us. The term used, anuku//ana", 
is unknown to me from other passages, so that I have had recourse 
to etymology: anu, after, ku//ana\ stamping. 

2 These passages are not very explicit, but this much is clear that 
the Tirthikas are somehow akin to the Buddhists, and distinguished 
from monks of other confession, who are wholly out of the pale of 
Bauddha sects. The whole history of the church in India is one 
of family quarrels, at least down to the days of Hiouen Thsang. 

1 Or, Buddhas, i.e. will sooner or later die. 
4 Praklraye, a singular which I do not feel at liberty to render 
by a plural. 

^ Again a singular, anarthiko'smi. 


but as keepers of thine entrusted deposit we care for 

1 6. The Lord himself knows that in the last period 
there are (to be) wicked monks who do not under- 
stand mysterious speech 1 . 

17. One will have to bear frowning looks, re- 
peated disavowal (or concealment), expulsion from 
the monasteries, many and manifold abuses 2 . 

1 8. Yet mindful of the command of the Lord of 
the world we will in the last period undauntedly 
proclaim this Stitra in the midst of the congre- 

19. We will visit towns and villages everywhere. 
and transmit to those who care for it thine entrusted 
deposit, O Lord. 

-20. O Chief of the world, we will deliver thy 
message ; be at ease then, tranquil and quiet, great 

21. Light of the world, thou knowest the dis- 
position of all who have flocked hither from every 
direction, (and thou knowest that) we speak a \\oxd 
of truth. 

1 Sandhabhashya, here rather 'conciliatory speech;' this, is 
the meaning which sand hay a sambhashawa has in Sanskrit, 

2 The rendering of the last words bahuku//i bahuvidhd^ 
is conjectural. Burnouf has, s emprisonner et frapper de drterses 
manures/ but hereby two meanings are assigned to ku//L 




i, the prince royal, said to the Lord : It is 
difficult, Lord, most difficult, what these Bodhisattvas 
Mahisattvas will attempt out of reverence for the 
Lord. How are these Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas to 
promulgate this Dharmaparyiya at the end of time, 
at the last period ? Whereupon the Lord answered 
Ma%usrl, the prince royal: A Bodhisattva Maha- 
sattva, Ma/^fusri, he who is to promulgate this Dhar- 
maparyaya at the end of time, at the last period, 
must be firm in four things. In which things ? The 
Bodhisattva Mahasattva, Ma/gusrl, must be firm in 
his conduct and proper sphere if he wishes to teach 
this Dharmaparyaya. And how, Ma;2furrt, is a Bodhi- 
sattva MaMsattva firm in his conduct and proper 
sphere ? When the Bodhisattva Mahasattva, Ma- 
jgusri, is patient, meek, has reached the stage of 
meekness ; when he is not rash, nor envious ; when, 
moreover, MaJlgusri, he clings to no law whatever and 
sees the real character of the laws (or things) ; when 
he is refraining from investigating and discussing 
these laws, Manual ; that is called the conduct of a 
Bodhisattva Mahasattva. And what is the proper 
sphere of a Bodhisattva Mahasattva, Ma%unl ? 
When the Bodhisattva Mahasattva, Ma%ruyrl, does 
not serve, not court, not wait upon kings; does 
not serve, not court, not wait upon princes ; when 
he does not approach them; when he does not 


serve, not court, not wait upon persons of an- 
other sect, jSTarakas, Parivra^akas, Agivakas 1 , Nir- 
granthas 2 , nor persons passionately fond of fine 
literature; when he does not serve, not court, not 
wait upon adepts at worldly spells 3 , and votaries of 
a worldly philosophy 4 , nor keep any intercourse with 
them ; when he does not go to see ^a?olas. jugglers. 
vendors of pork, poulterers, deer-hunters, butchers, 
actors and dancers, wrestlers, nor resort to places 
whither others flock for amusement and sport ; when 
he keeps no intercourse with them unless from time 
to time to preach the law to them when they come 
to him, and that freely 5 ; when he does not serve, 
not court, not wait upon monks, nuns, lay devotees, 
male and female, who are adherents of the vehicle 
of disciples, nor keep intercourse with them ; when 
he does not come in contact with them at the place 
of promenade or in the monastery, unless from time 
to time to preach the law to them when they come 
to him, and even that freely. This, Ma/lgufri, is the 
proper sphere of a Bodhisattva Mahasattva, 

Again, Mawgu-sri, the Bodhisattva Mahasattva does 
not take hold of some favourable opportunity or 
another to preach the law to females every now and 
anon, nor is he desirous of repeatedly seeing females ; 
nor does he think it proper to visit families and then 
too often address a girl, virgin, or young wife, nor 
does he greet them too fondly in return. He does 

1 Three kinds of mendicant friars not belonging to the Buddhist, 
nor to the Gaina persuasion. 

2 ffaina monks. 

3 Lokdyatamantradharaka. 

4 Lokiyatikas, the Sadducees or Epicureans of India, 

5 Anlrrita; Burnouf renders it/ sans mSme s'arr&er.' 


not preach the law to a hermaphrodite, keeps no 
intercourse with such a person, nor greets too friendly 
in return. He does not enter a house alone in order 
to receive alms, unless having the Tathdgata in his 
thoughts. And when he happens to preach the law 
to females, he does not do so by passionate attach- 
ment to the law, far less by passionate attachment 
to a woman. When he is preaching, he does not 
display his row of teeth, let alone a quick emotion 
on his physiognomy. He addresses no novice, male 
or female, no nun, no monk, no young boy, no young 
girl, nor enters upon a conversation with them ; he 
shows no great readiness in answering their address *, 
nor cares to give too frequent answers. This, Maw- 
gusrt, is called the first proper sphere of a Bodhisattva 

Further, Ma#usrl, a Bodhisattva Mahisattva looks 
upon all laws (and things) as void; he sees them 
duly established 2 , remaining unaltered, as they are 
in reality, not liable to be disturbed, not to be moved 
backward, unchangeable, existing in the highest sense 
of the word (or in an absolute sense), having the 
nature of space, escaping explanation and expression 
by means of common speech, not born, composed and 
simple, aggregated and isolated 3 , not expressible in 
words, independently established, manifesting them- 

1 Pratisajwlapanaguruka, literally 'making much of return- 
ing (one's) addressing/ 

2 Yath4vatpradsht4B, aviparttastMyino yathabhMn, &c. Bur- 
nouf adds, * privfcs de tonte essence,' i.e. niratmakin. 

3 In the rendering of the last four terms I have followed Burnouf, 
as the reading in the Camb. MS. is evidently corrupt: asaw- 
skr/tanasa0ztanisa*minasannabhiiapena pravjAhri'tftn. 
The original reading may have been asamskrz'tftn n^sa^skrz- 
tan, not composed, not simple; nasamin na sam4n, not unlike 


selves owing to a perversion of perception. In this 
way then, Ma/^urri, the Bodhisattva Mahasattva 
constantly views all laws, and if he abides in this 
course, he remains in his own sphere. This, Ma;2- 
Unrt, is the second proper sphere of a Bodhisattva 

And in order to expound this matter in greater 
detail, the Lord uttered the following stanzas : 

1. The Bodhisattva who, undaunted and un- 
abashed, wishes to set forth this Sutra in the 
dreadful period hereafter, 

2. Must keep to his course (of duty) and proper 
sphere; he must be retired and pure, constantly 
avoid intercourse with kings and princes. 

3. Nor should he keep up intercourse with king's 
servants, nor with JST&w&las, jugglers, and Tirthikas 
in general 1 . 

4. He ought not to court conceited men, but 
catechise such as keep to the religion 2 . He must 
also avoid such monks as follow the precepts of the 
Arhat 3 , and immoral men. 

5. He must be constant in avoiding a nun who 
is fond of banter and chatter ; he must also avoid 
notoriously loose female lay devotees. 

6. He should shun any intercourse with such 
female lay devotees as seek their highest happiness 

(i.e. equal to all), nor like ; or, n^sawtin (in grammatical Sansk. 
n&sato) na sa^tdn, not non-existent, not existent 

1 Bumouf adds, 'ceus qui vendent des liqueurs fennente'es/ 
which is wanting in my MS. : yfewdialair mushAkauMpi tirthikah- 
dpi sarvasaA 

2 According to the reading, vinay ed agamasthita' (n), A mar- 
ginal reading has vinayenS , a reading followed by Burnouf. 

3 Or, Arhats: Arhantasawmat^(n)bhikhshfin. The ffainas 
are meant. 


in this transient world. This is called the proper 
conduct of a Bodhisattva. 

7. But when one comes to him to question him 
about the law for the sake of superior enlighten- 
ment, he should, at any time, speak freely, always 
firm and undaunted. 

8. He should have no intercourse with women 
and hermaphrodites ; he should also shun the young 
wives and girls in families. 

9. He must never address them to ask after 
their health 1 . He must also avoid intercourse with 
vendors of pork and mutton. 

10. \Vith any persons who slay animals of various 
kind for the sake of profit, and with such as sell meat 
he should avoid having any intercourse. 

11. He must shun the society of whoremongers, 
players, musicians, wrestlers, and other people of 
that sort. 

12. He should not frequent whores, nor other 
sensual persons; he must avoid any exchange of 
civility with them. 

13. And when the sage has to preach for a 
woman, he should not enter into an apartment with 
her alone, nor stay to banter. 

14. When he has often to enter a village in quest 
of food, he must have another monk with him or 
constantly think of the Buddha. 

15. Herewith have I shown the first sphere of 
proper conduct 2 . Wise are they who, keeping this 
Sutra in memory, live according to it. 

r 6. And when one observes 3 no law at all, low, 

1 Kauralyaw hasa priMfatum. I take hasa to stand for sa 
(Sansk. asam), if it be no error for tasa (Sansk. t^s^m). 

2 AHrago^aro hy esha. s karate. 


superior or mean, composed or uncomposed, real or 
not real ; 

17. When the wise man does not remark, ' This 
is a woman/ nor marks, ' This is a man;' when in 
searching he finds no laws (or things), because they 
have never existed ; 

1 8. This is called the observance 1 of the Bodhi- 
sattvas in general Now listen to me when I set 
forth what should be their proper sphere. 

19. All laws (i.e. the laws, the things) have been 
declared to be non-existing, not appearing, not pro- 
duced, void, immovable, everlasting ; this is called 
the proper sphere of the wise. 

20. They have been divided into existing and 
non-existing, real and unreal, by those who had 
wrong notions ; other laws also, of permanency, of 
being produced, of birth from something already 
produced 2 , are wrongly assumed. 

21. Let (the Bodhisattva) be concentrated in mind, 
attentive, ever firm as the peak of Mount Sumeru, 
and in such a state (of mind; look upon all laws (and 
things) as having the nature of space 3 , 

22. Permanently equal to space, without essence, 
immovable, without substantiality 4 . These, indeed, 
are the laws, all and for ever. This is called the 
proper sphere of the wise, 

23* The monk observing this rule of conduct given 
by me may, after my extinction, promulgate this 
Stitra in the world, and shall feel no depression. 

24. Let the sage first, for some time, coerce his 

i A^ra. 

V?dtada bhftti (Si 

3 I. e. as being void. 

4 Satyena; in the margin 


thoughts, exercise meditation with complete absorp- 
tion, and correctly perform all that is required for 
attaining spiritual insight 1 , and then, after rising (from 
his pious meditation), preach with unquailing mind. 

25. The kings of this earth and the princes who 
listen to the law protect him. Others also, both 
laymen (or burghers) and Brahmans, will be found 
together in his congregation. 

Further, Mawfiurt, the Bodhisattva Mahisattva 
who, after the complete extinction of the TatMgata 
at the end of time, the last period, the last five 
hundred years 2 , when the true law is in a state of 
decay, is going to propound this Dharmaparyiya, 
must be in a peaceful state (of mind) and then preach 
the law, whether he knows it by heart or has it in 
a book. In his sermon he will not be too prone to 
carping at others, not blame other preaching friars, 
not speak scandal nor propagate scandal. He does 
not mention by name other monks, adherents of 
the vehicle of disciples, to propagate scandal. He 
cherishes even no hostile feelings against them, 
because he is in a peaceful state. All who come, one 
after the other, to hear the sermon he receives with 
benevolence, and preaches the law to them without 
invidiousness 3 . He refrains from entering upon a 

1 Kalena o &ttayamatu (Sansk. yamat) paw^ita^ pravilayanaw 
tatha ghay/ayitva, vipa^yidharmam imu sarva yoniso uttMya, &c. 
I take gha//ayitva in the sense of gha/ayitvl=yuktvl 

2 Le. the latter part of the millennium. According to the 
declaration of the Buddha in ^Tulkvagga X, i, 6, the true law 
(Saddhamma) is to stand a millennium, though at the same 
time, owing to the institution of female monks, the number of 
1000 years should be reduced to half. 

3 Anupangrahikaya, ananyus&fcanaya dharmaaz de^ayati ; c sua- 
nayd is certainly wong; cf. stanza 30 below. 


dispute ; but if he is asked a question, he does not 
answer in the way of (those who follow) the vehicle 
of disciples 1 ; on the contrary, he answers as if he 
had attained Buddha-knowledge. 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the follow- 
ing stanzas : 

26. The wise man 2 is always at ease 3 , and in that 
state he preaches the law, seated on an elevated 
pulpit which has been prepared for him on a clean 
and pretty spot. 

27. He puts on a clean, nice, red robe, dyed with 
good colours 4 , and a black woollen garment and 
a long undergarment; 

28. Having duly washed his feet and rubbed his 
head and face with smooth ointments 6 , he ascends 
the pulpit, which is provided with a footbank and 
covered with pieces of fine cloth of various sorts, 
and sits down. 

29. When he is thus seated on the preachers 
pulpit and all who have gathered round him are 

1 Sr&vakaySnena. It is instructive to see that the Buddha 
here espouses the party of the great vehicle. 

2 I.e. preacher, minister of religion. The word used, paw^ita, 
has passed into the languages of the Indian Archipelago in the 
sense of a minister of religion. 

s Sukhasthita, which in the preceding passage I have rendered 
by 'being in a peaceful state,' because there the mental state is 
more prominent. 

* JTauksha/K a so ivara prftvaritvS, suraktarangaw supraras- 

5 According to the ten commandments (Dasartla) the use of 
ointments is forbidden to the monks, but the preacher need not be 
a monastic man. In Nepal it is the Vagra-A^rya who devotes 
himself to the active ministry of religion; see Hodgson's Essays, 
p. 52. 


attentive, he proceeds to deliver many discourses, 
pleasing by variety, before monks and nuns, 

30. Before m'ale and female lay devotees, kings 
and princes. The wise man always (takes care to) 
deliver a sermon diversified in its contents and 
sweet, free from invidiousness 1 . 

31. If occasionally he is asked some question, 
even after he has commenced, he will explain the 
matter anew in regular order, and he will explain it 
in such away that his hearers gain enlightenment. 

32. The wise man is indefatigable ; not even the 
thought of fatigue will rise in him ; he knows no 
listlessness, and so displays to the assembly the 
strength of charity. 

33. Day and night the wise man preaches this 
sublime law with myriads of ko#s of illustrations ; 
he edifies and satisfies his audience without ever 
requiring anything. 

34. Solid food, soft food, nourishment and drink, 
cloth, couches, robes, medicaments for the sick, all 
this does not occupy his thoughts, nor does he want 
anything from the congregation. 

35. On the contrary, the wise man is always 
thinking: How can I and these beings become 
Buddhas ? I will preach this true law, upon which 
the happiness of all beings depends 2 , for the benefit 
of the world. 

36. The monk who, after my extinction, shall 
preach in this way, without envy, shall not meet 
with trouble, impediment, grief or despondency. 

37. Nobody shall frighten him, beat or blame 

1 Ananyastiyantu; perhaps we must read anabhyasftyantu. 
9 Etat samasatvasukhopadh&na#z saddharma/ra jr&vemi hitiya loke. 


him ; never shall he be driven away, because he is 
firm in the strength of forbearance. 

38. The wise man who is peaceful, so disposed 
as I have just said, possesses hundreds of ko/is of 
advantages, so many that one would not be able 
to enumerate them in hundreds of /Eons, 

Again, Ma;#ttfrl, the Bodhisattva Mahasattva 
who lives after the extinction of the Tathagata at 
the end of time when the true law is in decay, the 
Bodhisattva Mahasattva who keeps this Sutra is not 
envious, not false, not deceitful ; he does not speak 
disparagingly of other adherents of the vehicle of 
Bodhisattvas, nor defame, nor humble them. He 
does not bring forward the shortcomings of other 
monks, nuns, male and female lay devotees, neither 
of the adherents of the vehicle of disciples nor of 
those of the vehicle of Pratyekabuddhas. He does 
not say: You young men of good family, you are far 
off from supreme, perfect enlightenment ; you give 
proof of not having arrived at it ; you are too fickle 
in your doings and not capable of acquiring true 
knowledge. He does not in this way bring forward 
the shortcomings of any adherent of the vehicle of the 
Bodhisattvas. Nor does he show any delight in dis- 
putes about the law, or engage in disputes about the 
law, and he never abandons the strength of charity 
towards all beings. In respect to all Tathagatas he 
feels as if they were his fathers, and in respect to all 
Bodhisattvas as if they were his masters. And as 
to the Bodhisattvas Mahisattvas in all directions of 
space, he is assiduous in paying homage to them by 
good will and respect. When he preaches the law, 
he preaches no less and no more than the law, with- 
out partial predilection for (any part of) the law, and 


he does not show greater favour to one than to 
another, even from love of the law. 

Such, Ma/T^ii-sri, is the third quality with which 
a Bodhisattva Mahasattva is endowed who is to 
expound this DharmaparySya after the extinction 
of the Tathagata at the end of time when the true 
law is in decay ; who will live at ease 1 and not be 
annoyed in the exposition of this Dharmaparyiya. 
And in the synod- he will have allies, and he will 
find auditors at his sermons who will listen to this 
Dharmapanaya, believe, accept, keep, read, pene- 
trate, write it and cause it to be written, and who, 
after it has been written and a volume made of it, 
will honour, respect, esteem, and worship it. 

This said the Lord, and thereafter he, the Sugata, 
the Master, added the following : 

39. The wise man, the preacher, who wishes to 
expound this Sfttra must absolutely renounce false- 
hood, pride, calumny, and envy, 

40. He should never speak a disparaging word of 
anybody; never engage in a dispute on religious 
belief; never say to such as are guilty of short- 
comings. You will not obtain superior knowledge. 

41. He is always sincere, mild, forbearing; (as) a 
(true) son of Sugata he will repeatedly preach the 
law without any feeling of vexation. 

42. 'The Bodhisattvas in all directions of space, 
who out of compassion for creatures are moving in 
the world, are my teachers ;' (thus thinking) the wise 
man respects them as his masters. 

1 Sukhra[w] sparjaas viharati, which answers to the Pfili 
phrase phasu \iharati. 

2 Dharmasangityam. 


43. Cherishing the memory of the Buddhas, the 
supreme amongst men, he will always feel towards 
them as if they were his fathers, and by forsaking all 
idea of pride he will escape hindrance. 

44. The wise man who has heard this law, should 
be constant in observing it. If he earnestly strives 
after a peaceful life, ko/is of beings will surely pro- 
tect him. 

Further, Ma%uni, the Bodhisattva Mahasattva, 
living at the time of destruction of the true law after 
the extinction of the Tath&gata, who is desirous of 
keeping this Dharmaparyslya, should live as far as 
possible away from laymen and friars, and lead a life 
of charity. He must feel affection for all beings who 
are striving for enlightenment and therefore make this 
reflection : To be sure, they are greatly perverted in 
mind, those beings who do not hear, nor perceive, nor 
understand the skilfulness and the mystery 1 of the 
Tathigata, who do not inquire for it, nor believe in it, 
nor even are willing to believe in it. Of course, these 
beings do not penetrate, nor understand this Dharma- 
paryiya. Nevertheless will I, who have attained 2 
this supreme, perfect knowledge, powerfully 3 bend to 
it the mind of every one, whatever may be the position 
he occupies, and bring about that he accepts, under- 
stands, and arrives at full ripeness. 

By possessing also this fourth quality, Maflgusrt, 
a Bodhisattva Mahisattva, who is to expound the 
law after the extinction of the Tathslgata, will be 

1 Sandh&bhashita. 

2 Abhisambudhya. 

8 Balena; in the margin added by a later hand, rz'ddhi ; this is 
the reading followed by Burnouf, 'par la force de mes facults 


unmolested, honoured, respected, esteemed, vene- 
rated by monks, nuns, and lay devotees, male and 
female, by kings, princes, ministers, king's officers, 
by citizens and country people, by Brahmans and 
laymen ; the gods of the sky will, full of faith, follow 
his track to hear the law, and the angels will follow 
his track to protect him ; whether he is in a village 
or in a monastery, they will approach him day and 
night to put questions about the law, and they will 
be satisfied, charmed with his explanation. For 
this Dharniaparyaya, Matron, has been blessed by 
all Buddhas. With the past, future, and present 
Tathagata, 'Mangusri, this Dharmaparydya is for 
ever blessed. Precious 1 in all worlds, ~Mangusrt 9 is 
the sound, rumour, or mentioning of this Dharma- 

It is a case, Ma%uyrl, similar to that of a king, 
a ruler of armies, who by force has conquered 
his own kingdom, whereupon other kings, his 
adversaries, wage war against him. That ruler 
of armies has soldiers of various description to 
fight with various enemies. As the king sees those 
soldiers fighting, he is delighted with their gal- 
lantry, enraptured, and in his delight and rapture 
he makes to his soldiers several donations, such as 
villages and village grounds, towns and grounds of 
a town ; garments and head-gear ; hand-ornaments, 
necklaces, gold threads, earrings, strings of pearls, 
bullion, gold, gems, pearls, lapis lazuli, conch-shells, 
stones (?), corals; he, moreover, gives elephants, 
horses, cars, foot soldiers, male and female slaves, 
vehicles, and litters. But to none he makes a present 

1 Durlabha, also meaning rare, difficult to be got. 


of his crown jewel, because that jewel only fits on 
the head of a king. Were the king to give away 
that crown jewel, then that whole royal army, con- 
sisting of four divisions, would be astonished and 
amazed. In the same manner, Ma^urr!, the Tathd- 
gata, the Arhat, &c., exercises the reign of righteous- 
ness (and of the law) in the triple world which he has 
conquered by the power of his arm and the power of 
his virtue. His triple world is assailed by Mira, 
the Evil One. Then the Aryas, the soldiers of the 
Tathigata, fight with Mira. Then, Maa^iwri, the 
king of the law, the lord of the law, expounds to 
the Aryas, his soldiers, whom he sees fighting, hun- 
dred thousands of Sfttras in order to encourage the 
four classes. He gives them the city of Nirv#a, 
the great city of the law ; he allures them with that 
city of Nirvi^a, but he does not preach to them such 
a Dharmaparydya as this. Just as in that case, 
Manual, that king, ruler of armies, astonished at 
the^great valour of his soldiers in battle gives them 
all his property, at last even his crown jewel, and 
just as that crown jewel has been kept by the king 
on his head to the last, so, Ma^fusri, the Tathi- 
gata, the Arhat, &c., who as the great king of the 
law in the triple world exercises his sway with jus- 
tice, when he sees disciples and Bodhisattvas fighting 
against the Mira of fancies or the Mra of sinful 
inclinations, and when he sees that by fighting they 
have destroyed affection, hatred, and infatuation, 
overcome the triple world and conquered all Mdras, 
is satisfied, and in his satisfaction he expounds to 
those noble (irya) soldiers this Dharmaparyiya which 
meets opposition in all the world, the unbelief of all 
the world, a Dharmaparyiya never before preached, 

T 2 


never before explained. And the TatMgata bestows 
on all disciples the noble crown jewel, that most 
exalted crown jewel which brings omniscience to all. 
For this, Maf^iuri, is the supreme preaching of the 
TatMgatas ; this is the last Dharmaparytya of the 
Tathagatas ; this is the most profound discourse on 
the law, a Dharmapary&ya meeting opposition in all 
the world. In the same manner, Ma%u?rl, as that 
king of righteousness and ruler of armies took off 
the crown jewel which he had kept so long a time 
and gave it (at last) to the soldiers, so, Marigusrl, the 
Tathdgata now reveals this long-kept mystery of 
the law exceeding all others, (the mystery) which 
must be known by the Tathagatas. 

And in order to elucidate this matter more in 
detail, the Lord on that occasion uttered the follow- 
ing stanzas : 

45. Always displaying the strength of charity, 
always filled with compassion for all creatures, ex- 
pounding this law, the Sugatas have approved this 
exalted Stitra. 

46. The laymen, as well as the mendicant friars, 
and the Bodhisattvas who shall live at the end of 
time, must all show the strength of charity, lest those 
who hear the law reject it. 

47. But I, when I shall have reached enlighten- 
ment and be established in Tathigataship, will 
initiate (others), and after having initiated disciples 1 
preach everywhere this superior enlightenment. 

48. It is (a case) like that of a king, ruler of 
armies, who gives to his soldiers various things, 
gold, elephants, horses, cars, foot soldiers ; he also 

1 Tato npaneshyi upSyayitvi saawrftvayisliye imam agrabodhim. 


gives towns and villages, in token of his content- 

49. In his satisfaction he gives to some hand- 
ornaments, silver and gold thread; pearls, gems, 
conch-shells, stones (?), coral; he also gives slaves of 
various description. 

50. But when he is struck with the incomparable 
daring of one amongst the soldiers, he says : Thou 
hast admirably done this ; and, taking off his crown, 
makes him a present of the jewel. 

51. Likewise do I, the Buddha, the king of the 
law, I who have the force of patience and a large 
treasure of wisdom, with justice govern the whole 
world, benign, compassionate, and pitiful. 

52. And seeing how the creatures are in trouble, 
I pronounce thousands of kotfs of Sfttr&ntas, when 
I perceive the heroism of those living beings who 
by pure-mindedness overcome the sinful inclinations 
of the world. 

53. And the king of the law, the great physician, 
who expounds hundreds of ko/is of Parydyas, when 
he recognises that creatures are strong, shows them 
this SAtra, comparable to a crown jewel. 

54. This is the last Sfttra proclaimed in the world, 
the most eminent of all my Sfttras, which I have 
always kept and never divulged. Now I am going 
to make it known ; listen all 

55. There are four qualities to be acquired by 
those who at the period after my extinction desire 
supreme enlightenment and perform my charge 1 . 
The qualities are such as follows. 

56. The wise man knows no vexation, trouble, 

1 Vydparaa. 


sickness ; the colour of his skin is not blackish ; nor 
does he dwell in a miserable town. 

57. The great Sage has always a pleasant look, 
deserves to be honoured, as if he were the Tathi- 
gata himself, and little angels shall constantly be his 

58. His body can never be hurt by weapons, 
poison, sticks, or clods, and the mouth of the man 
who utters a word of abuse against him shall be 

59. He is a friend to all creatures in the world. 
He goes all over the earth as a light, dissipating the 
gloom of many koris of creatures, he who keeps this 
Sutra after my extinction, 

60. In his sleep he sees visions in the shape of 
Buddha; he sees monks and nuns appearing on 
thrones and proclaiming the many-sided law. 

61. He sees in his dream gods and goblins, (nu- 
merous) as the sands of the Ganges, as well as 
demons and Nagas of many kinds, who lift their 
joined hands and to whom he expounds the emi- 
nent law. 

62. He sees in his dream the Tathdgata preaching 
the law to many ko/is of beings with lovely voice, 
the Lord with golden colour. 

63. And he stands there with joined hands glori- 
fying the Seer, the highest of men, whilst the 61na, 
the great physician, Is expounding the law to the 
four classes. 

64. And he, glad to have heard the law, joyfully 
pays his worship, and after having soon reached the 
knowledge which never slides back, he obtains, in 
dream, magical spells. 

65. And the Lord of the world, perceiving his good 


intention, announces to him his destiny of becoming 
a leader amongst men: Young man of good family 
(says he), thou shalt here reach in future supreme, 
holy knowledge. 

66. Thou shalt have a large field and four classes 
(of hearers), even as myself, that respectfully and 
with joined hands shall hear from thee the vast and 
faultless law. 

67. Again he sees his own person occupied with 
meditating on the law in mountain caverns ; and 
by meditating he attains the very nature of the 
law and, on obtaining complete absorption, sees 
the ina. 

68. And after seeing in his dream the gold- 
coloured one, him who displays a hundred hallo\\ed 
signs, he hears the law, whereafter he preaches it in 
the assembly. Such is his dream. 

69. And in his dream he also forsakes his whole 
realm, harem, and numerous kinsfolk; renouncing 
all pleasures he leaves home (to become an ascetic), 
and betakes himself to the place of the terrace of 

70. There, seated upon a throne at the foot of 
a tree to seek enlightenment, he will 1 , after the 
lapse of seven days, arrive at the knowledge of 
the Tathigatas. 

71. On having reached enlightenment he will rise 
up from that place to move forward the faultless 
wheel and preach the law during an inconceivable 
number of thousands of ko^is of ^Eons. 

72. After having revealed perfect enlightenment 
and led many koris of beings to perfect rest, he 

1 Anuprdpsyate. 


himself will be extinguished like a lamp when the oil 
is exhausted. So is that vision. 

73. Endless, Ma%nghosha, are the advantages 
which constantly are his who at the end of time 
shall expound this Sfttra of superior enlightenment 
that I have perfectly explained. 




Out of the multitude of Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas 
who had flocked from other worlds, Bodhisattvas 
eight (times) equal to the sands of the river Ganges 1 
then rose from the assembled circle. Their joined 
hands stretched out towards the Lord to pay him 
homage, they said to him : If the Lord will allow us, 
we also would, after the extinction of the Lord, reveal 
this Dharmaparyya in this Saha-world ; we would 
read, write, worship it, and wholly devote ourselves* 
to that law. Therefore, O Lord, deign to grant to us 
also this DharmaparySya. And the Lord answered : 
Nay, young men of good family, why should you 
occupy yourselves with this task ? I have here in 
this Saha-world thousands of Bodhisattvas equal to 
the sands of sixty Ganges rivers, forming the train 
of one Bodhisattva ; and of such Bodhisattvas there 
is a number equal to the sands of sixty Ganges rivers, 
each of these Bodhisattvas having an equal number 

1 The text has ash/au Gang&nadivdliksama Bodhi- 
satvSs. Burnouf renders the passage by 'en nombre 6gal a cehii 
des sables de huit Ganges/ Perhaps we must understand eight to 
mean eight thousand, just as e. g. Dipavawsa VI, 98 the word 
eighty-four denotes eighty-four thousand. 

f Yogam apadyemahi. 


in their train, \vho at the end of time, at the last 
period after my extinction, shall keep, read, proclaim 
this Dharmaparydya. 

No sooner had the Lord uttered these words than 
the Saha-world burst open on every side, and from 
within the clefts arose many hundred thousand 
myriads of koris of Bodhisattvas with gold-coloured 
bodies and the thirty-two characteristic signs of a 
great man, who had been staying in the element of 
ether underneath this great earth, close to this Saha- 
world. These then on hearing the word of the Lord 
came up from below the earth. Each of these Bodhi- 
sattvas had a train of thousands of Bodhisattvas 
similar to the sands of sixty Ganges 1 rivers; (each had) 
a troop, a great troop, as teacher of a troop. Of such 
Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas having a troop, a great 
troop, as teachers of a troop, there were hundred 
thousands of myriads of kotis equal to the sands of 
sixty Ganges 2 rivers, who emerged from the gaps 
of the earth in this Saha-world. Much more there 
were to be found of Bodhisattvas MaMsattvas 
having a train of Bodhisattvas similar to the sands 
of fifty Ganges rivers ; much more there were to be 
found of Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas having a train 
of Bodhisattvas similar to the sands of forty Ganges 
rivers ; of 30*, 20, 10, 5, 4, 3, 2, i Ganges river ; of 
I I 1 1 1 I iJ_ * i i i 

& 4 J 6* 10' 20 5 50' 1UO> 1000' 10U,GOO HMXKMWO 1 100x10,000,000* 1000 x 10.000.000> 

1 Or, a train of sixty thousand Bodhisattvas similar to the sands 
of the nver Ganges. 

2 Shash/y eva, which is ungrammatical, for shash/ir eva, or 
it is a corrupt reading. 

9 The text goes on repeating the same words, save the difference 
of number ; I have given the contents n a shortened form. 


100 x looo x 10,000,000* 100 x 1000 x 10,000 x io,ooo,ooo P al "t f the river 
Ganges. Much more there were to be found of 
Bodhisattvas Mahisattvas having a train of many 
hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of Bodhisattrras ; 
of one ko/i ; of one hundred thousand ; of one thou- 
sand; of 500; of 400; of 300; of 200; of 100; of 
50 ; of 40 ; of 30 ; of 20 ; of 10 ; of 5, 4, 3, 2. Much 
more there were to be found of Bodhisattvas Maha- 
sattvas having one follower. Much more there were 
to be found of Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas standing 
isolated. They cannot be numbered, counted, calcu- 
lated, compared, known by occult science, the Bodhi- 
sattvas Mahasattvas who emerged from the gaps of 
the earth to appear in this Saha-world. And after 
they had successively emerged they went up to the 
Stupa of precious substances which stood in the sky, 
where the Lord Prabhutaratna, the extinct Tathagata, 
was seated along with the Lord .Sakyamuni on the 
throne. Whereafter they saluted the feet of both 
Tathagatas, &c., as well as the images of Tathagatas 
produced by the Lord .SSkyamuni from his own 
body, who all together were seated on thrones at the 
foot of various jewel trees on ever}* side in all direc- 
tions, in different worlds. After these Bodhisattvas 
had many hundred thousand times saluted, and 
thereon circumambulated the Tathagatas, &c., from 
left to right, and celebrated them with various Bodhi- 
sattva hymns, they went and kept themselves at a 
little distance, the joined hands stretched out to 
honour the Lord ^Sakyamuni, the Tathagata, &c., 
and the Lord Prabhutaratna, the Tathagata, &c. 

And while those Bodhisattvas Mah&sattvas who 
had emerged from the gaps of the earth were saluting 
and celebrating the TathUgatas by various Bodhi- 


sattva hymns, fifty intermediate kalpas in full rolled 
away, during which fifty intermediate kalpas the 
Lord .Sakyamuni remained silent, and likewise the 
four classes of the audience. Then the Lord pro- 
duced such an effect of magical power that the four 
classes fancied that it had been no more than one 
afternoon 1 , and they saw this Saha -world assume 
the appearance of hundred thousands of worlds 2 
replete with Bodhisattvas 3 . The four Bodhisattvas 
Mahisattvas who were the chiefest of that great 
host of Bodhisattvas, viz. the Bodhisattva Mah&- 
sattva called Ymsh/Laritra (i. e. of eminent con- 
duct), the Bodhisattva Mahasattva called Ananta- 
^aritra (i. e. of endless conductj, the Bodhisattva 
Mahasattva called Yisitddhayaritra (i. e. of correct 
conduct), and the Bodhisattva Mahasattva called 
Supratish//fcitaaritra (i. e. of very steady conduct), 
these four Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas standing at 

1 If we take kalpa or JEon (i.e. a day of twenty-four hours) to 
contain eighty intermediate kalpas, it is impossible that either 
fifty or five intermediate kalpas should be equal to an afternoon. 
A so-called Asahkhyeya kalpa has twenty intermediate kalpas, and 
is, in reality, equal to s,x hours, so that five intermediate kalpas 
will embrace a time of i hour. If we might take an Asankhyeya 
to be the equivalent of a day of twenty-four hours, the reckoning 
would be correct, for then five intermediate kalpas would be equal 
to six hours ; we can, however, produce no authority for Asan- 
khyeya kalpa ever being used in the (esotenc) sense of a day and 

8 Lofcadhatujatasahasrakaraparigr/hitam, which ought 
to be c karap ", or c karam p '. Instances of the peculiar construc- 
tion of parigrjhita after the analogy of prdpta are found, 
Lalaarvisiara, pp. 109. 112, 181, 368. A marginal would-be cor- 
rection has kasaz p c . 

3 The afternoon being at an end, the innumerable spheres of 
the stars become visible. 


the head of the great host, the great multitude of 
Bodhisattvas stretched out the joined hands towards 
the Lord and addressed him thus : Is the Lord in 
good health ? Does he enjoy well-being and good 
ease ? Are the creatures decorous, docile, obedient, 
correctly performing their task 1 , so that they give no 
trouble to the Lord? 

And those four Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas ad- 
dressed the Lord with the two following stanzas : 

1. Does the Lord of the world, the illuminator, 
feel at ease ? Dost thou feel free from bodily dis- 
ease, O Perfect One ? 

2. The creatures, we hope, will be decorous, docile, 
performing the orders 2 of the Lord of the world, so as 
to give no trouble. 

And the Lord answered the four Bodhisattvas 
Mahlsattvas who were at the head of that great 
host, that great multitude of Bodhisattvas : So it Is, 
young men of good family, I am in good health, 
well-being, and at ease. And these creatures of 
mine are decorous, docile, obedient, well performing 
what is ordered ; they give no trouble when I cor- 
rect them 8 ; and that, young men of good family, 
because these creatures, owing to their being already 
prepared under the ancient, perfectly enlightened 
Buddhas, have but to see and hear me to put trust 

1 Suvijodhaka^z. The rendering doubtful; see next note. 

2 Susodhaka. This, as well as suvLrodhaka, property means 
' well cleaning,* and applies, at least originally, to servants or pupils 
who are charged with sweeping the house or precincts. I have 
tried to give the expression a spiritual look ; Burnouf renders it by 
'faciles a purifier/ which is quite plausible, because in a similar 
compound, subodha, we find bodha used in a passive sense t 
the word meaning 6 easy to be understood.' 

8 Na Aa khedasrz ^anayanti virodhyam4nds. 


in me, to understand and fathom the Buddha-know- 
ledge. And those who fulfilled their duties in the 
stage of disciples have now been introduced by me 
into Buddha-knowledge and well instructed in the 
highest truth. 

And at that time the Bodhisattvas Mahisattvas 
uttered the following stanzas: 

3. Excellent, excellent, O great Hero! we are 
happy to hear that those creatures are decorous, 
docile, well performing their duty 3 ; 

4. And that they listen to thy profound know- 
ledge, O Leader, and that after listening to it they 
have put trust in it and understand it. 

This said, the Lord declared his approval to the 
four Bodhisattvas Mahdsattvas who were at the head 
of that great host, that great multitude of Bodhi- 
sattvas Mahasattvas, saying : Well done, young men 
of good family, well done, that you so congratulate 
the Tathagata. 

And at that moment the following thought arose 
in the mind of the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Maitreya 
and the eight hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of 
Bodhisattvas similar to the sands of the river Ganges 2 : 
We never yet saw so great a host, so great a multi- 
tude of Bodhisattvas ; we never yet heard of such 
a multitude, that after issuing from the gaps of the 
earth has stood in the presence of the Lord to 
honour, respect, venerate, worship him and greet 
him with joyful shouts 3 . Whence have these Bodhi- 
sattvas Mahasattvas flocked hither ? 

1 Siwodhaka; cf. above. 

2 Ash/anaw Ganganadf \alikopamlnaan Bodhisatvako/inayutasa- 
tasahasra&. Burnouf renders, ' a celui des sables de tout Ganges/ 

3 Pratisammodante* 


Then the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Maitreya, feel- 
ing within himself doubt and perplexity, and inferring 
from his own thoughts those of the eight hundred 
thousand myriads of koris of Bodhisattvas similar to 
the sands of the river Ganges, stretched out his 
joined hands towards the Lord and questioned him 
about the matter by uttering the following stanzas : 

5. Here are many thousand myriads of ko/is of 
Bodhisattvas, numberless, \vhom we never saw 
before ; tell us, O supreme of men ! 

6. Whence and how do these mighty persons 
come? Whence have they come here under the 
form of great bodies 1 ? 

7. All are great Seers, wise and strong in memory, 
whose outward appearance is lovely to see ; whence 
have they come ? 

8. And each of those Bodhisattvas, O Lord of 
the world, has an immense train, like the sands 
of the Ganges. 

9. The train of (each) glorious Bodhisattva is 
equal to the sands of sixty Ganges in full-. All are 
striving after enlightenment. 

10. Of such heroes and mighty possessors of a 
troop the followers are equal to the sands of sixty 
Ganges 3 . 

1 The rendering is doubtful; the text has mahatmabhava- 

2 Gangvlikasam shash/i paripftra yasasvinaA, parivaro Bo- 
dhisatvasya. It is in the teeth of grammar to render the passage 
in this way, but from the following we must infer that no other 
translation will suit the case. 

8 The translation is uncertain; the text has evauw rflpa viraaw 
varshavantana tiyin&ra, shash/ir eva pramawena Gangavalika irne. 
Instead of varshavantana I would read vargavantana, which 


11. There are others, still more numerous, with 
an unlimited train, like the sands of fifty, forty, and 
thirty Ganges ; 

12, 13. Who have a train equal to the (sands 
of) twenty Ganges. Still more numerous are the 
mighty sons of Buddha, who have each a train (equal 
to the sands) of ten, of five Ganges. Whence, O 
Leader, has such an assembly flocked hither ? 

14. There are others who have each a train of 
pupils and companions equal to the sands of four, 
three, or two Ganges. 

15. There are others more numerous yet; it 
would be impossible to calculate their number in 
thousands of ko/is of sEons. 

1 6. (Equal to> a half Ganges, one third, one 
tenth, one twentieth, is the train of those heroes, 
those mighty Bodhisattvas. 

17. There are yet others who are incalculable; 
it would be impossible to count them even in hun- 
dreds of ko/is of yEons. 

1 8. Many more yet there are, with endless trains ; 
they have in their attendance ko/is, and ko/is and 
again ko/is, and also half ko/is. 

19. Other great Seers again, beyond computa- 
tion, very wise Bodhisattvas are seen in a respectful 

20. They have a thousand, a hundred, or fifty 
attendants ; in hundreds of ko/is of ALons one would 
not be able to count them. 

21. The suite of (some of these) heroes consists 
of twenty, of ten, five, four, three, or two ; those are 

Burnouf seems to have had before him, for his translation has 
'suivis chacun de leur assemble.' 


22. As to those who are walking alone and corne 
to their rest alone, they have now flocked hither in 
such numbers as to be beyond computation. 

23. Even if one with a magic wand in his hand 
would try for a number of /Eons equal to the sands of 
the Ganges to count them, he would not reach the term. 

24. Where do all those noble, energetic heroes, 
those mighty Bodhisattvas, come from? 

25. Who has taught them the law (or duty; ? and 
by whom have they been destined to enlightenment ? 
Whose command do they accept ? Whose command 
do they keep ? 

26. Bursting forth at all points of the horizon 
through the whole extent of the earth they emerge, 
those great Sages endowed with magical faculty and 

27. This world on every side is being perforated, 
O Seer, by the wise Bodhisattvas. who at this time 
are emerging. 

28. Never before have we seen am thing like 
this. Tell us the name of this world, O Leaden 

29. We have repeatedly roamed in all directions 
of space, but never saw these Bodhisattvas. 

30. We never saw a single infant 1 of thine, and 
now, on a sudden, these appear to us. Tell us their 
history, O Seer. 

31. Hundreds, thousands, ten thousands of Bodhi- 
sattvas, all equally filled with curiosity, look up to 
the highest of men. - 

32. Explain to us, O incomparable, great hero, who 
knowest no bounds 2 , where do these heroes, these 
wise Bodhisattvas, come from ? 

1 Stanapa. 

* Nirivadhe, which I identify with Sansk, niravadhe, the voc. 
[til U 


Meanwhile the Tathdgatas, &c., who had flocked 
from hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of worlds, 
they, the creations of the Lord ,S.kyamuni, who were 
preaching the law to the beings in other worlds ; who 
all around 1 the Lord *Sakyamuni, the Tathigata, Sec., 
were seated with crossed legs on magnificent jewel 
thrones 2 at the foot of jewel trees in every direction 
of space ; as well as the satellites of those Tath&- 
gatas were struck with wonder and amazement at 
the sight of that great host, that great multitude of 
Bodhisattvas emerging from the gaps of the earth 
and established in the element of ether, and they 
(the satellites] asked each their own Tathigata : 
Where, O Lord, do so many Bodhisattvas Mah&- 
sattvas, so innumerable, so countless, come from ? 
Whereupon those Tathagatas, &c., answered sever- 
ally to their satellites : Wait awhile, young men of 
good family; this Bodhisattva Mahdsattva here, 
called Maitreya, has just received from the Lord 
6akyamuni a revelation about his destiny to supreme, 
perfect enlightenment He has questioned the Lord 
Sakyamuni, the Tath^gata, &c., about the matter, 
and the Lord Sakyamuni, the Tathagata, &c., is 
going to explain it ; then you may hear. 

Thereupon the Lord addressed the Bodhisattva 
Maitreya: Well done, A^ita, well done; it is a 
sublime subject, A^ita, about which thou questionest 
me. Then the Lord addressed the entire host of 
Bodhisattvas : Be attentive all, young men of good 

case of niravadrr. Burnouf has, ' toi qui es affranchi de Paccu- 
mulation [des elements constitutifs de Texistence]/ 

1 Samantad ; Burnouf*s *en pr&ence' is wanting in my MS. 

2 Or, thrones of magnificent jewels. 


family ; be well prepared and steady on your post. 
you and the entire host of Bodhisattvas ; the Tatha- 
gata, the Arhat, &c., is now going to exhibit the 
sight of the knowledge of the Tathagata, young men 
of good family, the leadership of the Tathagata, the 
work of the Tathagata, the sport 1 of the Tathagata, 
the might of the Tathagata, the energy of the 

And on that occasion the Lord pronounced the 
following stanzas : 

33. Be attentive all, young men of good family ; 
I am to utter an infallible word ; refrain from dis- 
puting 2 about it, O sages : the science of the Tatha- 
gata is beyond reasoning. 

34. Be all steady and thoughtful ; continue atten- 
tive all. To-day you will hear a law as yet unknown 
the wonder of the Tathagatas. 

35. Never have any doubt, ye sages, for I shall 
strengthen you, I am the Leader who speaketh In- 
fallible truth, and my knowledge is unlimited. 

36. Profound are the laws known to the Sugata, 
above reasoning and beyond argumentation. These 
laws I am going to reveal ; ye, hear which and how 
they are. 

After uttering these stanzas the Lord addressed 
the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Maitreya: I announce 
to thee, A^ita, I declare to thee: These Bodhisattvas 
Mahdsattvas, A^ita, so innumerable, incalculable, 
inconceivable, incomparable, uncountable, whom you 
never saw before, who just now have issued from 

1 I.e. magic display of creative power, lila, synonymous with 

3 Vivdda, the original reading, though afterwards effaced and 
replaced by vishdda, despondency. 

U 2 


the gaps of the earth, these Bodhisattvas Mahd- 
sattvas, A^ita, have I roused, excited, animated, 
fully developed to supreme, perfect enlightenment 
after my having arrived at supreme, perfect en- 
lightenment in this world. I have, moreover, fully 
matured, established, confirmed, instructed, per- 
fected these young men of good family in their 
Bodhisattvaship. And these Bodhisattvas Mahi- 
sattvas, Agita, occupy in this Saha-world the domain 
of the ether-element below. Only thinking of the 
lesson they have to study, and devoted to thoroughly 
comprehend it, these young men of good family 
have no liking for social gatherings, nor for bustling 
crowds ; they do not put off their tasks, and are 
strenuous 1 . These young men of good family, 
Agita, delight in seclusion 2 , are fond of seclusion. 
These young men of good family do not dwell in 
the immediate vicinity of gods and men, they not 
being fond of bustling crowds. These young men 
of good family find their luxury in the pleasure 
of the law, and apply themselves to Buddha- 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the follow- 
ing stanzas : 

37. These Bodhisattvas, immense, inconceivable 
and beyond measure, endowed with magic power, 
wisdom, and learning, have progressed in knowledge 
for many ko/is of -rEons. 

38. It is I who have brought them to maturity 
for enlightenment, and it is in my field that they 

1 It will be remarked that these Bodhisattvas are represented as 
pupils or young monks under training, 5rimaeras. 

2 Vivekarma; viveka at the same time means ' discri- 


have their abode; by me alone have they been brought 
to maturity; these Bodhisattvas are my sons. 

39. All have devoted themselves to a hermit 
life 1 and are assiduous in shunning places of bustle * 
they walk detached, these sons of mine, following 
my precepts in their lofty course. 

40. They dwell in the domain of ether, in the 
lower portion of the field, those heroes who, un- 
wearied, are striving day and night to attain superior 

41. All strenuous, of good memory, unshaken :n 
the immense strength of their intelligence, those 
serene sages preach the law, all radiant, as being 
my sons, 

42. Since the time when I reached this superior 
(or foremost) enlightenment, at the town of Ga\a. 
at the foot of the tree, and put in motion the all- 
surpassing wheel of the law, I have brought to 
maturity all of them for superior enlightenment 

43. These words I here speak are faultless, really 
true ; believe me, all of you who hear me : verily, I 
have reached superior enlightenment, and it is by 
me alone that all have been brought to maturity. 

The Bodhisattva Mahasattva Maitreya and those 
numerous hundred thousands of myriads of ko/is of 
Bodhisattvas were struck with wonder, amazement, 
and surprise, (and thought) : How is it possible that 
within so short a moment, within the lapse of so 
short a time so many Bodhisattvas, so countless, 
have been roused and made fully ripe to reach 
supreme, perfect enlightenment ? Then the Bodhi- 

1 Ara#yadhut&bhiyukta; r a wy a dhuta, essentially the same 
as Pffi SraTmakahga, is one of the thirteen Dhutangas. 



sattva MaMsattva Maitreya asked the Lord : How 
then, O Lord, has the Tathdgata, after he left, when 
a prince royal, Kapilavastu, the town of the .S&kyas, 
arrived at supreme, perfect enlightenment on the 
summit of the terrace of enlightenment, not far from 
the town of Gayi, somewhat more than forty years 
since, O Lord ? How then has the Lord, the Tathi- 
gata, within so short a lapse of time, been able to 
perform the endless task of a TathSgata, to exer- 
cise the leadership of a Tathigata, the energy of a 
Tathigata ? How has the TatMgata, within so short 
a time, been able to rouse and bring to maturity for 
supreme, perfect enlightenment this host of Bodhi- 
sattvas, this multitude of Bodhisattvas, a multitude 
so great that it would be impossible to count the 
whole of it, even if one were to continue counting 
for hundred thousands of myriads of kotis offiLons ? 
These Bodhisattvas, so innumerable, O Lord, so 
countless, having long followed a spiritual course 
of life and planted roots of goodness under many 
hundred thousands of Buddhas, have in the course 
of many hundred thousands of JELons become finally 

It is just as if some man, young and youthful, a 
young man with black hair and in the prime of youth, 
twenty-five years of age, would represent cente- 
narians as his sons, and say: ' Here, young men of 
good family, you see my sons;' and if those cen- 
tenarians would declare: 'This is the father who 
begot us/ Now, Lord, the speech of that man 
would be incredible, hard to be believed by the 
public. It is the same case with the Tathigata, 
who but lately has arrived at supreme, perfect 
enlightenment, and with these Bodhisattvas Mah- 


sattvas, so immense in number, who for many hvn- 
dred thousand myriads of ko/is of -rEons, having 
observed a spiritual course of life, have long since 
come to certainty in regard to Tathagata-knowledge ; 
who are able to plunge in and again rise from the 
hundred thousand sorts of meditation ' ; who are 
adepts at the preparatories to noble transcendent 
wisdom, have accomplished the preparatories to 
noble transcendent wisdom 2 ; who are clever on the 
Buddha-ground, able in the (ecclesiastical* Council 
and in TatMgata duties ; who are the wonder 3 and 
admiration of the world ; who are possessed of great 
vigour, strength, and power. And the Lord says : 
From the very beginning have I roused, brought to 
maturity, full}- developed them to be fit for this 
Bodhisattva position. It is I who have displayed this 
energy and vigour after arriving at supreme, perfect 
enlightenment. But, O Lord, how can we have faith 
in the words of the Tathagata, when he says : The 
Tathagata speaks infallible truth ? The Tathagata 
must know that the Bodhisattvas who have newly 
entered the vehicle are apt to fall into doubt on 
this head; after the extinction of the Tathagata 
those who hear this Dharmaparyaya will not accept, 
not believe, not trust it. Hence, O Lord, they will 
design acts tending to the ruin of the law. There- 
fore, O Lord, deign to explain us this matter, that 
we may be free from perplexity, and that the Bodhi- 
sattvas who in future shall hear it, be they young 

ih. I suppose that for mukha, point, principal point, side, face, 
we have to read sukha, ecstasy. 

2 Mah&bhi^&parikarmaniryStS, mahibhi?lakr/iaparikanniaA. 
* PajwfitS, Buddhabhftmau sangitiktwaia*, Tathagatadharmaw&w. 


men of good family or young ladies, may not fall 
into doubt 

On that occasion the Bodhisattva Mahdsattva 
Maitreya addressed the Lord with the following 
stanzas : 

44. When thou wert born in Kapilavastu, the 
home of the -S&kyas, thou didst leave it and reach 
enlightenment at the town of Gayi 1 . That is a 
short time ago, O Lord of the world. 

45. And now thou hast so great a crowd of 
followers, these sages who for many ko/is of JEons 
have fulfilled their duties, stood firm in magic power, 
unshaken, well disciplined, accomplished in the might 
of wisdom ; 

46. These, who are untainted as the lotus is by 
water ; who to-day have flocked hither after rending 
the earth, and are standing all with joined hands, 
respectful and strong in memory, the sons of the 
Master of the world 2 . 

47. How will these Bodhisattvas believe this great 
wonder ? Expel (all) doubt, tell the cause, and show 
how the matter really is. 

1 The succint form in which the events of the legendary life of 
the SSkyo. prince are told is remarkable, especially if we bear in 
mind that the first going out (nishkramaa) of a young boy 
(kum^ra) usually takes place four months after his birth ; the rite 
of 'giving rice food/ annaprd^ana, takes place in the sixth month ; 
this rite has its counterpart in Su^tH's providing Gautama with milk 
porridge and honey. Another rite, that of shaving the hair with 
the exception of a tuft on the crown, the u<fakarman, commonly 
follows theannaprS^ana; in the case of Gautama, however, it is 
represented to be subsequent on the kumfira having left his home. 
In so far as he cut off his hair at the time of his entering a spiritual 
life, the act agrees with the ^fi^karman at the upanayana or 
initiation of boys. 

8 Lokddhipatisya putr&A. 


48- It is as if there were some man, a young man 
with black hair, twenty years old or somewhat more, 
who presented as his sons some centenarians, 

49- And the latter, covered with wrinkles and 
grey-haired, declared the (young) man to be their 
father. But such (a young man) never having sons 
of such appearance, it would be difficult to believe, 
O Lord of the world, that they were sons to so >oung 
a man. 

50- In the same manner, O Lord, we are unable to 
conceive how these numerous Bodhisattvas of good 
memory and excelling in wisdom, who have been 
well instructed during thousands of ko/is of JEons ; 

51. Who are firm, of keen intelligence, lovely and 
agreeable to sight, free from hesitation in the' deci- 
sions on law, praised by the Leaders of the world ; 

52. Who in freedom live in the wood 1 ; who un- 
attached in the element of ether constantly displa\ 
their energy, who are the sons of Sugata striving 
after this Buddha-ground ; 

53. How will this be believed when the Leader of 
the world shall be completely extinct ? After hearing 
it from the Lord's own mouth we shall never more 
feel any doubt. 

54. May Bodhisattvas never come to grief by 
having doubt on this head. Grant us, O Lord, a 
truthful account how these Bodhisattvas have been 
brought to maturity by thee. 

1 Vane, which, especially in the more ancient language, also 
means a cloud, the region of clouds. 




Thereupon the Lord addressed the entire host of 
Bodhisattvas : Trust me, young men of good family, 
believe in the Tathagata speaking a veracious word. 
A second time the Lord addressed the Bodhisattvas : 
Trust me, young gentlemen of good family, believe 
in the Tathagata speaking a veracious word. A 
third and last time the Lord addressed the Bodhi- 
sattvas : Trust me, young men of good family, be- 
lieve in the Tathagata speaking a veracious word. 
Then the entire host of Bodhisattvas with Maitreya, 
the Bodhisattva Mahasattva at their head, stretched 
out the joined hands and said to the Lord: Expound 
this matter, O Lord ; expound it, O Sugata ; we will 
believe in the word of the Tathagata. A second 
time the entire host, &c. &c. A third time the 
entire host, &c. &c. 

The Lord, considering that the Bodhisattvas re- 
peated their prayer up to three times, addressed 
them thus : Listen then, young men of good family. 
The force of a strong resolve which I assumed 1 is 
such, young men of gocJd family, that this world, 
including gods, men, and demons, acknowledges: 
Xow has the Lord vSakyamuni, after going out from 
the home of the .Sakyas, arrived at supreme, per- 
fect enlightenment, on the summit of the terrace of 

1 Or. the power of supremacy -which forms my attribute, mamd- 


enlightenment at the town of Gaya. But, young men 
of good family, the truth is that many hundred thou- 
sand myriads of ko/is of JEons ago I ha\*e arrived 
at supreme, perfect enlightenment. By way of ex- 
ample, young men of good family, let there be the 
atoms of earth of fifty hundred thousand myriads of 
ko/is of worlds ; let there exist some man who takes 
one of those atoms of dust and then goes in an 
eastern direction fifty hundred thousand myriads of 
kotis of worlds further on, there to deposit that ato*n 
of dust ; let in this manner the man carry away from 
all those worlds the whole mass of earth, and in the 
same manner, and by the same act as supposed, de- 
posit all those atoms in an eastern direction". Xow 
would you think, young men of good family, that 
any one should be able to imagine, weigh, count, or 
determine (the number of; those worlds ? The Lord 
having thus spoken, the Bodhisattva Mahasattva 
Maitreya and the entire host of Bodhisattvas re- 
plied: They are incalculable, O Lord, those worlds, 
countless, beyond the range of thought. Not ex-en 
all the disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, O Lord, \\ ith 
their Arya-knowledge, will be able to imagine, wei^h, 
count, or determine them. For us also, O Lord, 
who are Bodhisattvas standing on the place from 
whence there is no turning back, this point lies 
beyond the sphere of our comprehension ; so innu- 
merable, O Lord, are those worlds. 

This said, the Lord spoke to those Bodhisattvas 
Mah&sattvas as follows : I announce to you, young men 
of good family, I declare to you : However numerous 

1 This passage is a repetition, in shorter form, of what is found 
in chapter VII ; see p. 153, 


be those worlds where that man deposits those atoms 
of dust and where he does not, there are not, young 
men of good family, in all those hundred thousands 
of myriads of ko/is of worlds so many dust atoms as 
there are hundred thousands of myriads of kotfs of 
ALons since I have arrived at supreme, perfect en- 
lightenment 1 . From the moment, young men of good 
family, when I began preaching the law to crea- 
tures in this Saha-world and in hundred thousands 
of myriads of ko/is of other worlds, and (when) the 
other Tathigatas, ' Arhats, &c., such as the Tathi- 
gata Dlpankara and the rest whom I have mentioned 
in the lapse of time (preached), (from that moment) 
have I, young men of good family, for the com- 
plete Nirvi^a of those Tathdgatas, &c., created all 
that with the express view to skilfully preach 
the law 2 . Again, young men of good family, the 
Tathigata, considering the different degrees of 
faculty and strength of succeeding generations, 

1 S&kyamuni here declares, in the most emphatic manner, not 
only that he has existed from eternity, but that he is the All-wise, 
the Buddha from the beginning. The world thinks that he has 
become all-wise at Gaya, a short time before, but in reality he has 
been the All-wise from eternity. In other words, the meaning of 
his being a common man who had reached enlightenment under 
the Bodhi-tree near Gay, is declared by himself to be a delusion. 
Further, it will be remarked that *SSkyamuni and the Tath&gata 
MaMbhi^%wfin&bhibhu in chapter VII are identical, though appa- 
rently diversified. 

2 Tesh&w a TatMgatdn&m ArhatSw samyaksambuddh&i&w 
parmirvdaya mayaiva tni, kulaputrS, updyakau^alyadharmade- 
rany (abhi) nirhdranirmit&ni. Burnouf translates as if he read 
te nirmitaA, so that 'those TaMgatas have been created/ 
Both readings come essentially to the same ; in either case SSkya- 
muni is the creator, the really existing being; the other Tathftgatas 
are emanations from him or apparent beings. 


reveals at each (generation) his own name, reveals 
a state in which Nirv^a has not yet been reached 1 , 
and in different ways he satisfies the wants of 
(different) creatures through various Dharmapar- 
yayas 2 . This being the case, young men of good 
family, the TatMgata declares to the creatures, 
whose dispositions are so various and who possess 
so few roots of goodness, so many evil propensities : 
I am young of age, monks ; having left my father's 
home, monks, I have lately arrived at supreme, per- 
fect enlightenment 3 . When, however, the Tathagata, 
who so long ago arrived at perfect enlightenment, 
declares himself to have but lately arrived at perfect 
enlightenment, he does so in order to lead creatures 
to full ripeness and make them go in. Therefore 
have these Dharmaparyayas been revealed ; and it 
is for the education of creatures, young men of good 
family, that the Tathigata has revealed all Dhar- 
maparyayas. And, young men of good family, the 
word that the Tathagata delivers on behalf of the 
education of creatures, either under his own appear- 
ance or under another's, either on his own authority 4 
or under the mask 5 of another, all that the Tatha- 

1 Instead of the last clause we find in the margin, * re\eals (or 
declares) at each his own Nirvana/ The material difference is 
slight, for the temporal appearances of the everlasting being are 
final and multifarious, but the being itself is one and everlasting. 
Sakyamuni is, in reality, the one and everlasting brahma. 

2 The Tathagata, in his proper being well understood, is not 
only the DevStideva, the supreme god of gods, of Buddhism, but 
of all religions in the world ; from him are all scriptures. 

8 In various periods mankind wants renewed revelation ; hence 
Vishflu, for Dharma's sake, descends on earth. 

4 JLtmSrambanena (sic), properly, on his own base. 

6 Aparvara#ena. One may also render it by * under the 
cloak of another.* 


gata declares, all those DharmaparySyas spoken by 
the Tathagata are true. There can be no question 
of untruth from the part of the Tathdgata in this 
respect For the Tathagata sees the triple world 
as it really is : it is not born, it dies not ; it is not 
conceived, it springs not into existence; it moves 
not in a whirl, it becomes not extinct ; it is not real, 
nor unreal ; it is not existing, nor non-existing ; it is 
not such, nor otherwise 1 , nor false. The TalMgata 
sees the triple world, not as the ignorant, common 
people, he seeing things always present to him ; 
indeed, to the Tathagata, in his position, no laws 
are concealed. In that respect any word that the 
Tathagata speaks is true, not false. But in order 
to produce the roots of goodness in the creatures, 
who follow different pursuits and behave according 
to different notions, he reveals various Dharma- 
paryiyas with various fundamental principles. The 
Tathagata then, young men of good family, does 
what he has to do. The Tathagata who so long 
ago was perfectly enlightened is unlimited in the 
duration of his life, he is everlasting. Without 
being extinct, the Tathagata makes a show of ex- 
tinction, on behalf of those who have to be educated 
And even now, young gentlemen of good family, 
I have not accomplished my ancient Bodhisattva- 
course, and the measure of my lifetime is not full. 
Nay, young men of good family, I shall yet have 
twice as many hundred thousand myriads of kofis 
of 2-Eons before the measure of my lifetime be fulR 

1 Or, it is not as it ought to be, nor wrong. 

2 Virtually he has existed from the very beginning, from an infi- 
nite period ; infinity multiplied by two remains infinity. 


I announce final extinction, young men of good 
family, though myself I do not become finally ex- 
tinct^. For in this way, young men of good family, 
I bring (all) creatures to maturity, lest creatures 
in whom goodness is not firmly rooted, who are 
unholy, miserable, eager of sensual pleasures, blind 
and obscured by the film of wrong views, should, 
by too often seeing me, take to thinking: 'The 
Tathagata is staying 2 / and fancy that all is a 
child's play 8 ; (lest they) by thinking k we are near 
that Tathigata' should fail to exert themselves in 
order to escape the triple world and not conceive 
how precious* the Tathagata is. Hence, young 
men of good family, the Tath^gata skilfully utters 
these words: The apparition of the Tathagatas, 
monks, is precious (and rare). For in the course 
of many hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of 
JEons creatures may happen to see a Tathagata or 
not to see him 6 . Therefore and upon that ground, 
young men of good family, I say : The apparition 
of the Tathfigatas, monks, is precious (and rare ). 

1 All this is perfectly true in the mouth of a personification of 
the sun, of time, of eternity, or of Xoyo*, but quite unintelligible in 
the mouth of some individual of the human race. Moments of 
time expire, time never ceases. The termination of ever}" day, 
month, year, &c. must remind us of our being mortal, and is a 
call from the Buddha to us, an inducement to lead a virtuous and 
holy life. 

* I. e. time stands still ; we shall never die. 

9 In the margin added, not realise the idea of his (u e* time's) 
4 Durlabha. 

* Nobody is certain whether the present day is his last or not ; 
in other words, whether he has seen the Tathagata for the last time, 
or shall see him again to-morrow, &c. Therefore the Tathagata 
is so precious. 


By being more and more convinced of the apparition 
of the Tathagatas being precious (or rare) they 
will feel surprised and sorry, and whilst not seeing 
the Tathagata they will get a longing to see him. 
The good roots developing from their earnest 
thought relating to the Tathigata 1 will lastingly 
tend to their weal, benefit, and happiness; in con- 
sideration of which the Tathagata announces final 
extinction, though he himself does not become finally 
extinct, on behalf of the creatures who have to be 
educated. Such, young men of good family, is the 
Tathagata's manner of teaching 2 ; when the Tatha- 
gata speaks in this way, there is from his part no 

Let us suppose an analogous case, young men of 
good family. There is some physician, learned, 
intelligent, prudent, clever in allaying all sorts of 
diseases. That man has many sons, ten, twenty, 
thirty, forty, fifty, or a hundred 3 . The physician 
once being abroad, all his children incur a disease 
from poison or venom. Overcome with the grievous 
pains 4 caused by that poison or venom which burns 
them they lie rolling on the ground. Their father, 
the physician, comes home from his journey at the 
time when his sons are suffering from that poison 
or venom. Some of them have perverted notions, 
others have right notions, but all suffer the same 
pain. On seeing their father they cheerfully greet 

1 I.e. the good designs germinating in man ^hen he is thinking 
of the shortness of life, the transitoriness of time. 

2 Dej-anaparydya. 

3 A marginal reading improves upon the more ancient text by 
adding, or a thousand. 

4 DuAkhabhir vedanslbhi/J. 


him and say ; Hail, dear father, that thou art come 
back in safety and welfare ! Now deliver us from 
our evil, be it poison or venom ; let us live, dear 
father^ And the physician, seeing his sons befallen 
with disease, overcome with pain and rolling on the 
ground, prepares a great remedy, having the required 
colour, smell, and taste, pounds it on a stone and 
gives it as a potion to his sons, with these words : 
Take this great remedy, my sons, which has the 
required colour, smell, and taste. For by taking 
this great remedy, my sons, you shall soon be rid 
of this poison or venom ; you shall recover and be 
healthy. Those amongst the children of the physi- 
cian that have right notions, after seeing the colour 
of the remedy, after smelling the smell and tasting 
the flavour, quickly take it, and in consequence of it 
are soon totally delivered from their disease. But the 
sons who have perverted notions cheerfully greet 
their father and say : Hail, dear father, that thou art 
come back in safety and \velfare ; do heal us. So 
they speak, but they do not take the remedy offered, 
and that because, owing to the perverseness of their 
notions, that remedy does not please them, in colour, 
smell, nor taste. Then the physician reflects thus : 
These sons of mine must have become perverted in 
their notions owing to this poison or venom, as they 
do not take the remedy nor hail me 1 . Therefore 
will I by some able device induce these sons to take 
this remedy. Prompted by this desire he speaks to 
those sons as follows : I am old, young men of good 
family, decrepit, advanced in years, and niy term of 
life is near at hand ; but be not sorry, young men 

1 One would rather have expected, joyfully accept my injunction. 
[] X 


of good family, do not feel dejected ; here have I 
prepared a great remedy for you ; if you want it, 
you may take it. Having thus admonished them, 
he skilfully betakes himself to another part of the 
country and lets his sick sons know that he has 
departed life. They are extremely sorry and bewail 
him extremely: So then he is dead, our father and 
protector; he who begat us; he, so full of bounty! 
now are we left without a protector. Fully aware of 
their being orphans and of having no refuge, they 
are continually plunged in sorrow, by which their 
perverted notions make room for right notions. 
They acknowledge that remedy possessed of the 
required colour, smell, and taste to have the required 
colour, smell, and taste, so that they instantly take 
it, and by taking it are delivered from their evil. 
Then, on knowing that these sons are delivered 
from evil, the physician shows himself again. Now, 
young men of good family, what is your opinion ? 
Would any one charge 1 that physician with falsehood 
on account of his using that device ? No, certainly 
not, Lord ; certainly not, Sugata. He proceeded : 
In the same manner, young men of good family, I 
have arrived at supreme, perfect enlightenment since 
an immense, incalculable number of hundred thou- 
sands of myriads of ko/is of ^ons, but from time to 
time I display such able devices to the creatures, 
with the view of educating them, without there 
being in that respect any falsehood on my part 

In order to set forth this subject more exten- 
sively the Lord on that occasion uttered the fol- 
lowing stanzas : 

J JSTodajret ; a would-be correction by a later hand has sajwvade t. 


1. An inconceivable number of thousands of kotfs 
of ^ons, never to be measured, is it since I reached 
superior (or first) enlightenment and never ceased 
to teach the law. 

2. I roused many Bodhisattvas and established 
them in Buddha-knowledge. I brought myriads of 
koris of beings, endless, to full ripeness in many 
ko/is of ^Eons. 

3. I show the place of extinction, I reveal to (all) 
beings a device 1 to educate them, albeit I do not 
become extinct at the time, and in this very place 
continue preaching the law. 

4. There I rule myself as well as all beings, 1 2 . 
But men of perverted minds, in their delusion, do 
not see me standing there 3 . 

5. In the opinion that my body is completely 
extinct, they pay worship, in many ways, to the 
relics, but me they see not. They feel (however) 
a certain aspiration by which their mind becomes 
right 4 . 

6. When such upright (or pious), mild, and 
gentle creatures leave off their bodies, then I as- 
semble the crowd of disciples and show myself 
here 5 on the GrzdhrakH/a. 

7. And then I speak thus to them, in this very 

1 UpSyam. It has been remarked above that updya likewise 
denotes the world, the energy of nature (pra^na*). 

2 Tatiiham atmSnam adhish/iMmi, sarvawa satv&ia tathaiva 
iha#z. Adhish/M is constructed both with the accusative case 
and the genitive. 

s Tatraiva. 

* L e. comes into the right disposition, or becomes pious. 

6 This important word has been omitted by Burnouf. The 
Tathlgata represents himself to be Dhannarfiga, the judge of the 
departed, the god rewarding the pious and brave after their death. 

X 2 


place: I was not completely extinct at that time; 
it was but a device of mine, monks ; repeatedly am 
I born in the world of the living. 

8. Honoured by other beings, I show them my 
superior enlightenment, but you would not obey my 
word, unless the Lord of the world enter Nirv0a. 

9. I see how the creatures are afflicted, but I do 
not show them my proper being. Let them first 
have an aspiration to see me ; then I will reveal to 
them the true law. 

10. Such has always been my firm resolve during 
an inconceivable number of thousands of koris of 
^ons, and I have not left this Gn'dhrakft/a for 
other abodes 1 . 

11. And when creatures behold this world and 
imagine that it is burning, even then my Buddha- 
field is teeming with gods and men. 

1 2. They dispose of manifold amusements, ko/is of 
pleasure gardens, palaces, and aerial cars ; (this field) 
is embellished by hills of gems and by trees abound- 
ing with blossoms and fruits. 

13. And aloft gods are striking musical instru- 
ments and pouring a rain of Mandaras 2 by which 
they are covering me, the disciples and other sages 
who are striving after enlightenment. 

14. So is my field here, everlastingly ; but others 
fancy that it is burning ; in their view this world is 
most terrific, wretched, replete with number of woes 3 . 

1 -Sayyasana. 

- The form constantly used in Buddhist \mtings, both in PSK 
and Sanskrit, is Mandarava. The *hole description of Heaven, 
or Paradise, bears the stamp of being taken, with more or less 
modification, from a non-Buddhistic source. 

3 There are different beliefs about the realm of the dead; the 


15. Ay, many kotfs of years they may pass 
without ever having mentioned my name, the law, 
or my congregation 1 . That is the fruit of sinful 

1 6. But when mild and gentle beings are born in 
this world of men, they immediately see me reveal- 
ing the law, owing to their good works. 

17. I never speak to them of the infinitude of my 
action. Therefore, I am, properly, existing since 
long 2 , and yet declare: The Ginas are rare (or 

1 8. Such is the glorious power of my wisdom 
that knows no limit, and the duration of my life is as 
long as an endless period ; I have acquired it after 
previously following a due course. 

19. Feel no doubt concerning it, O sages, and 
leave off all uncertainty : the word I here pronounce 
is really true ; my word is never false. 

20. For even as that physician skilled in devices, 
for the sake of his sons whose notions were per- 
verted, said that he had died although he was still 
alive, and even as no sensible man would charge 
that physician with falsehood; 

21. So am I the father of the world, the Self- 

Brahma-world and Paradise are usually depicted as places of bliss, 
but Yama's kingdom is often represented as a kind of hell, though 
at other times the same King of righteousness is said to have 
gathered round him the blessed company of the pious departed. 

1 Elsewhere we find Vwvan&ha, the Universal Lord, called 
Sangamejvara, the Lord of the gathering. Yama is Vaivasvata 
Sangamana ^anfinam, he of solar race, the gatherer of men, 
Rig-veda X, 14, i. 

2 TenSha sushM ha &rasya bhomi. The phrase admits of being 
translated, 'therefore, truly, I am (repeatedly) born after a long 


born 1 , the Healer 2 , the Protector of all creatures. 
Knowing them to be perverted, infatuated, and igno- 
rant I teach final rest, myself not being at rest. 

22. What reason should I have to continually 
manifest myself? When men become unbelieving, 
unwise, ignorant, careless, fond of sensual pleasures, 
and from thoughtlessness run into misfortune, 
' 23. Then I, who know the course of the world, 
declare : I am so and so 3 , (and consider) : How 
can I incline them to enlightenment ? how can they 
become partakers of the Buddha-laws 4 ? 

1 Lokapiti S\ayambhu& The juxtaposition of these 
words shows to an evidence that -Sakyamuni is represented as 
Brahma, the uncreated Be^ng, existing from eternity, the Father of 
the world, All-father. 

2 In a moral sense the Saviour, mythologically Apollo. 

8 I.e. I am so in reality, tathatathaham. BurnouPs rendering, 
' I am the Tathagata/ points to a reading tathagato 'ham, which 
comes to the same. 

4 Kathaw nu bodhaya sanmayeya (Sansk. sannimayeya) katha 
buddhadharmawa bhaveyu labhinaA 




While this exposition of the duration of the 
Tathigata's lifetime was being given, innumerable, 
countless creatures profited by it. Then the Lord 
addressed the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Maitreya: 
While this exposition of the duration of the Tatha- 
gata's lifetime was being given, A^ita, sixty-eight 
hundred thousand myriads of koris of Bodhisattvas, 
comparable to the sands of the Ganges \have acquired 
the faculty to acquiesce in the law that has no origin. 
A thousand times more Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas 
have obtained Dhltra?*! 2 ; and other Bodhisattvas 
MaMsattvas, equal to the dust atoms of one third of 
a macrocosm, have by hearing this Dharmaparyaya 
obtained the faculty of unhampered view. Other 
Bodhisattvas Mahisattvas again, equal to the dust 
atoms of two-third parts of a macrocosm, have by 
hearing this Dharmaparyiya obtained the DhSrawi 
that makes hundred thousand ko/is of revolutions. 

1 Ash/ashash/tn&w Ganga* Bodhisatvako/inayutasatasahasrawa/w. 
Burnouf connects ash/ashash/inam with Ganga, and translates, 
1 soixante huit Ganges.' His version is justified by the analogy of 
other passages. 

2 Dhtrawt usually denotes a magic spell, a talisman. Here 
and there it interchanges with dhdra&, support, the bearing in 
mind, attention. The synonymous rakshfi embraces the mean- 
ings of talisman and protection, support. It is not easy to decide 
what is intended in the text. 


Again, other Bodhisattvas Mah&sattvas, equal to 
the dust atoms of a whole macrocosm, have by 
hearing this Dharmaparyiya moved forward the 
wheel that never rolls back. Some Bodhisattvas 
Mahasattvas, equal to the dust atoms of a mean uni- 
verse, have by hearing this Dharmaparyiya moved 
forward the wheel of spotless radiance. Other Bo- 
dhisattvas Mahisattvas, equal to the dust atoms of a 
small universe, have by hearing this Dharmapar- 
yaya come so far that they will reach supreme, 
perfect enlightenment after eight births. Other 
Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas. equal to the dust atoms 
of four worlds of four continents 1 , have by hearing 
this Dharmapanaya become such as to require four 
births (more; before reaching supreme, perfect enlight- 
enment. Other Bodhisattvas Mahisattvas, equal to 
the dust atoms of three four-continental worlds, have 
by hearing this Dharmaparyiya become such as to 
require three births (more) before reaching supreme, 
perfect enlightenment. Other Bodhisattvas Mahisat- 
tvas, equal to the dust atoms of two four-continental 
worlds, have by hearing this Dharmaparyiya become 
such as to require two births (more) before reaching 
supreme, perfect enlightenment Other Bodhisattvas 
Mahasattvas, equal to the dust atoms of one four- 
continental world, have by hearing this Dharma- 
paryaya become such as to require but one birth 
before reaching supreme, perfect enlightenment. 
Other Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas, equal to the dust 
atoms of eight macrocosms consisting of three parts, 
have by hearing this Dharmaparyiya conceived the 
idea of supreme, perfect enlightenment 2 . 

1 Or, perhaps, of one whole vorld of four continents. 

2 The number 8 being the half of 16, the number of ka&s of a 


No sooner had the Lord given this exposition 
determining the duration and periods of the law, 
than there fell from the upper sky a great rain 
of Mandirava and great Mandarava flowers that 
covered and overwhelmed all the hundred thousand 
myriads of kotfs of Buddhas who were seated on 
their thrones at the foot of the jewel trees in hun- 
dred thousands of myriads of ko/is of worlds. It 
also covered and overwhelmed the Lord .Sakyamuni, 
the Tathagata, &C M and the Lord Prabhutaratna, 
the Tathagata, &c., the latter sitting fully extinct 
on his throne, as well as that entire host of Bodhi- 
sattvas and the four classes of the audience- A 
rain of celestial powder of sandal and agallochum 
trickled down from the sky, whilst higher up in the 
firmament the great drums resounded, without being 
struck, with a pleasant, sweet, and deep sound- Double 
pieces of fine heavenly cloth fell down by hundreds 
and thousands from the upper sky ; necklaces, half- 
necklaces, pearl necklaces, gems, jewels, noble gems, 
and noble jewels were seen high in the firmament, 
hanging down from every side in all directions of 
space, while all around thousands of jewel censers, 
containing priceless, exquisite incense, were moving 
of their own accord. Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas 
were seen holding above each Tathagata, high aloft, 
a row of jewel umbrellas stretching as high as the 
Brahma-world. So acted the Bodhisattvas Maha- 
sattvas in respect to all the innumerable hundred 

whole circle, it may be inferred that the description in the text 
alludes to the stars of that half of the sphere which is at the time 
below the horizon. Those stars then have reached Nirvina, though 
not the immortal one. 


thousands of myriads of ko/is of Buddhas 1 . Seve- 
rally they celebrated these Buddhas in appropriate 
stanzas, sacred hymns in praise of the Buddhas. 

And on that occasion the Bodhisattva Mahasattva 
Maitreya uttered the following stanzas : 

1. Wonderful is the law which the Sugata has 
expounded, the law we never heard before; how 
great the majesty of the Leaders is, and how infinite 
the duration of their life I 

2. And on hearing such a law imparted by the 
Sugata from face to face, thousands of ko/is of 
creatures, the genuine sons of the Leader of the 
world, have been pervaded with gladness. 

3. Some have reached the point of supreme en- 
lightenment from whence there is no return, others 
are standing on the lower stage 2 ; some have reached 
the standpoint of having an unhampered view, and 
others have obtained thousands of koris of Dharawis 3 . 

4. There are others, (as) atoms 4 , who have reached 
supreme Buddha-knowledge. Some, again, will after 
eight births become inas seeing the infinite 6 . 

5. Among those who hear this law from the 
Master, some will obtain enlightenment and see the 
truth 6 after four births, others after three, others 
after two. 

1 The version followed by Burnouf is somewhat longer. 

8 Dharaai y e dharay am, which is ambiguous, because the latter 
may stand for adharayam. That dharai can denote bhfcmi I 
infer from the phrase (bhfimi) lokadhn*i, Taitt. Arayaka X, i. 

3 The translation doubtful. 

4 Paramawu; the literal rendering is, others, extremely faint (or 
small). v 

5 Cf. the phrase * to see Nirvftna.' 

6 Evidently the same as ' seeing Nirv&aa/ as appears from what 
is added and the analogy with the preceding stanza. 


6. Some among them will become all-knowing 1 
after one birth, in the next following existence 2 . 
Such will be the perfect result of learning the 
duration of life of the Chief. 

7. Innumerable, countless as the atoms of the 
eight fields, are the ko/is of beings who by hear- 
ing this law have conceived the idea of superior 

8. Such is the effect produced by the great Seer, 
when he reveals this Buddha-state that is endless 
and has no limit, which is as immense as the element 
of ether. 

9. Many thousand ko/is of angels, Indras, and 
Brahma-angels, like the sands of the Ganges, have 
flocked hither from thousands of ko/is of distant 
fields and have poured a rain of Mandaravas. 

10. They move in the sky like birds, and strew 
fragrant powder of sandal and agallochum, to cover 
ceremoniously the Chief of G'mas withal. 

n. High aloft tymbals without being struck emit 
sweet sounds; thousands of ko/is of white cloth 
whirl down upon the Chiefs. 

12. Thousands of ko/is of jewel censers of costly 
incense move of their own accord on every side to 
honour the mighty 3 Lord of the world. 

13. Innumerable wise Bodhisattvas hold myriads 
of ko^is of umbrellas, elevated and made of noble 
jewels, like chaplets 4 , up to the Brahma-world, 

14. The sons of Sugata, in their great joy, have 

1 Another term for seeing Nirvawa. 

2 These four descriptions of Bodhisattvas agree in the main 
with the four degrees of holiness, of Srota^panna, Sakndaganrin, 
Andg&min, and Arhat 

5 T^yin. * Utansakan (sic). 


attached beautiful triumphal streamers at the top 
of the banner staffs 1 in honour of the Leaders whom 
they celebrate in thousands of stanzas. 

15. Such a marvellous, extraordinary, prodigious, 
splendid 2 phenomenon, O Leader, is being displayed 
by all those beings who are gladdened by the expo- 
sition of the duration of life (of the TathSgata). 

1 6. Grand is the matter now (occurring) in the 
ten points of space, and (great) the sound raised by 
the Leaders ; thousands of kotfs of livino- beino-s are 
refreshed and gifted with virtue for enlightenment 

Thereupon the Lord addressed the Bodhisattva 
Mahasattva Maitreya: Those beings, A/ita, who 
during the exposition of this Dharmaparyaya in 
which the duration of the Tathagatas life is revealed 
have entertained, were it but a single thought of trust, 
or have put belief in it, how great a merit are they 
to produce, be they young men and young ladies of 
good family ? Listen then, and mind it well, how 
great the merit is they shall produce. Let us sup- 
pose the case, A^ita, that some young man or young 
lady of good family, desirous of supreme, perfect 
enlightenment, for eight hundred thousand myriads 
of ko/is of .-Eons practises the five perfections of 
virtue (Piramitas), to wit, perfect charity in alms, 
perfect morality, perfect forbearance, perfect energy, 
perfect meditation perfect wisdom being excepted 3 ; 

1 Dhva^agre; a marginal reading has dhva^flz fa ( s i c ). 

2 E:admaj*arya virish&m adbhut^ (r. adbhuta^), vi&tra dar- 
rent* ima(m) adya Nayaka. 

3 Virahita^ pr^aparamrtay^^). The five specified virtues axe 
identical with those enumerated in Lalita-vistara, p. 3 8 and slio-htly 
different from those as found in the P4H scriptures. Out of the 
five virtues, four, viz. jila, kshinti, virya, dhylna, answer to 


let us, on the other hand, suppose the case, Agita, 
that a young man or young lady of good family, on 
hearing this Dharmaparyaya containing the exposi- 
tion of the duration of the Tathigata's life, conceives 
were it but a single thought of trust or puts belief 
in it; then that former accumulation of merit 1 , that 
accumulation of good connected with the five perfec- 
tions of virtue, (that accumulation) which has come 
to full accomplishment in eight hundred thousand 
myriads of ko/is of ./Eons, does not equal one hun- 
dredth part of the accumulation of merit in the second 
case ; it does not equal one thousandth part ; it admits 
of no calculation, no counting, no reckoning, no com- 
parison, no approximation, no secret teaching 2 . One 
who is possessed of such an accumulation of merit, 
A^ita, be he a young man or a young lady of good 
family, will not miss supreme, perfect enlightenment ; 
no, that is not possible. 

dama, ksham&, dhrzti, dhi in Maim VI, 92, where vidya is the 
equivalent to the Paramiti of pra^wa. 

1 Pu#yabhisazsklra, which may be said to be the common 
Buddhistic equivalent of karmjaya } explained by Hindu scho- 
lastics to be the accumulation of moral merit and demerit. The 
term properly means 'one's moral disposition (at a ghen time as a 
necessary result of one's previous acts),' In a certain sense it may 
be contended that the sum of one's previous actions determines 
one's moral state at a given moment. As ijaya means disposition, 
character, and accumulation, we can understand how the Indian 
scholastics came to misunderstand the real purport of the word in 
karm^aya. As to abhisawzskara, it properly means '(mental 
or moral) disposition, character, impression, conception/ 

2 Upanisam api, upanishadam api na kshamate. Upanisa* is 
nothing else but the Prakrit form of Sansk. upanishad. In Pali it 
is explained by raho, mystery, secret lore, and kara#a; the latter 
may mean 'mathematical operation.' See, however, the Editor's 
note on SukMvati-vyuha, p. 31. 


And on that occasion the Lord uttered the follow- 
ing stanzas : 

1 7. Let a man who is seeking after this knowledge, 
superior Buddha-knowledge, undertake to practise in 
this world the five perfect virtues ; 

1 8. Let him, during eight thousand ko/is of 
complete -#ons, continue giving repeated alms to 
Buddhas and disciples; 

19. Regaling Pratyekabuddhas and ko^is of Bodhi- 
sattvas by giving meat, food and drink, clothing and 
lodging 1 ; 

20. Let him build on earth refuges and monasteries 
of sandal-wood, and pleasant convent gardens pro- 
vided with walks ; 

21. Let him after so bestowing gifts, various and 
diversified, during thousands of ko/is of -rEons, direct 
his mind to enlightenment 2 ; 

22. Let him then, for the sake of Buddha- 
knowledge, keep unbroken the pure moral precepts 
which have been recommended by the perfect Bud- 
dhas and acknowledged by the wise ; 

23. Let him further develop the virtue of for- 
bearance, be steady in the stage of meekness 3 , be 
constant, of good memory, and patiently endure 
many censures; 

24. Let him, moreover, for the sake of Buddha- 

1 These Pratyekabuddhas can hardly be other persons than 
hermits, and the Bodhisattvas must be the ministers of religion, 
who otheiwise are called Pastas, and Vandyas, whence our 

2 L e.. if I rightly understand it, let him, after having lived in the 
world, retire from a busy life to take orders. 

3 L e. of a monk under training. 


knowledge, bear the contemptuous words of un- 
believers who are rooted in pride; 

25. Let him, always zealous, strenuous, studious, 
of good memory, without any other pre-occupation in 
his mind, practise meditation, during kofis of /Eons ; 

26. Let him, whether living in the forest or enter- 
ing upon a vagrant life 1 , go about, avoiding sloth 
and torpor 2 , for ko/is of JEons ; 

27. Let him as a philosopher, a great philosopher - 
who finds his delight in meditation, in concentration 
of mind, pass eight thousand ko/is of ^Eons ; 

28. Let him energetically pursue enlightenment 
with the thought of his reaching all-knowingness, and 
so arrive at the highest degree of meditation ; 

29. Then the merit accruing to those who practise 
the virtues oft described, during thousands of ko/is 
of ^Eons, 

30. (Is less than that of) a man or a woman who, 
on hearing the duration of my life, for a single mo- 
ment believes in it ; this merit is endless. 

31. He who renouncing doubt, vacillation, and 
misgiving shall believe even for a short moment, 
shall obtain such a reward. 

3 2. The Bodhisattvas also, who have practised those 
virtues during ko/is of JEons, will not be startled at 
hearing of this inconceivably long life of mine. 

33. They will bow their heads (and think) : ' May 
I also in future become such a one and release ko/is 
of living beings ! 

1 JTankramam abhiruhya. 

2 Stynamiddhaa var^itvS. Middha, well known, from 
Buddhistic writings, is a would-be Sanskrit form ; it ought to be 
mr/ddha, from Vedic mrz'dhyati. 

3 I. e, a Yogin, a contemplative mystic. 

XYI. or PIETV. 321 

of the duration of the Tathagata's life most decidedly 
believes in it may be deemed the following. They 
will behold me teaching the law 1 here on the 
G/vdhraku/a 2 , surrounded by a host of Bodhisattvas, 
attended by a host of Bodhisattvas, in the centre 
of the congregation of disciples. They will behold 
here my Buddha-field in the Saha-world, consisting 
of lapis lazuli and forming a level plain ; forming a 
chequered board of eight compartments with gold 
threads ; set off with jewel trees. They will behold 
the towers that the Bodhisattvas use as their abodes J . 
By this test, Afita, one may know if a young man 
or young lady of good family has a most decided 
belief. Moreover, A^ita, I declare that a young 
man of good family who, after the complete extinc- 
tion of the Tathagata, shall not reject, but joyfully 
accept this Dharmaparyaya when hearing it, that 
such a young man of good family also is earnest in 
his belief; far more one who keeps it in memory 
or reads it. He who after collecting this Dharma- 
paryiya into a volume carries it on his shoulder 4 
carries the Tathagata on his shoulder. Such a young 
man or young lady of good family, Afita, need make 
no Stupas for me, nor monasteries ; need not give 
to the congregation of monks medicaments for the 

1 And, pronouncing judgment. 

2 We have seen abo\e that this is the true abode of the 

8 KMgfiraparibhogeshu Bodhisatva\Ssaz vi drakshyanti, pro- 
perly, they will behold the dwelling of the Bodhisatt\as in the 
towers which those Bodhisattvas have received for their use. 
About the technical meaning of ku/&gaTa in Nepal, see B. 
H. Hodgson, Essays, p. 49. 

4 I. e. holds it in high esteem and treats it with care. 


sick or (other) requisites 1 . For, A^ita, such a young 
man or young lady of good family has (spiritually) 
built for the worship of my relics Stftpas of seven 
precious substances reaching up to the Brahma-world 
in height, and with a circumference in proportion, 
with the umbrellas thereto belonging, with triumphal 
streamers, with tinkling bells and baskets; has 
shown manifold marks of respect to those Stftpas 
of relics with diverse celestial and earthly flowers, 
incense, perfumed garlands, ointments, powder, cloth, 
umbrellas, banners, flags, triumphal streamers, by 
various sweet, pleasant, clear-sounding tymbals and 
drums, by the tune, noise, sounds of musical instru- 
ments and castanets, by songs, nautch and dancing 
of different kinds, of many, innumerable kinds ; has 
done those acts of worship during many, innumer- 
able thousands of ko/is of ^Eons. One who keeps 
in memory this Dharmaparj ya after my complete 
extinction, who reads, writes, promulgates it, A^ita, 
shall also have built monasteries, large, spacious, 
extensive, made of red sandal-wood, with thirty-two 
pinnacles, eight stories, fit for a thousand monks, 
adorned with gardens and flowers, having walks 
furnished with lodgings, completely provided with 
meat, food and drink and medicaments for the 
sick, well equipped with all comforts. And those 
numerous, innumerable beings, say a hundred or 
a thousand or ten thousand or a kotf or hundred 
ko/is or thousand ko/is or hundred thousand ko/is 
or ten thousand times hundred thousand ko^is, they 

1 This agrees \nth the teaching of the Vedinta that Brahma- 
knowledge is independent of good works; see e.g. Brahma-sfora 
HI, 4, 25. 


must be considered to form the congregation of 
disciples seeing me from face to face, and must be 
considered as those whom I have fully blessed 1 . 
He who, after my complete extinction, shall keep 
this Dharmaparyaya, read, promulgate, or write it 
he, I repeat, A^ita, need not build Stupas of relics, 
nor worship the congregation ; not necessary to tell. 
A^ita, that the young man or young lady of good 
family who, keeping this Dharmaparjaya, shall cro\vn 
it by charity in alms, morality, forbearance, energy, 
meditation, or wisdom, \\ ill produce a much greater 
accumulation of merit ; it is, in fact, immense, incal- 
culable, infinite 2 . Just as the element of ether, 
A^ita, is boundless, to the east, south, west, north. 
beneath, above, and in the intermediate quarters, so 
immense and incalculable an accumulation of merit. 
conducive to Buddha-knowledge, will be produced 
by a young man or young lady of good family who 
shall keep, read, write, or cause to be written, this 
DharmaparylLya. He will be zealous in worship- 
ping the Tathagata shrines; he will laud the disciples 
of the Tathagata, praise the hundred thousands of 
myriads of ko/is of virtues of the Bodhisattvas 
Mahisattvas, and expound them to others ; he will 
be accomplished in forbearance, be moral, of good 
character 3 , agreeable to live with, and tolerant, 
modest, not jealous of others, not wrathful, not 
vicious in mind, of good memory, strenuous and 
always busy, devoted to meditation in striving after 
the state of a Buddha, attaching great value to 

1 Paribhukta. 

3 The Vedintm does not deny the relative value of good works ; 
see e.g. Brahma-sutra III, 4, 26-27. 

Y 2 


abstract meditation, frequently engaging in abstract 
meditation, able In solving questions and in avoid- 
ing hundred thousands of myriads of ko/is of ques- 
tions. Any Bodhisattva MaMsattva, A^ita, who, 
after the Tathagata's complete extinction, shall keep 
this Dharmaparyaya, will have the good qualities I 
have described. Such a young man or young lady 
of good family, Afita, must be considered to make 
for the terrace of enlightenment ; that young man or 
young lady of good family steps towards the foot of 
the tree of enlightenment in order to reach enlighten- 
ment. And where that young man or young lady of 
good family, A*ita. stands, sits, or walks, there one 
should make a shrine *, dedicated to the Tathdgata, 
and the world, including the gods, should say : This 
is a Stupa of relics of the Tathagata. 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the follow- 
ing stanzas : 

37. An immense mass of merit, as I have re- 
peatedly mentioned, shall be his who, after the com- 
plete extinction of the Leader of men, shall keep this 

38. He will have paid worship to me, and built 
Stupas of relics, made of precious substances, varie- 
gated, beautiful, and splendid ; 

39. In height coming up to the Brahma-world, 
with rows of umbrellas, great in circumference 2 , 
gorgeous, and decorated with triumphal streamers ; 

40. Resounding with the clear ring of bells, and 
decorated with silk bands, while jingles moved by 

1 One would rather expect, that place one should consider to be 
a shrine. 

a Pariahavanta*. There is no word for BurnouFs 'pro- 
portion^' (anupfirva) in the text. 

OF PIETY. 325 

the wind form another ornament at (the shrines of i 
Gina relics 1 

41. He will have shown great honour to them 
by flowers, perfumes, and ointments ; by music, 
clothes, and the repeated (sound of) tymbals. 

42. He will have sweet musical instruments struck 
at those relics, and lamps with scented oil kept burn- 
ing all around. 

43. He who at the period of depravation shall 
keep and teach this Sfttra, he will have paid me 
such an infinitely varied worship. 

44. He has built many ko/is of excellent monas- 
teries of sandal-wood, with thirty-two pinnacles, and 
eight terraces high ; 

45. Provided with couches, with food hard and 
soft; furnished with excellent curtains, and having 
cells by thousands. 

46. He has given hermitages and walks em- 
bellished by flower-gardens ; many elegant objects - 
of various forms and variegated. 

47. He has shown manifold worship to the host 
of disciples in my presence, he who, after my extinc- 
tion, shall keep this Sfttra. 

48. Let one be ever so good in disposition, much 
greater merit will he obtain who shall keep or write 
this Sfttra. 

49. Let a man cause this to be written and 

1 *Sobhante ffmadhitushu. Burnouf gives a different trans- 
lation of this passage : ; ces Stftpas, enfin, regoi\ent leur clat des 
reliques du Djina.' 

2 I am quite uncertain about the word in the text, uiadaka. 
It seems to be connected with the Pili ussada, about which 
Childers, s.v., remarks that it probably means *a protuberance/ 
Burnouf renders the word in our text by ' coussin-' 


have it well put together in a volume; let him 
always worship the volume with flowers, garlands, 

50. Let him constantly place near it a lamp filled 
with scented oil, along with full-blown lotuses and 
suitable 1 oblations of Michelia Champaka. 

51. The man who pays such worship to the books 
will produce a mass of merit which is not to be 

52. Even as there is no measure of the element 
of ether, in none of the ten directions, so there is no 
treasure of this mass of merit. 

53. How much more will this be the case with 
one who is patient, meek, devoted, moral, studious, 
and addicted to meditation ; 

54. Who is not irascible, not treacherous, reve- 
rential towards the sanctuary, always humble towards 
monks, not conceited, nor neglectful ; 

55. Sensible and wise, not angry when he is asked 
a question ; who, full of compassion for living beings, 
gives such instruction as suits them. 

56. If there be such a man who (at the same time) 
keeps this Sutra, he will possess a mass of merit that 
cannot be measured. 

57. If one meets such a man as here described, a 
keeper of this Sfttra, one should do homage to him. 

58. One should present him with divine flowers, 
cover him with divine clothes, and bow the head 
to salute his feet, in the conviction of his being a 

59. And at the sight of such a man one may 

YuktaLfc. Bumouf must have read muktaU, for his trans- 
lation has 'pearls.' 

OF PIETY. 327 

directly make the reflection that he is going towards 
the foot of the tree to arrive at superior, blessed 
enlightenment for the weal of all the world, including 
the gods. 

60. And wherever such a sage is walking, stand- 
ing, sitting, or lying down ; wherever the hero pro- 
nounces were it but a single stanza from this Sutra : 

61. There one should build a Stupa for the most 
high of men, a splendid, beautiful (Stupa), dedicated 
to the Lord Buddha, the Chief, and then worship it 
in manifold ways. 

62. That spot of the earth has been enjoyed by 
myself; there have I walked myself, and there have 
I been sitting ; where that son of Buddha has sta\ ed, 
there I am. 




Thereupon the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Maitreya 
said to the Lord : O Lord, one who, after hearing this 
Dharmaparyiya being preached, joyfully 1 accepts it, 
be that person a joung man of good family or a 
young lady, how much merit, O Lord, will be pro- 
duced by such a young man or young lady of good 
family ? 

And on that occasion the Bodhisattva Mahasattva 
Maitreya uttered this stanza : 

i. How great will be the merit of him who, after 
the extinction of the great Hero, shall hear this 
exalted Sutra and joyfully accept it ? 

And the Lord said to the Bodhisattva Mahdsattva 
Maitreya : If any one, A^ita, either a young man of 
good family or a young lady, after the complete 
extinction of the Tathagata, hears the preaching of 
this DharmaparySya, let it be a monk or nun, a male 
or female lay devotee, a man of ripe understanding 
or a boy or girl ; if the hearer joyfully accepts it, and 
then after the sermon rises up to go elsewhere, to a 
monastery, house, forest, street, village, town, or pro- 
vince, with the motive and express aim to expound 
the law such as he has understood, such as he has 
heard it, and according to the measure of his power, 

1 Or, gratefully. 


to another person, his mother, father, kinsman, friend, 
acquaintance, or any other person ; if the latter, after 
hearing, joyfully accepts, and, in consequence, com- 
municates it to another; if the latter, after hearing, 
joyfully accepts, and communicates it to another ; if 
this other, again, after hearing, joyfully accepts it, 
and so on in succession until a number of fifty is 
reached ; then, Agita, the fiftieth person to hear and 
joyfully accept the law so heard, let it be a young 
man ^ of good family or a young lady, will have 
acquired an accumulation of merit connected with 
the^ jo>ful acceptance, A^ita, which I am going to 
indicate to thee. Listen, and take it well to heart : 
I will tell thee. 

It is, A^ita, as if the creatures existing in the 
four hundred thousand Asankhyeyas 1 of worlds, in 
any of the six states of existence, born from an egg, 
from a womb, from warm humidity, or from meta- 
morphosis, whether they have a shape or have not, 
be they conscious or unconscious, neither conscious 
nor unconscious, footless, two-footed, four-footed, or 
many-footed, as many beings as are contained in the 
world of creatures, (as if) all those had flocked to- 
gether to one place. Further, suppose some man 
appears, a lover of virtue, a lover of good, who gives 
to that whole body the pleasures, sports, amuse- 
ments, and enjoyments they desire, like, and relish. 
He gives to each of them all 6ambudvipa for his 
pleasures, sports, amusements, and enjoyments; 
gives bullion, gold, silver, gems, pearls, lapis lazuli, 
conches, stones (?), coral, carriages yoked with horses, 
with bullocks, with elephants; gives palaces and 

1 An incalculable great number. 


towers. In this way, A^ita, that master of munifi- 
cence, that great master of munificence continues 
spending his gifts for fully eighty years. Then, Afita, 
that master of munificence, that great master of 
munificence reflects thus: All these beings have I 
allowed to sport and enjoy themselves, but now 
they are covered with wrinkles and grey-haired, old t 
decrepit, eighty years of age, and near the term of 
their life. Let me therefore initiate them in the 
discipline of the law revealed by the Tathagata, and 
instruct them. Thereupon, A^ita, the man exhorts 
all those beings, thereafter initiates them in the 
discipline of the law revealed by the Tathagata, and 
makes them adopt it. Those beings learn the law 
from him, and in one moment, one instant, one bit 
of time, all become Srotaapannas, obtain the fruit 
of the rank of Sakrzdagamin and of Anagimin, until 
they become Arhats, free from all imperfections, 
adepts in meditation, adepts in great meditation and 
in the meditation with eight emancipations. Now, 
\\hat is thine opinion, A^ita, will that master of 
munificence, that great master of munificence, on 
account of his doings, produce great merit, immense, 
incalculable merit? Whereupon the Bodhisattva 
Mahasattva Maitreya said in reply to the Lord : Cer- 
tainly, Lord ; certainly, Sugata ; that person, Lord, 
will already produce much merit on that account, 
because he gives to the beings all that is necessary 
for happiness ; how much more then if he establishes 
them in Arhatship ! 

This said, the Lord spoke to the Bodhisattva 
Mahstsattva Maitreya as follows : I announce to thee, 
A^ita, I declare to thee ; (take) on one side the mas- 
ter of munificence, the great master of munificence, 


who produces merit by suppljing all beings in the 
four hundred thousand Asankhyeyas of worlds with 
all the necessaries for happiness and by establishing 
them in Arhatship; (take) on the other side the 
person who, ranking the fiftieth in the series of the 
oral tradition of the law, hears, were it but a single 
stanza, a single word, from this Dharmapar}aya and 
joyfully accepts it ; if (we compare) the mass of merit 
connected with the joyful acceptance and the mass of 
merit connected with the charity of the master of 
munificence, the great master of munificence, then 
the greater merit will be his who, ranking the 
fiftieth in the series of the oral tradition of the 
law, after hearing were it but a single stanza, a 
single word, from this Dharmaparyaya, joyfully 
accepts it. Against this accumulation of merit, 
A/ita, this accumulation of roots of goodness con- 
nected with that joyful acceptance, the former accu- 
mulation of merit connected with the charity of 
that master of munificence, that great master of 
munificence, and connected with the confirmation 
in Arhatship, does not fetch the ^ part, not 
not the 10 nun otto* not the muu,ow.ow n t the 

1000xlO,000,000> ftO e 300^0^10,000,000? n Ot e 100, (K)0x 10,000 < 

part; it admits of no calculation, no counting, no 
reckoning, no comparison, no approximation, no 
secret teaching. So immense, incalculable, A^ita, is 
the merit which a person, ranking the fiftieth in 
the series of the tradition of the law, produces by 
joyfully accepting, were it but a single stanza, a 
single word, from this Dharmaparyaya ; how much 
more then (will) he (produce), A^ita, who hears 
this Dharmaparyiya in my presence and then 
joyfully accepts it? I declare, A^ita, that his 


accumulation of merit shall be even more immense, 
more incalculable. 

And further, A^ita, if a young man of good family 
or a young lady, with the design to hear this dis- 
course on the law, goes from home to a monastery, 
and there hears this Dharmaparydya for a single 
moment, either standing or sitting, then that person, 
merely by the mass of merit resulting from that 
action, will after the termination of his (present) 
life, and at the time of his second existence when 
he receives (another) body, become a possessor 
of carriages >oked with bullocks, horses, or ele- 
phants, of litters, vehicles yoked with bulls \ and of 
celestial aerial cars. If further that same person 
at that preaching sits down, were it but a single 
moment, to hear this Dharmaparyiya, or persuades 
another to sit down or shares with him his seat, he 
will by the store of merit resulting from that action 
gain seats of Indra, seats of Brahma, thrones of a 
A'akravartin. And, A^ita, if some one, a young man 
of good family or a young lady, says to another 
person : Come, friend, and hear the Dharmaparyiya 
of the Lotus of the True Law, and if that other 
person owing to that exhortation is persuaded to 
listen, were it but a single moment, then the former 
will by virtue of that root of goodness, consisting in 
that exhortation, obtain the advantage of a con- 
nection with Bodhisattvas who have acquired Dhi- 
ra/d. He will become the reverse of dull, will get 
keen faculties, and have wisdom ; in the course of 
a hundred thousand existences he will never have a 
fetid mouth, nor an offensive one; he will have no 


*J w _J 

diseases of the tongue, nor of the mouth ; he will 
have no black teeth, no unequal, no yellow, no ill- 
ranged, no broken teeth, no teeth fallen out; his 
lips^vill not be pendulous, not turned inward, not 
gaping, not mutilated, not loathsome 1 ; his nose will 
not be flat, nor wry ; his face will not be long, nor 
wry, nor unpleasant. On the contrary, Ajita, his 
tongue, teeth, and lips will be delicate and well- 
shaped; his nose long; his face perfectly round"; the 
eyebrows well-shaped ; the forehead well-formed. He 
will receive a very complete organ of manhood. He 
will have the advantage that the Tathagata renders 
sermons intelligible 3 to him and soon come in con- 
nection with Lords, Buddhas. Mark, Afita, how 
much good is produced by one's inciting were it but 
a single creature ; how much more then by him who 
reverentially hears, reverentially reads, reverentially 
preaches, reverentially promulgates the law ! 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the fol- 
lowing stanzas : 

2. Listen how great the merit is of one who, 
the fiftieth in the series (of tradition), hears a single 
stanza from this Sfttra and with placid mind joyfully 
adopts it. 

3. Suppose there is a man in the habit of giving 

1 Burnouf has some terms wanting in my text ; they have been 
added by a later hand in the margin, but the characters are 

2 Pra#itamukhama<fala; a marginal reading has pria- 
mnkha . 

3 TatMgataw ^vavadlnubMsaka/B pratilabhate. I am not sure 
of the real meaning of anubhisaka ; it may as well be * suggest- 
ing/ Burnouf has, ' c'est de la bouche du Tath&gata qu'il reeevra, 
les avis et Fenseignement.' 


alms to myriads of kotis of beings, whom I have 
herebefore indicated by way of comparison 1 ; all of 
them he satisfies during eighty years. 

4. Then seeing that old age has approached for 
them, that their brow is wrinkled and their head 
grey (he thinks) : Alas, how all beings come to de- 
cay ! Let me therefore admonish them by (speaking 
of) the law. 

5. He teaches them the law here on earth and 
points to the state of Nirv;za hereafter. 'All 
existences ' (he says j * are like a mirage ; hasten to 
become disgusted with all existence/ 

6. All creatures, by hearing the law from that 
charitable person, become at once Arhats, free from 
imperfections, and living their last life. 

7. Much more merit than by that person will be 
acquired by him who through unbroken tradition 
shall hear were it but a single stanza and joyfully 
receive it. The mass of merit of the former is not 
even so much as a small particle of the latter's. 

8. So great will be one s merit, endless, immea- 
surable, owing to one's hearing merely a single 
stanza, in regular tradition ; how much more then if 
one hears from face to face ! 

9. And if somebody exhorts were it but a single 
creature and says : Go, hear the law, for this Sfttra 
is rare in many myriads of ko/is of JEons ; 

10. And if the creature so exhorted should hear 
the S&tra even for a moment, hark what fruit is to 
result from that action. He shall never have a 
mouth disease ; 

1 From this reference to the preceding prose we must gather that 
these stanzas are posterior to or coeval with the prose version. 


11. His tongue is never sore; his teeth shall 
never fall out, never be black, yellow, unequal ; his 
lips never become loathsome ; 

12. His face is not wry, nor lean, nor long; his 
nose not flat ; it is well-shaped, as well as his fore- 
head, teeth, lips, and round face. 

13. His aspect is ever pleasant to men; his 
mouth is never fetid, it constantly emits a smell 
sweet as the lotus. 

14. If some wise man, to hear this Sutra, goes 
from his home to a monastery and there listen, were 
it but for a single moment, with a placid mind, hear 
what results from it. 

15. His body is very fair; he drives with horse- 
carriages, that wise man, and is mounted on elevated 
carriages drawn by elephants and variegated with 

1 6. He possesses litters covered with ornaments 
and carried by numerous men. Such is the blessed 
fruit of his going to hear preaching. 

1 7. Owing to the performance of that pious work 
he shall, when sitting in the assembly there, obtain 
seats of Indra, seats of Brahma, seats of kings 1 . 

1 The purport of this passage seems to be that lay devotees who 
are regular in attending the sermon, besides receiving terrestrial 
blessings, will rank high as churchwardens and be entitled to con- 
spicuous places apart in the chapel. The gist of the whole chapter, 
at any rate, is that it is highly meiitorious to come to church. 




The Lord then addressed the Bodhisattva Mahd- 
sattva Satatasamitabhiyukta (i.e. ever and constantly 
strenuous). Any one, young man of good family, 
who shall keep, read, teach, write this Dharmapar- 
yaya or have it written, let that person be a young 
man of good family or a young lady 2 , shall obtain 
eight hundred good qualities of the eye, twelve 
hundred of the ear, eight hundred of the nose, 
twelve hundred of the tongue, eight hundred of the 
body, twelve hundred of the mind 3 . By these 
many hundred good qualities the whole of the six 
organs shall be perfect, thoroughly perfect. By means 
of the natural, carnal eye derived from his parents 
being perfect, he shall see the whole triple universe, 

The use of SLnrz^afasa, as 
a synonym to gua, is not limited to Buddhist writings, as we 
see from the inscription at Bassac in Camboja, St. 18. It is, of 
course, the Pali dnisazrzsa. 

2 The words ' or a young lady ' are wanting in my MS., but 
Burnouf s text had them, and from the sequel it would seem that 
they have to be added. It is certainly remarkable that we find 
mention being made of female preachers, who may be compared 
with the brahmavddinis of ancient times s and, further up, 
Tilth the wise \\omen of the Teutons, the Velledas and Volvas, 
the Pythonissas of the Greeks, and the Valians of the Indian 

3 We may also render, of sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, 
and thought. 


outwardly and inwardly, with its mountains and woody 
thickets, down to the great hell AvLK and up to the 
extremity of existence. All that he shall see with 
his natural eye, as well as the creatures to be found 
in it, and he shall know the fruit of their works. 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the follow- 
ing stanzas : 

1. Hear from me what good qualities shall belong 
to him who unhesitatingly and undismayed shall 
preach this Stitra to the congregated assembly. 

2. First, then, his eye (or, organ of vision) shall 
possess eight hundred good qualities by which it 
shall be correct, clear, and untroubled. 

3. With the carnal eye derived from his parents 
he shall see the whole world from within and 

4. He shall see the Meru and Sumeru, all the 
horizon and other mountains, as well as the seas. 

5. He, the hero, sees all, downward to the Avii 
and upward to the extremity of existence. Such is 
his carnal eye. 

6. But he has not yet got the divine eye, it having 
not yet been produced 1 in him; such as here de- 
scribed is the range of his carnal eye. 

Further, SatatasamitsLbhiyukta, the young man of 
good family or the young lady 2 who proclaims this 
DharmaparySya and preaches it to others, is pos- 
sessed of the twelve hundred good qualities of the 
ear. The various sounds that are uttered in the 
triple universe, downward to the great hell Avifci 

1 No k$\ &yate. Burnoufs translation, ' il n'aura pas encore 
la science/ points to a reading, ^Myate. 

2 This time the word is also found in my MS. 

[21] Z 


and upward to the extremity of existence, within and 

without, such as the sounds of horses l , elephants, 

cows, peasants 2 , goats, cars ; the sounds of weeping 

and wailing ; of horror, of conch-trumpets, bells, tym- 

bals ; of playing and singing ; of camels, of tigers 3 ; of 

women, men, boys, girls ; of righteousness (piety) and 

unrighteousness (impiety) ; of pleasure and pain ; of 

ignorant men and iryas; pleasant and unpleasant 

sounds ; sounds of gods, Nigas, goblins, Gandharvas, 

demons, GatWas, Kinnaras, great serpents, men, and 

beings not human ; of monks, disciples, Pratyekabud- 

dhas, Bodhisattvas, and Tathigatas ; as many sounds 

as are uttered in the triple world, within and without, 

all those he hears with his natural organ of hearing 

when perfect. Still he does not enjoy the divine 

ear, although he apprehends the sounds of those 

different creatures, understands, discerns the sounds 

of those different creatures, and when with his 

natural organ of hearing he hears the sounds of 

those creatures, his ear is not overpowered by any 

of those sounds. Such, Satatasamitbhiyukta, is the 

organ of hearing that the Bodhisattva MaMsattva 4 

acquires ; yet he does not possess the divine ear, 

1 Burnouf s version shows a few unimportant various readings. 

2 ^anapada^abdd^, rather strange between the others. I sup- 
pose that ^anapada is corrupted from some word meaning a 
sheep, but I find no nearer approach to it than ^aiakini, a ewe; 
cf. st. 8 below. 

5 I follow Burnouf, who must have read vyghra; my MS. has 

4 This term, as it is here used, refers, so far as I can see, to 
the ministeis of religion, the preachers. It is, however, just pos- 
sible that we have to take it in the more general and original 
sense of any 'rational being/ for all the advantages enumerated 
belong to everybody who is not blind, not deaf, &c. 


Thus spoke the Lord ; thereafter he, the Sugata, 
the Master, added : 

7. The organ of hearing of such a person becomes 
(or, is) cleared and perfect, though as yet it be 
natural ; by it he perceives the various sounds, with- 
out any exception, in this world. 

8. He perceives the sounds of elephants, horses, 
cars, cows, goats, and sheep ; of noisy kettle-drums, 
tabours, lutes, flutes, Vallakl-lutes. 

9. He can hear singing, lovely and sweet, and, at 
the same time, is constant enough not to allow him- 
self to be beguiled by it ; he perceives the sounds 
of kotfs of men, whatever and wherever they are 

10. He, moreover, always hears the voice of gods 
and Ndgas ; he hears the tunes, sweet and affecting, 
of song, as well as the voices of men and women, 
boys and girls. 

11. He hears the cries of the denizens of moun- 
tains and glens ; the tender notes l of Kalavinkas, 
cuckoos 2 , peafowls 3 , pheasants, and other birds. 

12. He also (hears) the heart-rending cries of 
those who are suffering pains in the hells, and the 
yells uttered by the Spirits, vexed as they are by 
the difficulty to get food ; 

1 3. Likewise the different cries produced by the 
demons and the inhabitants of the ocean. All these 

1 Valgu^abda. 

2 Here we see that kalavinkas are distinguished fromkokilas, 

8 The voice of the peafowl is proverbially unharmonious, but 
that is no reason why the poet should have omitted this item from 
his enumeration ; such peculiarities give a relish to this kind of 
spiritual poetry. 

Z 2 


sounds the preacher is able to hear from his place 
on earth, without being overpowered by them. 

14. From where he is stationed here on the earth 
he also hears the different and multifarious sounds 
through which the inhabitants of the realm of brutes 
are conversing with each other. 

15. He apprehends all the sounds, without any 
exception, whereby the numerous angels living in 
the Brahma-world, the Akanish/^as and Abhi- 
svaras *, call one another. 

1 6. He likewise always hears the sound which 
the monks on earth are raising when engaged in 
reading, and when preaching the law to congrega- 
tions, after having taken orders under the command 
of the Sugatas. 

17. And when the Bodhisattvas here on earth 
have a reading together and raise their voices in 
the general synods, he hears them severally. 

1 8. The Bodhisattva who preaches this Sfttra 
shall, a fc one time, also hear the perfect law 2 that 
the Lord Buddha, the tamer of men 3 , announces to 
the assemblies. 

19. The numerous sounds produced by all beings 
in the triple world, in this field, within and without, 
(downward) to the Avl& and upward to the extremity 
of existence, are heard by him. 

20. (In short), he perceives the voices of all beings, 
his ear being open. Being in the possession of his 
six senses 4 , he will discern the different sources (of 
sound), and that while his organ of hearing is the 
natural one ; 

1 Two classes of angels of the Brahma-heaven. 

9 I. e. judgment. a I. e. in his quality of Dharmar^a. 

4 L e. not being out of his wits. 


21. The divine ear is not yet operating in him; 
his ear continues in its natural state. Such as here 
told are the good qualities belonging to the wise 
man who shall be a keeper of this Stitra. 

Further, Satatasamitibhiyukta, the Bodhisattva 
Mah&sattva who keeps, proclaims, studies, writes 
this Dharmaparyiya becomes possessed of a perfect 
organ of smell with eight hundred good qualities. 
By means of that organ he smells the different smells 
that are found in the triple world, within and with- 
out, such as fetid smells, pleasant and unpleasant 
smells, the fragrance of diverse flowers, as the great- 
flowered jasmine, Arabian jasmine, Michelia Cham- 
paka, trumpet-flower ; likewise the different scents of 
aquatic flowers, as the blue lotus, red lotus, white 
esculent water-lily and white lotus. He smells the 
odour of fruits and blossoms of various trees bearing 
fruits and blossoms, such as sandal, Xanthochymus, 
Tabernaernontana, agallochum l . The manifold hun- 
dred-thousand mixtures of perfumes he smells and dis- 
cerns, without moving from his standing-place. He 
smells the diverse smells of creatures, as elephants, 
horses, cows, goats, beasts, as well as the smell 
issuing from the body of various living beings in 
the condition of brutes. He perceives the smells 
exhaled by the body of women and men, of boys 
and girls. He smells, even from a distance, the 
odour of grass, bushes, herbs, trees. He perceives 
those smells such as they really are, and is not 
surprised nor stunned by them. Staying on this 
very earth he smells the odour of gods and the 

1 There is something strange in enumerating these plants, after 
speaking of fruits. 


fragrance of celestial flowers, such as Erythrina, 
Bauhinia, Mandirava and great Manddrava, Ma%ti- 
sha and great Maw^ftsha. He smells the perfume 
of the divine powders of sandal and agallochum, as 
well as that of the hundred-thousands of mixtures 
of different divine flowers. He smells the odour 
exhaled by the body of the gods, such as Indra, the 
chief of the gods, and thereby knows whether (the 
god) is sporting, playing, and enjoying himself in 
his palace Vaifayanta or is speaking the law to the 
gods of paradise in the assembly-hall of the gods, 
Sudharmi, or is resorting to the pleasure-park for 
sport 1 . He smells the odour proceeding from the 
body of the sundry other gods, as well as that pro- 
ceeding from the girls and wives of the gods, from 
the youths and maidens amongst the gods, without 
being surprised or stunned by those smells. He 
likewise smells the odour exhaled by the bodies of 
all Devanikayas, Brahmakiyikas, and Mahdbrahmas 2 . 
In the same manner he perceives the smells coming 
from disciples, Pratyekabuddhas, Bodhisattvas, and 
Tathdgatas. He smells the odour arising from the 
seats of the Tathdgatas and so discovers where those 
Tathagatas, Arhats, &c. abide. And by none of 
all those different smells is his organ of smell hin- 
dered, impaired, or vexed ; and, if required, he may 
give an account of those smells to others without 
his memory being impaired by it. 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the fol- 
lowing stanzas : 

22. His organ of smell is quite correct, and he 

* The parallel passage in the poetical version, st. 41, is much 
less confused, and for that reason probably more original. 

* Three classes of aerial beings, archangels. 


perceives the manifold and various smells, good or 
bad, which exist in this world ; 

23.^ The fragrance of the great-flowered jasmine, 
Arabian jasmine, Xanthochymus, sandal, agallochum, 
of several blossoms and fruits. 

24. He likewise perceives the smells exhaled by 
men, women, boys, and girls, at a considerable dis- 
tance, and by the smell he knows where they are. 

25. He recognises emperors, rulers of armies, 
governors of provinces, as well as royal princes 
and ministers, and all the ladies of the harem by 
their (peculiar) scent. 

26. It is by the odour that the Bodhisattva dis- 
covers sundry jewels of things, such as are found on 
the earth and such as serve as jewels for women. 

27. That Bodhisattva likewise knows by the odour 
the various kinds of ornament that women use for 
their body, robes, wreaths, and ointments. 

28. The wise man who keeps this exalted Sfttra 
recognises, by the power of a good-smelling organ, 
a woman l standing, sitting, or lying ; he discovers 
wanton sport and magic power 2 . 

29. He perceives at once where he stands, the 
fragrance of scented oils, and the different odours of 
flowers and fruits, and thereby knows from what 
source the odour proceeds. 

30. The discriminating man recognises by the 
odour the numerous sandal-trees in full blossom in 
the glens of the mountains, as well as all creatures 
dwelling there. 

31. All the beings living within the compass of 

nishanndffz szyi&m tathaiva. 
8 Krfc&ratim rzddhibala/Tz a. 


the horizon or dwelling in the depth of the sea or 
in the bosom of the earth the discriminating man 
knows how to distinguish from the (peculiar) smell. 

32. He discerns the gods and demons, and the 
daughters of demons; he discovers the sports of 
demons and their luxury. Such, indeed, is the 
power of his organ of smell. 

33. By the smell he tracks the abodes of the 
quadrupeds in the woods, lions, tigers, elephants, 
snakes, buffaloes, cows, gayals, 

34. He infers from the odour, whether the child 
that women, languid from pregnancy, bear in the 
womb be a boy or a girl 

35. He can discern if a woman is big with a dead 
child 1 ; he discerns if she is subject to throes 2 , and, 
further, if a woman, the pains being removed, shall 
be delivered of a healthy boy. 

36. He guesses the various designs of men, he 
smells (so to say) an air of design 3 ; he finds out the 
odour of passionate, wicked, hypocritical, or quiet 

37. That Bodhisattva by the scent smells trea- 
sures hidden in the ground, money, gold, bullion, 
silver, chests, and metal pots 4 . 

38. Necklaces of two sorts, gems, pearls, nice 
priceless jewels he knows by the scent 5 , as well as 
things priceless and brilliant in general. 

39. That great man from his very place on earth 

1 Apannasatvl 2 Vinimadharml 

8 Abhiprayagandha. 

4 It need hardly be remarked that 'to smell' is here used in the 
same sense as in the English saying 'to smell a rat.' 

5 The word gandha also means ' some resemblance, faint lite- 
ness, an air/ 


smells the flowers here above (in the sky) with the 
gods, such as Manddravas, Ma%tishakas, and those 
growing on the coral tree. 

40. By the power of his organ of smell he, with- 
out leaving his stand on earth, perceives how and 
whose are the aerial cars, of lofty, low, and middling 
size, and other brilliant forms shooting 1 (through 
the firmament), 

41. He likewise finds out the paradise, the gods 
(in the hall) of Sudharmi and in the most glorious 
palace of Vaif ayanta 2 , and the angels who there are 
diverting themselves. 

42. He perceives, here on earth, an air of them; 
by the scent he knows the angels, and where each 
of them is acting, standing, listening, or walking. 

43. That Bodhisattva tracks by the scent the 
houris who are decorated with many flowers, decked 
with wreaths and ornaments and in full attire ; he 
knows wherever they are dallying or staying at the 

44. By smell he apprehends the gods, Brahmas, 
and Brahmakiyas moving on aerial cars aloft, up- 
wards to the extremity of existence; he knows 
whether they are absorbed in meditation 3 or have 
risen from it. 

1 JSTavanti, Sansk. yavanti, altered by a later hand into 

2 A sculptured representation of Indra's palace of Vai^ayanta 
and the hall Sudhaim^ is found on the bas reliefs of the Stupa of 
Bharhut; see plate xvi in General Cunningham's splendid work 
on that Stftpa. 

3 The real meaning is, perhaps, to say that he knows whether 
those inhabitants of the empyreutn are plunged in glimmer or 
disengaged from mist, &c. 


45. He perceives the Abhasvara angels falling 
(and shooting) and appearing, even those that he 
never saw before. Such is the organ of smell of the 
Bodhisattva who keeps this Sutra. 

46. The Bodhisattva also recognises all monks 
under the rule of the Sugata, who are strenuously 
engaged in their walks and find their delight in their 
lessons and reading. 

47. Intelligent as he is, he discerns those among 
the sons of Gina who are disciples and those who 
used to live at the foot of trees, and he knows that 
the monk so and so is staying in such and such 
a place. 

48. The Bodhisattva knows by the odour whether 
other Bodhisattvas are of good memory, meditative, 
delighting in their lessons and reading, and assi- 
duous in preaching to congregations 1 . 

49. In whatever point of space the Sugata, the 
great Seer, so benign and bounteous, reveals the 
law in the midst of the crowd of attending disciples, 
the Bodhisattva by the odour recognises him as 
the Lord of the universe. 

50. Staying on earth, the Bodhisattva also per- 
ceives those beings who hear the law and rejoice at 
it, and the whole assembly of the ina. 

51. Such is the power of his organ of smell. Yet 
it is not the divine organ he possesses, but (the 
natural one) prior to the perfect, divine faculty of 

Further, Safatasamitibhiyukta, the young man of 
good family or the young lady \vho keeps, teaches, 

1 Such Bodhisattvas may be said to stand in the odour of 


proclaims, writes this Dharmapary^ya shall have 
an organ of taste possessed of twelve hundred 
good faculties of the tongue. All flavours he 
takes on his tongue will yield a divine, exquisite 
relish. And he tastes in such a way that he Is not 
to relish anything unpleasant; and even the un- 
pleasant flavours that are taken on his tongue will 
yield 1 a divine relish. And whatever he shall preach 
in the assembly, the creatures will be satisfied by it ; 
they will be content, thoroughly content, filled with 
delight. A sweet, tender, agreeable, deep voice goes 
out from him, an amiable voice which goes to the 
heart, at which those creatures will be ravished and 
charmed; and those to whom he preaches, after 
having heard his sweet voice, so tender and melo- 
dious, will, even (if they are) gods, be of opinion that 
they ought to go and see, venerate, and serve him 2 . 
And the angels and houris will be of opinion, &c. 
The Indras, Brahmas, and Brahmakiyikas will be 
of opinion, &c. The N&gas and Nga girls will be of 
opinion, &c. The demons and their girls will be 
of opinion, &c. The Garu^as and their girls will be 
of opinion, &c. The Kinnaras and their girls, the 
great serpents and their girls, the goblins and their 
girls, the imps and their girls will be of opinion that 
they ought to go and see, venerate, serve him, and 
hear his sermon, and all will show him honour, 
respect, esteem, worship, reverence, and veneration. 
Monks and nuns, male and female lay devotees will 
likewise be desirous of seeing him. Kings, royal 
princes, and grandees (or ministers) will also be 

1 Mokshyante, properly, 'will emit' 

8 In the margin added jravawSya, ' to hear.' 


desirous of seeing him. Kings ruling armies and 
emperors possessed of the seven treasures 1 , along 
with the princes royal, ministers, ladies of the harem, 
and their retinue will be desirous of seeing him and 
paying him their homage. So sweet will be the 
speech delivered by that preacher, so truthful and 
according to the teaching of the Tathlgata will be his 
words. Others also, Brahmans and laymen, citizens 
and peasants, will always and ever follow that 
preacher till the end of life. Even the disciples 
of the Tathagata will be desirous of seeing him ; 
likewise the Pratyekabuddhas and the Lords Bud- 
dhas. And wherever that young man of good family 
or young lady shall stay, there he (or she) will preach, 
the face turned to the Tathdgata, and he (or she) 
will be a worthy vessel of the Buddha -qualities. 
Such, so pleasant, so deep will be the voice of the 
law going out from him. 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the follow- 
ing stanzas : 

52. His organ of taste is most excellent, and he 
will never relish anything of inferior flavour ; the 
flavours are no sooner put on his tongue than they 
become divine and possessed of a divine taste 2 . 

53. He has a tender voice and delivers sweet 
words, pleasant to hear, agreeable, charming ; in the 

1 The seven treasures or jewels of an emperor are the wheel, 
the elephant, the horse, the gem, the empress, the major domo 
(according to others, the retinue of householders), and the viceroy 
or marshal. See Spence Hardy, IManual of Buddhism, p. 127; 
Burnouf, Lotus, p. 580; Senart, Lggende du Buddha, pp. 22-60;' 
Lalita-vistara, pp. 15-19. 

2 Nikshiptam&raj' a bhavanti divyi rasena divyena samar- 
pitta a, 


midst of the assembly he is used to speak with a 
melodious and deep voice. 

54. And whosoever hears him when he is deliver- 
ing a sermon with myriads of ko<fis of examples, feels 
a great joy and shows him an immense veneration. 

55. The gods, Ngas, demons, and goblins always 
long to see him, and respectfully listen to his 
preaching. All those good qualities are his. 

56. If he would, he might make his voice heard 
by the whole of this world; his voice is (so) fine, 
sweet, deep, tender, and winning. 

57. The emperors on earth, along with their 
children and wives, go to him with the purpose of 
honouring him, and listen all the time to his sermon 
with joined hands. 

58. He is constantly followed by goblins, crowds 
of Ngas, Gandharvas, imps, male and female, who 
honour, respect, and worship him. 

59. Brahma himself becomes his obedient servant; 
the gods Iwara and Hahesvara, as well as Indra and 
the numerous heavenly nymphs, approach him. 

60. And the Buddhas, benign and merciful for the 
world, along with their disciples, hearing his voice, 
protect him by showing their face, and feel satis- 
faction in hearing him preaching. 

Further, Satatasamit&bhiyukta, the Bodhisattva 
Mahisattva who keeps, reads, promulgates, teaches, 
writes this Dharmapary&ya shall have the eight 
hundred good qualities of the body. It will be pure, 
and show a hue clear as the lapis lazuli ; it will be 
pleasant to see for the creatures. On that perfect 
body he will see the whole triple universe; the 
beings who in the triple world disappear and appear, 
who are low or lofty, of good or of bad colour, in 


fortunate or in unfortunate condition, as well as the 
beings dwelling within the circular plane of the 
horizon and of the great horizon, on the chief moun- 
tains Meru and Sumeru, and the beings dwelling 
below in the AvLi and upwards to the extremity 
of existence; all of them he will see on his own 
body. The disciples, Pratyekabuddhas, Bodhisattvas, 
and Tathigatas dwelling in the triple universe, and 
the law taught by those Tathigatas and the beings 
serving the Tathagatas, he will see all of them on 
his own body, because he receives the proper body 
of all those beings, and that on account of the 
perfectness of his body. 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the follow- 
ing stanzas : 

6 1. His body becomes thoroughly pure, clear 
as if consisting of lapis lazuli ; he who keeps this 
sublime Sutra is always a pleasant sight for (all) 

62. As on the surface of a mirror an image is 
seen, so on his body this world. Being self-born, he 
sees no other beings 1 . Such is the perfectness of 
his body. 

63. Indeed, all beings who are in this world, men, 
gods, demons, goblins, the inhabitants of hell, the 
spirits, and the brute creation are seen reflected on 
that body. 

64. The aerial cars of the gods up to the ex- 
tremity of existence, the rocks, the ridge of the 

1 This seems to mean that the thinking subject or thinking 
power only (svayambhfc or brahma) has leal exigence, the 
objects being products from one's own mind. In so far it may 
be said that the thinking subject sees no other real beings. 


horizon, the Himalaya, Sumeru, and great Meru, all 
are seen on that body. 

65. He also sees the Buddhas on his body, along 
with the disciples and other sons of Buddha ; like- 
wise the Bodhisattvas who lead a solitary life, and 
those who preach the law to congregations. 

66. Such is the perfectness of his body, though he 
has not yet obtained a divine body; the natural 
property of his body is such. 

Further, Satatasamitibhiyukta, the Bodhisattva 
Mah&sattva who after the complete extinction of 
the Tathigata keeps, teaches, writes, reads this 
Dharmaparyiya shall have a mental organ pos- 
sessed of twelve hundred good qualities of intel- 
lect By this perfect mental organ he will, even if 
he hears a single stanza, recognise its various mean- 
ings. By fully comprehending the stanza he will 
find in it the text to preach upon for a month, for 
four months, nay, for a whole year. And the sermon 
he preaches will not fade from his memory. The 
popular maxims of common life, whether sayings or 
counsels, he will know how to reconcile with the rules 
of the law. Whatever creatures of this triple uni- 
verse are subject to the mundane whirl, in any of 
the six conditions of existence, he will know their 
thoughts, doings, and movements. He will know 
and discern their motions, purposes, and aims. 
Though he has not yet attained the state of an 
Arya, his intellectual organ will be thoroughly 
perfect. And all he shall preach after having 
pondered on the interpretation of the law will be 
really true; he speaks what all Tathigatas have 
spoken, all that has been declared in the Sfttras of 
former trinas. 


expounded by the ancient Masters of the world is 
the law which he, never flinching, is always preaching 
in the assembly. 

75. Such is the mental organ of him who keeps or 
reads this Sfttra ; he has not yet the knowledge of 
emancipation, but one that precedes it 

76. He who keeps this Sfttra of the Sugata stands 
on the stage of a master; he may preach to all crea- 
tures and is skilful in ko/is of interpretations. 

[21] A a 




The Lord then addressed the Bodhisattva Mahi- 
sattva Mahasthamapr&pta. In a similar way, Mahd- 
sthamaprapta, one may infer from what has been said 
that he who rejects such a Dharmaparyaya as this, 
who abuses monks, nuns, lay devotees male or female, 
keeping this Sutra, insults them, treats them with 
false and harsh words, shall experience dire results, 
to such an extent as is impossible to express in 
words. But those that keep, read, comprehend, 
teach, amply expound it to others, shall experience 
happy results, such as I have already mentioned : 
they shall attain such a perfection of the eye, ear, 
nose, tongue, body, and mind as just described. 

In the days of yore, Mahasthamapr&pta, at a past 
period, before incalculable ^Eons, nay, more than 
incalculable, immense, inconceivable, and even long 
before, there appeared in the world a Tathigata, 
&C M named Bhishmagaigitasvararagu, endowed with 
science and conduct, a Sugata, &c. &c., in the JEon 
Vinirbhoga, in the world Mah&sambhava. Now, 
Mahasthamaprapta, that Lord Bhlshmagar^itasvara- 
rafa, the Tathagata, &c., in that world Vinirbhoga, 
showed the law in the presence of the world, in- 
cluding gods, men, and demons; the law "containing 
the four noble truths and starting from the chain 
of causes and effects, tending to overcome birth, 
decrepitude, sickness, death, sorrow, lamentation, 


woe, grief, despondency, and finally leading to Nir- 
vi;za, he showed to the disciples; the law con- 
nected with the six Perfections of virtue and 
terminating in the knowledge of the Omniscient, 
after the attainment of supreme, perfect enlighten- 
ment, he showed to the Bodhisattvas. The lifetime 
of that Lord Bhlshmagar^itasvarardfa, the Tathd- 
gata, &c., lasted forty hundred thousand myriads of 
ko^is of ^Eons equal to the sands of the river 
Ganges 1 . After his complete extinction his true 
law remained hundred thousands of myriads of koris 
of ^Eons equal to the atoms (contained) in Gambu- 
dvlpa, and the counterfeit of the true law continued 
hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of uiEons 
equal to the dust-atoms in the four continents. When 
the counterfeit of the true law of the Lord Bhlshrna- 
garg-itasvarara^a, the Tathdgata, &c., after his com- 
plete extinction, had disappeared in the world Mah&- 
sambhava, Mahasthimapripta, another Tath^gata 
Bhlshmagargitasvarardu, Arhat, &c., appeared, en- 
dowed with science and conduct. So in succession, 
Mah4sth&mapripta, there arose in that world Maha- 
sambhava twenty hundred thousand myriads of 
kotfs of Tathigatas, &c., called Bhishmagarfita- 
svarari^a. At the time, MaMsthimaprapta, after 
the complete extinction of the first Tathagata 
amongst all those of the name of Bhtshmagar^ita- 
svararifa, Tathigata, &c., endowed with science 
and conduct, &c. &c., when his true law had dis- 
appeared and the counterfeit of the true law was 

1 According to Burnotif : ' autant de centaines de mille de myri- 
ad es de ko/is de Kalpas qu'il y a de grains de sable dans quarante 

A a 2 


fading ; when the reign (of the law) was being 
oppressed by proud monks, there was a monk, a 
Bodhisattva Mahisattva, called Sadaparibhuta. For 
\vhat reason, Mahasthamaprapta, was that Bodhi- 
sattva Mahasattva called Sadaparibhuta? It was, 
Mahasthamapr&pta, because that Bodhisattva Mahi- 
sattva was in the habit of exclaiming to every monk 
or nun, male or female lay devotee, while approach- 
ing them : I do not contemn you, worthies. You 
deserve no contempt, for you all observe the course 
of duty of Bodhisattvas and are to become Tathi- 
gatas, &c. In this way, MaMsthamaprapta, that 
Bodhisattva Mahasattva, -when a monk, did not 
teach nor study ; the only thing he did was, when- 
ever he descried from afar a monk or nun, a male or 
female lay devotee, to approach them and exclaim : 
I do not contemn you, sisters *. You deserve no 
contempt, for you all observe the course of duty of 
Bodhisattvas and are to become Tathgatas, &c. 
So, MahastMmaprpta, the Bodhisattva Mahisattva 
at that time used to address every monk or nun, 
male or female devotee. But all were extremely 
irritated and angry at it, showed him their displea- 
sure, abused and insulted him : Why does he, 
unasked, declare that he feels no contempt for us ? 
Just by so doing he shows a contempt for us. He 
renders himself contemptible 2 by predicting our 
future destiny to supreme, perfect enlightenment; 
we do not care for what is not true. Many years, 
Mahisthimapripta, went on during which that 

3 It may seem strange that we find no other word than this, but 
the reading of the text cannot be challenged. 

* Paribhutam atminaw karoti, yad, &a Burnouf must have 
followed a different reading. 


Bodhisattva Mahisattva was being abused, but he 
was not angry at anybody, nor felt malignity, and to 
those who, when he addressed them in the said 
manner, cast a clod or stick at him, he loudly ex- 
claimed from afar : I do not contemn you. Those 
monks and nuns, male and female lay devotees, 
being always and ever addressed by him in that 
phrase gave him the (nick) name of Sad&paribhftta 1 . 

Under those circumstances, MaMsthUmapripta, the 
Bodhisattva MaMsattva Sadiparibhftta happened to 
hear this Dharmaparyiya of the Lotus of the True 
Law when the end of his life was impending, and the 
moment of dying drawing near. It was the Lord 
Bhishmagar^itasvararfiga, the TathUgata, &c., who 
expounded this Dharmaparydya in twenty times 
twenty hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of stan- 
zas, which the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Saddpari- 
bhuta heard from a voice in the sky, when the time 
of his death was near at hand. On hearing that 
voice from the sky, without there appearing a person 
speaking, he grasped this Dharmaparyiya and 
obtained the perfections already mentioned : the 
perfection of sight, hearing, smell, taste, body, and 
mind. With the attainment of these perfections he 
at the same time made a vow to prolong his life for 
twenty hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of years, 
and promulgated this Dharmaparyslya of the Lotus 
of the True Law. And all those proud beings, monks, 
nuns, male and female lay devotees to whom he had 
said: I do not contemn you, and who had given 
him the name of Sadiparibhftta, became all his fol- 

1 Le. both 'always contemned' (sadS and paribhftta) and 
'always not-contemned, never contemned' (sadS and apari- 


lowers to hear the law, after they had seen the 
power and strength of his sublime magic faculties, of 
his vow, of his readiness of wit, of his wisdom. All 
those and many hundred thousand myriads of ko/is 
of other beings were by him roused to supreme, 
perfect enlightenment. 

Afterwards, Mahasthamaprapta, that Bodhisattva 
Mahasattva disappeared from that place and propi- 
tiated twenty hundred ko/is l of Tathigatas, &c., all 
bearing the same name of ^andraprabhisvararS^-a, 
under all of whom he promulgated this Dharmapar- 
yslya. By virtue of his previous root of goodness 
he, 5n course of time, propitiated twenty hundred 
thousand myriads of ko/is of Tathdgatas, &c., all 
bearing the name of Dundubhisvarara^a, and under 
all he obtained this very Dharmaparydya of the 
Lotus of the True Law and promulgated it to the four 
classes. By virtue of his previous root of goodness 
he again, in course of time, propitiated twenty hun- 
dred thousand myriads of ko/is of Tathigatas, &c., 
all bearing the name of Meghasvararifa, and under 
all he obtained this very Dharmaparyiya of the 
Lotus of the True Law and promulgated it to the four 
classes. And under all of them he was possessed of 
the afore-mentioned perfectness of sight, hearing, 
smell, taste, body, and mind 

Now, Mahdsthamaprapta, that Bodhisattva Maha- 
sattva Sadaparibhuta, after having honoured, re- 
spected, esteemed, worshipped, venerated, revered so 
many hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of Tathi- 
gatas, and after having acted in the same way towards 

1 From the sequel it appears that the text ought to have < twenty 
hundred thousand myriads of korfs/ 


many hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of other 
Buddhas, obtained under all of them this very Dhar- 
maparyiya of the Lotus of the True Law, and owing 
to his former root of goodness having come to full 
development, gained supreme, perfect enlightenment 
Perhaps, Mahdsthimapripta, thou wilt have some 
doubt, uncertainty, or misgiving, and think that he 
who at that time, at that juncture was the Bodhisat- 
tva Mahisattva called Sadiparibhuta was one, and 
he who under the rule of that Lord Bhishmagar/i- 
tasvararSjfa, the Tath&gata, &c., was generally called 
Sadaparibhftta by the four classes, by whom so many 
Tathigatas were propitiated, was another. But thou 
shouldst not think so. For it is myself who at that 
time, at that juncture was the Bodhisattva Mahdsat- 
tva Sadiparibhftta. Had I not formerly grasped 
and kept this DharmaparysLya, Mahdsthamaprdpta, I 
should not so soon have arrived at supreme, perfect 
enlightenment It is because I have kept, read, 
preached this Dharmapary^ya (derived) from the 
teaching of the ancient Tathagatas, Sec., MahistM- 
maprdpta, that I have so soon arrived at supreme, 
perfect enlightenment As to the hundreds of 
monks, nuns, male and female lay devotees, Mahi- 
sthdmapripta, to whom under that Lord the Bodhi- 
sattva Mahisattva Sad&paribhftta promulgated this 
Dharmapary&ya by saying: I do not contemn you; you 
all observe the course of duty of Bodhisattvas ; you 
are to become Tathdgatas, &c., and in whom awoke 
a feeling of malignity towards that Bodhisattva, they 
in twenty hundred thousand myriads of koris of 
MOKS never saw a TathSgata, nor heard the call 
of the law, nor the call of the assembly, and for ten 
thousand -^Eons they suffered terrible pain in the 


great hell AvLK. Thereafter released from the 
ban, they by the instrumentality of that Bodhisattva 
Mahasattva were all brought to full ripeness for 
supreme, perfect enlightenment. Perhaps, Mahi- 
sthamaprdpta, thou wilt have some doubt, uncer- 
tainty, or misgiving as to who at that time, at that 
juncture were the persons hooting and laughing at 
the Bodhisattva Mahasattva. They are, in this very- 
assembly, the five hundred Bodhisattvas headed by 
Bhadrapala, the five hundred nuns following Siwzha- 
andra, the five hundred lay devotees 1 following 
Sugata^etana, who all of them have been rendered 
inflexible in supreme, perfect enlightenment. So 
greatly useful it is to keep and preach this Dharma- 
paryaya, as it tends to result for Bodhisattvas Mahl- 
sattvas in supreme, perfect enlightenment. Hence, 
Mahasthamaprapta, the Bodhisattvas Mahisattvas 
should, after the complete extinction of the Tathal- 
gata, constantly keep, read, and promulgate this 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the follow- 
ing stanzas : 

1. I remember a past period, when king Bhtsh- 
masvara 2 , the Gina, lived, very mighty, and revered 
by gods and men, the leader of men, gods, goblins, 
and giants. 

2. At the time succeeding the complete extinc- 
tion of that Gina, when the decay of the true law 

1 Updsaka, the masculine ; this does not suit, but on the other 
hand it must be admitted that the omission of male devotees is not 
to be accounted for. Not unlikely some words have been left out 
by inadvertence, not only in the Cambridge MS., but also in the 
MSS. known to Burnouf. Cf., however, st. 9. 

2 Bhtfchmasvaro ra^a ^ino yadasi. 


was far advanced, there was a monk, a Bodhisattva, 
called by the name of Sadaparibhuta. 

3. Other monks and nuns who did not believe 
but in what they saw 1 , he would approach (and say): 
I never am to contemn you, for you observe the 
course leading to supreme enlightenment. 

4. It was his wont always to utter those words, 
which brought him but abuse and taunts from their 
part. At the time when his death was impending he 
heard this Stitra. 

5. The sage, then, did not expire; he resolved 
upon 2 a very long life, and promulgated this Sutra 
under the rule of that leaden 

6. And those many (persons) who only acknow- 
ledged the evidence of sensual perception 3 were 
by him brought to full ripeness for enlightenment. 
Then, disappearing from that place, he propitiated 
thousands of kods of Buddhas. 

7. Owing to the successive good actions performed 
by him, and to his constantly promulgating this 
Sfttra, that son of ina reached enlightenment. 
That Bodhisattva then is myself, .Sakyamuni. 

8. And those persons who only believed in per- 
ception by the senses 4 , those monks, nuns, male 
and female lay devotees who by the sage were 
admonished of enlightenment, 

9. And who have seen many ko/is of Buddhas, 

1 Upalambhadrz'sh/ina; I am not sure of the correctness of 
this translation ; Burnouf renders it by 6 qui ne voyaient que les 
objets ext^rieurs/ which comes pretty much to the same. 

2 Pratish/Miitv& (Sansk. pratish/Mya) a sudfrgham 
properly t having stood still for a very long time of life/ 

8 Upalambhika. 
* Aupalambhika, 


are the monks here before me, no less than five 
hundred, nuns, and female lay devotees 1 . 

10. All of them have been by me brought to 
complete ripeness, and after my extinction they will 
all. full of wisdom, keep this Sutra. 

n. Not once in many, inconceivably many ko/is 
of /Eons has such a Sutra as this been heard. There 
are, indeed, hundreds of ko^is of Buddhas, but they 
do not elucidate this Stitra. 

12. Therefore let one who has heard this law 
exposed by the Self-born himself, and who has re- 
peatedly propitiated him, promulgate this Sutra after 
my extinction in this world. 

1 The text has 




Thereupon those hundred thousands of myriads 
of kotis of Bodhisattvas equal to the dust-atoms of 
a macrocosm, who had issued from the gaps of the 
earth, all stretched their joined hands towards the 
Lord, and said unto him : We, O Lord, will, after 
the complete extinction of the Tathagata, promul- 
gate this Dharmapary&ya everywhere (or on every 
occasion) in all Buddha-fields of the Lord, wherever 
(or whenever) the Lord shall be completely extinct 1 . 
We are anxious to obtain this sublime Dharma- 
parydya, O Lord, in order to keep, read, publish, 
and write it. 

Thereupon the hundred thousands of myriads of 
ko/is of Bodhisattvas, headed by Ma^ftusrt; the 
monks, nuns, male and female lay devotees living in 
this world ; the gods, Nigas, goblins, Gandharvas, 
demons, Garudas, Kinnaras, great serpents, men, 
and beings not human, and the many Bodhisattvas 
Mah&sattvas equal to the sands of the river Ganges, 
said unto the Lord : We also, O Lord, will promul- 
gate this Dharmaparyiya after the complete extinc- 
tion of the TatMgata. While standing with an 
invisible body in the sky, O Lord, we will send 

1 Hence follows that Nirva is repeatedly entered into by 
the Lord. 


forth a voice 1 , and plant the roots of goodness of 
such creatures as have not (yet) planted roots of 

Then the Lord addressed the Bodhisattva Mahi- 
sattva VLrish/aaritra, followed by a troop, a great 
troop, the master of a troop, who was the very first 
of those afore-mentioned Bodhisattvas Mahisattvas 
followed by a troop, a great troop, masters of a 
troop : Very well, Visish/a>aritra, very well ; so you 
should do ; it is for the sake of this DharmaparySya 
that the Tathagata has brought you to ripeness. 

Thereupon the Lord .Sakyamuni, the Tathagata, 
&c., and the wholly extinct Lord Prabhutaratna, the 
Tathagata, &c., both seated on the throne in the 
centre of the Stupa 2 , commenced smiling to one 
another, and from their opened mouths stretched out 
their tongues, so that with their tongues they reached 
the Brahma-world, and from those two tongues issued 
many hundred thousand myriads of ko/is of rays 3 . 
From each of those rays issued many hundred thou- 
sand myriads of ko/is of Bodhisattvas, with gold- 
coloured bodies and possessed of the thirty-two 
characteristic signs cf a great man, and seated on 
thrones consisting of the interior of lotuses. Those 

1 From this it appears that the abode of the monks &c. in 
the assembly of the Lord Sakyamuni is in the sky, at least occa- 
sionally. Their attribute of 'an invisible body' shows them to 
be identical with the videhas, the incorporeal ones, L e. the spirits 
of the blessed departed, Arhats, Muktas, Pitaras. The Pitaras 
form the assembly of Dhannara^a. 

2 Cf. Chapter XL 

3 It is quite true that the moon as well as the sun is sahasra- 
raxrai, possessed of thousand rays, but it is difficult to under- 
stand how the Bhagavat Prabhfitaratna can show his magic power 
in his state of extinction. 


Bodhisattvas spread in all directions in hundred 
thousands of worlds, and while on every side sta- 
tioned in the sky preached the law. Just as the 
Lord 6kyamuni, the Tathagata, &c., produced a 
miracle of magic by his tongue, so, too, Prabhtata- 
ratna, the Tathagata, &c., and the other Tathagatas, 
&c., who, having flocked from hundred thousands of 
myriads of kofis of other worlds, were seated on 
thrones at the foot of jewel trees, by their tongues 
produced a miracle of magic. 

The Lord ^ikyamuni, the TatMgata, &c., and all 
those Tathdgatas, &c., produced that magical effect 
during fully a thousand 1 years. After the lapse of that 
millennium those Tathigatas, &c., pulled back their 
tongue, and all simultaneously, at the same moment, 
the same instant, made a great noise as of expector- 
ation 2 and of snapping the fingers, by which sounds 
all the hundred thousands of myriads of kotfs of 
Buddha-fields in every direction of space were 
moved, removed, stirred, wholly stirred, tossed, 
tossed forward, tossed along, and all beings in all 
those Buddha-fields, gods, Nigas, goblins, Gan- 
dharvas, demons, GaruaTas, Kinnaras, great ser- 
pents, men, and beings not human beheld, by the 
power of the Buddha, from the place where they 
stood, this Saha-world. They beheld the hundred 
thousands of myriads of ko#s of Tathagatas seated 
severally on their throne at the foot of a jewel tree, 
and the Lord S&kyamuni, the Tathigata, &a, and 
the Lord Prabhtitaratna, the TathUgata, &c., wholly 
extinct, sitting on the throne in the centre of the 

1 Burnouf has ' a hundred thousand.' 

2 UtkSjana, better sana. 


Stupa of magnificent precious substances, along with 
the Lord .Sakyainuni, the Tathagata, &c. ; they be- 
held, finally, those four classes of the audience. At 
this sight they felt struck with wonder, amazement, 
and rapture. And they heard a voice from the sky 
calling : Worthies, beyond a distance of an immense, 
incalculable number of hundred thousands of myriads 
of ko/is of worlds there is the world named Saha ; 
there the Tathagata called vSakyamuni, the Arhat, 
&c., is just now revealing to the Bodhisattvas Maha- 
sattvas the Dharmaparyaya of the Lotus of the True 
Law, a Sutr&nta of great extent, serving to instruct 
Bodhisattvas, and belonging in proper to all Buddhas. 
Ye accept it jo} fully with all your heart, and do 
homage to the Lord vSakyamuni, the Tathagata, &c., 
and the Lord Prabhutaratna, the Tathagata, &c. 

On hearing such a voice from the sky all those 
beings exclaimed from the place where they stood, 
with joined hands: Homage to the Lord 6&kya- 
muni, the Tathagata. Then they threw towards 
the Saha-world various flowers, incense, fragrant 
wreaths, ointment, gold, cloth, umbrellas, flags, ban- 
ners, and triumphal streamers, as well as ornaments, 
parures, necklaces, gems and jewels of all sorts, in 
order to worship the Lord ^ikyamuni, the TatM- 
gata *, and this Dharmaparyaya of the Lotus of the 
True Law. Those flowers, incense, &c., and those 
necklaces, &c., came down upon this Saha-world, 
where they formed a great canopy of flowers hanging 
in the sky above the Tathigatas there sitting, as 
well as those in the hundred thousands of myriads 
of ko/is of other worlds. 

1 In Burnouf s translation we find added : and the TathS^ata 


Thereupon the Lord addressed the Bodhisattvas 
Mahasattvas headed by Visish&^iritra : I nconceivable, 
young men of good family, is the power of the Tathd- 
gatas, &c. In order to transmit this DharmaparySya, 
young men of good family, I might go on for hundred 
thousands of myriads of ko/is of ./Eons explaining 
the manifold virtues of this Dharmaparyiya through 
the different principles of the law, without reaching 
the end of those virtues. In this Dharmapary&ya 
I have succinctly taught all Buddha-laws (or Buddha- 
qualities), all the superiority, all the mystery, all the 
profound conditions of the Buddhas. Therefore, 
young men of good family, you should, after the 
complete extinction of the Tathigata, with reverence 
keep, read, promulgate, cherish *, worship it. And 
wherever on earth, young men of good family, this 
Dharmaparyiya shall be made known, read, written, 
meditated, expounded, studied or collected into a 
volume, be it in a monastery or at home, in the 
wilderness or in a town, at the foot of a tree or in 
a palace, in a building or in a cavern, on that spot 
one should erect a shrine in dedication to the TatM- 
gata. For such a spot must be regarded as a terrace 
of enlightenment; such a spot must be regarded 
as one where all Tathigatas &c. have arrived at 
supreme, perfect enlightenment ; on that spot have 
all Tathdgatas moved forward the wheel of the law ; 
on that spot one may hold that all TatMgatas have 
reached complete extinction. 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the follow- 
ing stanzas : 

1 Or develop; or meditate, bhvayitavya. Burnouf seems to 
have read bh^shayitavya, for he translates it by c expliquer.' 


1. Inconceivable is the power to promote the 
weal of the world * possessed by those who, firmly 
established in transcendent knowledge, by means of 
their unlimited sight display their magic faculty in 
order to gladden all living beings on earth. 

2. They extend their tongue over the whole 
world 2 , darting thousands of beams to the astonish- 
ment of those to whom this effect of magic is dis- 
played and who are making for supreme enlighten- 

3. The Buddhas made a noise of expectoration 
and of snapping the fingers, (and by it) called the 
attention of the whole world, of all parts of the world 
in the ten directions of space. 

4. Those and other miraculous qualities they 
display in their benevolence and compassion (with 
the view) that the creatures, gladly excited at the 
time, may (also) keep the Sfttra after the complete 
extinction of the Sugata. 

5. Even if I continued for thousands of kotfs of 
JEons speaking the praise of those sons of Sugata 
who shall keep this eminent Sutra after the extinc- 
tion of the Leader of the world, 

6. I should not have terminated the enumeration 
of their qualities ; inconceivable as the qualities of 
infinite space are the merits of those who constantly 
keep this holy Sfttra. 

7. They behold me as well as these chiefs, and 
the Leader of the world now extinct; (they behold) all 
these numerous Bodhisattvas and the four classes. 

8. Such a one now here s propitiates me and all 

1 LokahitSnudharmatl * Sarvalokam. 

* Ten' ihidy a. The connection between this stanza and the next 
would have heen clearer if the two stanzas had been transposed. 


these leaders, as well as the extinct chief of G'mas 
and the others in every quarter. 

9. The future and past Buddhas stationed in the 
ten points of space will all be seen and worshipped 
by him who keeps this Sutra. 

10. He who keeps this Sutra, the veritable law, 
w r ill fathom the mystery of the highest man ; will 
soon comprehend what truth it was that was arrived 
at on the terrace of enlightenment. 

n. The quickness of his apprehension will be 
unlimited ; like the wind he will nowhere meet im- 
pediments ; he knows the purport and interpretation 
of the law, he who keeps this exalted Sfttra. 

12. He will, after some reflection, always find out 
the connection of the Stitras spoken by the leaders ; 
even after the complete extinction of the leader he 
will grasp the real meaning of the Sutras. 

13. He resembles the moon and the sun; he illu- 
minates all around him, and while roaming the earth 
in different directions he rouses many Bodhisattvas. 

14. The wise Bodhisattvas w r ho, after hearing the 
enumeration of such advantages, shall keep this 
Stitra after my complete extinction will doubtless 
reach enlightenment. 

[21] B b 





Thereupon the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Bhaisha- 
^yaragia rose from his seat, and having put his upper 
robe upon one shoulder and fixed the right knee 
upon the ground lifted his joined hands up to the 
Lord and said : How great, O Lord, is the pious 
merit which will be produced by a young man of 
good family or a young lady who keeps this Dhar- 
maparydya of the Lotus of the True Law, either 
in memory or in a book? Whereupon the Lord 
said to the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Bhaisha^yari^ia : 
Suppose, Bhaisha^yarag-a, that some man of good 
family or a young lady honours, respects, reveres, 
worships hundred thousands of myriads of ko/is of 
Tathagatas equal to the sands of eighty Ganges 
rivers ; dost thou think, Bhaishafyari^a, that such a 
young man or young lady of good family will on 
that account produce much pious merit ? The Bo- 
dhisattva Bhaishagyarifa replied : Yes, Lord ; yes, 
Sugata. The Lord said: I announce to thee, Bhaisha- 
/yarifa, I declare to thee : any young man or young 
lady of good family, Bhaisha^yar^a, who shall keep, 
read, comprehend, and in practice follow, were it 
but a single stanza from this Dharmaparyiya of the 
Lotus of the True Law, that young man or young 
lady of good family, Bhaisha^yai%a, will on that 
account produce far more pious merit 


Then the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Bhaisha^ya- 
r^a immediately said to the Lord : To those young 
men or young ladies of good family, O Lord, who 
keep this Dharmaparyiya of the Lotus of the True 
Law in their memory or in a book, we will give 
talismanic words 1 for guard, defence, and protection ; 
such as, anye 2 manye mane mamane itte /arite 
same, samitlvi, sdnte, mukte, muktatame, same 
avishame, samasame, ^aye, kshaye, akshtoe, snte 
sanl, dhiram alokabhishe, pratyaveksha;*i, nidhini, 
abhyantaravisish/e, utkule mutkule, asade, parade, 
sukdnkshi, asamasame, buddhavilokite, dharmapa- 
rlkshite, sanghanirghosham, nirghosha;/! bhay&bha- 
yasodhanl, mantre mantrikshayate, rutakausalye, 
akshaye, akshavanatdya, vakule valo^a, amanyatiya 3 . 
These words of charms and spells, O Lord, have 
been pronounced by reverend Buddhas (in number) 

3 In giving these words I have followed the Camb. MS., even 
where the readings would seem to be incorrect. 

8 The list in Burnouf s translation seems in many respects more 
correct; it is as follows: anye manye, arau parau amane ma- 
mane itte arite ; same j-amita wSnte, mukte muktatame same 
avisamasame, ^aye kshaye akshaye akshiwe ^nte jamite dh^ram 
^lokabhdse pratyavekshawi dhiru viviru abhyantaranivish/e abhyan- 
taraparii'uddhi, utkule mukule ara^fe parade sukankshi asama- 
same buddhivilokite dharmaparikshite pratyaveksha?zi sanghanir- 
ghosha#i nirghoshawi bhayavwodhani mantre mantrakshayate 
rutakau^alya akshayavanat^ vakkulavaloka amanyataye. All these 
words are, or ought to be, feminine words in the vocative. I take 
them to be epithets of the Great Mother, Nature or Earth, 
differently called Aditi, Pragwd, M&y&, Bhav&i$, Durga*. Any& 
may be identified with the Vedic any&, inexhaustible, and 
synonymous with aditi. Most of the other terms may be ex- 
plained as synonymous with pra^wa* (e.g. pratyavekshat), 
with nature (kshaye akshaye), with the earth (dhra#l). 

B b 2 


equal to the sands of sixty-two Ganges rivers. All 
these Buddhas would be offended by any one who 
would attack such preachers, such keepers of the 

The Lord expressed his approval to the Bodhi- 
sattva Mahasattva Bhaisha^yari^a by saying : Very 
well, Bhaisha^yara^a, by those talismanic words 
being pronounced out of compassion for creatures, 
the common weal of creatures is promoted; their 
guard, defence, and protection is secured. 

Thereupon the Bodhisattva Mahalsattva Prad^na- 
sfira said unto the Lord : I also, O Lord, will, for the 
benefit of such preachers, give them talismanic words, 
that no one seeking for an occasion to surprise such 
preachers may find the occasion, be it a demon, giant, 
goblin, sorcerer, imp or ghost ; that none of these 
when seeking and spying for an occasion to surprise 
may find the occasion. And then the Bodhisattva 
Mahasattva Pradanaurfira instantly pronounced the 
following words of a spell : ^vale mahS^vale, ukke 
mukke, ade adstvati, trttye trttyfrvati, Him vitim 
i/ini, trz/ti tnYyavati svShd 1 . These talismanic 
words, O Lord, have been pronounced and approved 
by Tathdgatas, &c. (in number) equal to the sands 
of the river Ganges. All those Tathigatas would 
be offended by any one who would attack such 

1 With Bumouf : ^vale mah^tgrale ukke mukke ate atdvati 
nrAye nr/tyd\ati: i#mi vi//mi >H/fini nr/tyivati svdh! These 
terms are obuously names of the flame, mythologicaJly called 
Agm's wife, the daughter of Daksha. As Siva may be identified 
with Agni, the feminine \\ords again are epithets of DurgS. GvalS 
and Mahd^vald are perfectly clear; ukM is the PrSkrit form of 
Sanskrit ulka. 


Thereupon Vai?rava;za, one of the four rulers of 
the cardinal points, said unto the Lord : I also, O 
Lord, will pronounce talismanic words for the benefit 
and weal of those preachers, out of compassion to 
them, for their guard, defence, and protection : a#e 
na#e vana#e anaafe, nidfi kunaafi svihi 1 . With 
these spells, O Lord, I shall guard those preachers 
over an extent of a hundred yqfanas. Thus will 
those young men or young ladies of good family, 
who keep this S&trdnta, be guarded, be safe. 

At that meeting was present Virftd/fcaka, another 
of the four rulers of the cardinal points, sitting sur- 
rounded and attended by hundred thousands of 
myriads of koris of Kumbhiwdas. He rose from 
his seat, put his upper robe upon one shoulder, lifted 
his joined hands up to the Lord, and spoke to him 
as follows : I also, O Lord, will pronounce talismanic 
words for the benefit of people at large, and to guard, 
defend, protect such preachers as are qualified, who 
keep the SAtrinta as mentioned; viz. aga^e gawe 
gauri gandhiri ka.nd\\ mitangi pukka-ri sankule 
vrftsali svihd 2 . These talismanic words, O Lord, 
have been pronounced by forty-two hundred thou- 
sand myriads of ko^is of Buddhas. All those 
Buddhas would be offended by any one who would 
attack such preachers as are qualified. 

Thereupon the giantesses called Lambi, Vilam 1 & 3 , 

1 Burnouf has a//e ha//e na//e, &c. 

* The list in Burnouf differs but slightly ; a. g. g. gandh&i 
kind&li m. pukkasi s. vrulasisi s. Vrftsali or rather vrusali must 
be the Sanskrit vrz'shall Gauri, JWalika\ Mtangi are known 
from elsewhere as epithets of Durg& ; Pukkast and Vnshatt denote 
nearly the same as K&nd& and Mtangf . 

With Buruouf, PralambS. 


Ktifedantl,Pushpadantl, Makufedantl 1 , Ke^int, A/6ali, 
MdtedMrl, Kuntl, Sarvasattvo^ah^rl 2 , and H^Lritt, 
all with their children and suite went up to the 
place where the Lord was, and with one voice said 
unto him: We also, O Lord, will afford guard, 
defence, and protection to such preachers as keep 
this Sfttrinta; we will afford them safety, that no 
one seeking for an occasion to surprise those 
preachers may find the occasion. And the giantesses 
all simultaneously and in a chorus gave to the Lord 
the following words of spells ; iti me, iti me, iti me, 
iti me, iti me; nime nime nime nime nime; ruhe 
ruhe ruhe ruhe ruhe ; stuhe stuhe stuhe stuhe stuhe, 
svaM. No one shall overpower and hurt such 
preachers; no goblin, giant, ghost, devil, imp, sor- 
cerer, spectre, gnome ; no spirit causing epilepsy, no 
sorcerer of goblin race, no sorcerer of not-human 
race, no sorcerer of human race ; no sorcerer pro- 
ducing tertian ague, quartian ague, quotidian ague. 
Even if in his dreams he has visions of women, men, 
boys or girls, it shall be impossible that they hurt 

And the giantesses simultaneously and in a chorus 
addressed the Lord with the following stanzas : * 

i. His head shall be split into seven pieces, like 
a sprout of Symplocos Racemosa, who after hearing 
this spell would attack a preacher. 
^ 2. He shall go the way of parricides and matri- 
cides, who would attack a preacher. 

3- He shall go the way of oil-millers and sesamum- 
pounders, who would attack a preacher. 

* Buraouf better, SarvasattvaugohfirJ. 


4. He shall go the way of those who use false 
weights and measures, who would attack a preacher. 

Thereafter the giantesses headed by Kunt! said 
unto the Lord : We also, O Lord, will afford protec- 
tion to such preachers ; we will procure them safety; 
we will protect them against assault and poison. 
Whereupon the Lord said to those giantesses : Very 
well, sisters, very well; you do well in affording 
guard, defence, and protection to those preachers, 
even to such who shall keep no more than the name 
of this Dharmaparyiya ; how much more then to 
those who shall keep this Dharmaparydya wholly 
and entirely, or who, possessing the text of it in a 
volume, honour it with flowers, incense, fragrant 
garlands, ointment, powder, cloth, flags, banners, 
lamps with sesamum oil, lamps with scented oil, 
lamps with jfifampaka-scented oil, with Vdrshika- 
scented oil, with lotus -scented oil, with jasmine- 
scented oil ; who by such-like manifold hundred 
thousand manners of worshipping shall honour, re- 
spect, revere, venerate (this Sfttra), deserve to be 
guarded by thee and thy suite, Kuntt ! 

And while this chapter on spells was being 
expounded 1 , sixty-eight thousand living beings re- 
ceived the faculty of acquiescence in the law that 
has no origin. 

1 The chapter was, properly speaking, not expounded at all; 
it simply contains a narrative with the speeches of different inter- 
locutors. It may be observed that a poetical version is wanting. 




Thereupon the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Naksha- 
trarajasankusumitabhi-a spoke to the Lord as fol- 
lows: Wherefore, O Lord, does the Bodhisattva 
Bhaishafyara^-a pursue his course 3 in this Saha- 
world, while he is fully aware of the many hundred 
thousands of myriads of ko/is of difficulties he has 
to meet ? Let the Lord, the Tathagata, &c., deign to 
tell us any part of the course of duty of the Bodhi- 
sattva Mahasattva Bhaishafyari^a, that by hearing 
it the gods, Nagas, goblins, Gandharvas, demons, 
Caracas, Kinnaras, great serpents, men, and beings 
not human, as well as the Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas 
from other worlds here present, and these great dis- 
ciples here may be content, delighted, overjoyed. 

And the Lord, out of regard to that request of 
the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Nakshatrara^asanku- 
sumitabhifwa, told him the following : Of yore, young 
man of good family, at a past epoch, at a time (as 
many) >ons ago as there are grains of sand in the 
river Ganges, there appeared in the world a Tatha- 
gata, &c., by the name of .STandravimalasurya- 
prabhasajri 3 , endowed with science and conduct, a 

1 Pftrvaj-oga; cf. foot-note, p. 153. 

2 Pravi^arati. 

I.e. moon-bright and illustrious by (or like) the radiance of 



Sugata, &c. &c. Now that Tathigata, &c., -ffandra- 
vimalasftryaprabhasa^f had a great assembly of 
eighty ko/is 1 of Bodhisattvas Mahdsattvas and an 
assembly of disciples equal to the sands of seventy- 
two Ganges rivers., His spiritual rule was exempt 
from the female sex, and his Buddha-field had no 
hell, no brute creation, no ghosts, no demons ; it was 
level, neat, smooth as the palm of the hand. Its 
floor consisted of heavenly lapis lazuli, and it was 
adorned with trees of jewel and sandal-wood ; inlaid 
with a multitude of jewels, and hung with long bands 
of silk, and scented by censors made of jewels. Under 
each jewel tree, at a distance not farther than a bow- 
shot, was made a small jewel-house 2 , and on the top 
of those small jewel-houses stood a hundred ko/is of 
angels performing a concert of musical instruments 
and castanets, in order to honour the Lord Sandra- 
vimalastiryaprabhasasrl, the Tathigata, &c., while 
that Lord was extensively expounding this Dharma- 
pary^ya of the Lotus of the True Law to the great 
disciples and Bodhisattvas, directing himself 3 to the 
Bodhisattva Mahisattva Sarvasattvapriyadansana. 
Now, Nakshatrar^asankusumitlbhi^la, the lifetime 
of that Lord ATandravimalastiryaprabhasatfl, the 
TathSgata, &c., lasted forty-two thousand -^Eons, 
and likewise that of the Bodhisattvas MahHsattvas 
and great disciples. It was under the spiritual rule 
of that Lord that the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Sarva- 

1 Thus Camb. MS.; Burnouf has eighty hundred thousand 
myriads of ko/is. 

8 RatnadhSmaka. I am not certain of the correctness of my 
translation; Burnouf renders it by ' char fait de pierreries. 1 

8 Sarvasatvapriyadarranaw adhish/^&naw kr#v&; Burnouf has 
'en commenfant par le B. M. S. f 


sattvapriyadamna applied himself to his difficult 
course. He wandered twelve thousand years strenu- 
ously engaged in contemplation. After the expira- 
tion of those twelve thousand years he acquired the 
Samadhi termed Sarvarupasandarcana (i. e, the sight 
or display of all forms). No sooner had he acquired 
that Samidhi than satisfied, glad, joyful, rejoicing, 
and delighted he made the following reflection : It is 
owing to this Dharmaparyiya of the Lotus of the 
True Law that I have acquired the Samadhi of 
Sarvarupasandansana. Then he made another reflec- 
tion : Let me do homage to the Lord ^Tandravimala- 
suryaprabhasa^rl and this DharmaparySya of the 
Lotus of the True Law. No sooner had he entered 
upon such a meditation than a great rain of Man- 
darava and great Mandarava flowers fell from the 
upper sky. A cloud of Kalanusirin sandal was 
formed, and a rain of Uragasllra sandal poured 
down. And the nature of those essences was so 
noble that one karsha of it was worth the whole 

After a while, Nakshatrar%iasankusumitibhi^a, 
the Bodhisattva Mah&sattva Sarvasattvapriyadarcana 
rose from that meditation with memory and full con- 
sciousness, and reflected thus : This display of magic 
power is not likely to honour the Lord and Tathdgata 
so much as the sacrifice of my own body will do 1 . 
Then the Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Sarvasattvapriya- 
darcana instantly began to eat Agallochum, Olibanum, 
and the resin of Boswellia Thurifera, and to drink oil 
of .ffampaka 2 . So, Nakshatrar^sankusumitibhi^a, 

1 In the story of Samsattvapriyadamna it is easy to recognise 
a Buddhist version of the myth of the Phoenix. 

2 In the Old English poem of the Phoenix, verse 192, we read that 


the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Sarvasattvapriyadanrana 
passed twelve years in always and constantly eating 
those fragrant substances and drinking oil of j&Tam- 
paka. After the expiration of those twelve years 
the Bodhisattva Mahsattva Sarvasattvapriyadarcana 
wrapped his body in divine garments, bathed l it in 
oil, made his (last) vow, and thereafter burnt his 
own body with the object to pay worship to the 
Tathigata and this Dharmaparyiya of the Lotus of 
the True Law. Then, Nakshatrara/asahkusumit- 
bhijwa, eighty worlds 2 equal to the sands of the river 
Ganges were brightened by the glare of the flames 
from the blazing body of the Bodhisattva Mahisat- 
tva Sarvasattvapriyadarjana, and the eighty 3 Lords 
Buddhas 4 equal to the sands of the Ganges in those 
worlds all shouted their applause, (and exclaimed) : 
Well done, well done, young man of good family, 
that is the real heroism which the Boddhisattvas 
Mahisattvas should develop ; that is the real worship 
of the Tathigata, the real worship of the law. No 
worshipping with flowers, incense, fragrant wreaths, 
ointment, powder, cloth, umbrellas, flags, banners; 
no worshipping with material gifts or with Uragasdra 
sandal equals it This, young man of good family, 

the noble bird collects the sweetest herbs, blossoms, and perfumes; 
similarly verse 652. He feeds upon mildew, verse 260. 

1 The Phoenix bathes twelve times in the well before th6 sun's 
arrival, and as many times sips the cool water. 

a According to the reading of the Camb. MS., a^ftir Gang&; 
Burnouf has ' sables de 80 Ganges,' which seems preferable. 

8 Here the same remark as in the preceding note. 

4 In the Old English poem, verse 335 seq., we read that hosts 
of birds flock together from all points of space 'to celebrate in 
song the hero and saint.* Further on, verse 590, the birds are 
identified with the released souls accompanying Christ. 


is the sublimest gift, higher than the abandoning of 
royalty, the abandoning of beloved children and 
wife. Sacrificing one's own body, young man of 
good family, is the most distinguished, the chiefest, 
the best, the very best, the most sublime worship 
of the law. After pronouncing this speech, Naksha- 
trarafasankusumitibhi^a, those Lords Buddhas 
were silent. 

The body of Sarvasattvapriyadanana continued 
blazing for twelve thousand years without ceasing 
to burn. After the expiration of those twelve 
thousand years the fire was extinguished. Then, 
Nakshatrara^asankusumMbhi^;2a, the Bodhisattva 
Mahasattva Sarvasattvapriyadarsuna, having paid 
such worship to the Tath&gata, disappeared from 
that place, and (re)appeared under the (spiritual) 
reign of that very Lord ^Tandravimalasllryapra- 
bhUsasri, the Tathagata, &c., in the house of king 
Vimaladatta, by apparitional birtK, and sitting cross- 
legged. Immediately after his appearance the 
Bodhisattva Mahasattva Sarvasattvapriyadarcana 
addressed his father and mother in the following 
stanza : 

i. This, O exalted king, is the walk in which 
I have acquired meditation; I have achieved a 
heroical feat, fulfilled a great vote by sacrificing 
my own dear body. 

After uttering this stanza, Nakshatrar^asanku- 
sumitabhi7*a, the Bodhisattva Mab&sattva Sarva- 
sattvapriyadanrana said to his father and mother: 
Even now, father and mother, the Lord Sandra- 
vimalasiioraprabhasa^rl, the Tathigata, &c., is still 
living, existing, staying in the world, the Lord by 
worshipping whom I have obtained the spell of 


knowing all sounds 1 and this Dharmaparyiya of the 
Lotus of the True Law, consisting of eighty hun- 
dred thousand myriads of /otis of stanzas, of a 
hundred Niyutas 2 , of Vivaras 3 , of a hundred Vivaras, 
which I have heard from that Lord. Therefore, 
father and mother, I should like to go to that Lord 
and worship him again. Instantaneously, Naksha- 
trari^asankusumitibhipza, the Bodhisattva Mahi- 
sattva Sarvasattvapriyadarsana rose seven talas 4 
high into the sky and sat cross-legged on the top of 
a tower of seven precious substances. So he went up 
to the presence of that Lord, and having approached 
him humbly saluted him, circumambulated him seven 
times from left to right, stretched the joined hands 
towards the Lord, and after thus paying his homage 
addressed him with the following stanza : 

2. O thou whose face is so spotless and bright ; 
thou, king and sage ! How thy lustre sparkles 
in all quarters! After having anciently paid thee 
homage, O Sugata, I now come again to behold 
thee, O Lord. 

Having pronounced this stanza, the Bodhisattva 
Mahisattva Sarvasattvapriyadar.sana said to the 

1 This comes rather unexpected ; of the Phoenix in the Old 
English poem, verse 131, we read that 'the sound of the bird's 
song is sweeter and more beautiful than all other singer-craft, 
and more delicious than any other tune.' 

2 Equal to a thousand billions. The cyphers being noughts 3 
the whole number=i. Eighty is the number of intermediate 
kalpas in one Mahakalpa or Great JEon, i, e. one day and night. 
The turn (parydya) of the True Law is the regular revolution of 
the sun. 

8 Equal to a hundred thousand billions. As cyphers must be 
left out of account, all the numbers specified come to one. 
* The height of a palm-tree, or a span. 


Lord jSTandravimalasArj-aprabhisa^ri, the Tathigata, 
&c. : Thou art then still alive, Lord ? Whereon the 
Lord ^andravimalastiryaprabhisajrl, the TatMgata, 
&c., replied : The time of my final extinction, young 
man of good family, has arrived ; the time of my 
death has arrived. Therefore, young man of good 
family, prepare my couch ; I am going to enter com- 
plete extinction. Then, NakshatrarS^asankusumi- 
tabhi^Tsa, the Lord ^Tandravimalasuryaprabhisa^rl 
said to the Bodhisattva Mahsattva Sarvasattva- 
priyadarsana : I entrust to thee, young man of good 
family, my commandment (or mastership, rule) ; I 
entrust to thee these Bodhisattvas Mahdsattvas, 
these great disciples, this Buddha-enlightenment, this 
world, these jewel cars, these jewel trees, and these 
angels, my servitors. I entrust to thee also, young 
man of good family, my relics after my complete 
extinction. Thou shouldst pay a great worship to 
rny relics, young man of good family, and also dis- 
tribute them and build many thousands of Stftpas. 
And, Nakshatrar4fasankusumitdbh^a, after the 
Lord j5TandravimalasftryaprabhcLsa<yrl, the TathcLgata, 
&c., had given these instructions to the Bodhisattva 
Mahasattva Sarvasattvapriyadarcana he in the last 
watch of the night entered absolute final extinction 1 . 

Thereupon, Nakshatrar^asankusumitibhi^-;7a, the 
Bodhisattva Mahasattva Sarvasattvapriyadarcana, 
perceiving that the Lord ^andravimalasftryapra- 
bhisa^rt, the Tathigata, &c., had expired, made 
a pyre of Uragas&ra sandal-wood and burnt the 

1 It is sufficiently clear that the NirvS0a of this TatMgata is 
the end of a day of twenty-four hours, and that Sarvasattvapriya- 
dar^ana is the new day. 


body of the Tathgata. When he saw that the 
body was burnt to ashes and the fire extinct, he 
took the bones 1 and wept, cried and lamented. 
After having wept, cried and lamented, Nakshatra- 
r^asankusumitabhi^a, the Bodhisattva Mahisattva 
Sarvasattvapriyadarsana caused to be made eighty- 
four thousand urns of seven precious substances, 
deposed in them the bones of the Tathigata, founded 
eighty-four thousand Stftpas 2 , reaching in height to 
the Brahma-world, adorned with a row of umbrellas, 
and equipped with silk bands and bells. After 
founding those Stftpas he made the following re- 
flection : I have paid honour to the TatMgata-relics 
of the Lord ^andravimalasftryaprabhdsasrt, but I 
will pay to those relics a yet loftier and most dis- 
tinguished honour. Then, Nakshatrard^asankusu- 
mitdbhi^a, the Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Sarva- 
sattvapriyadarsana addressed that entire assembly 
of Bodhisattvas, those great disciples, those gods, 
Nagas, goblins, Gandharvas, demons, GarWas, 
Kinnaras, great serpents, men, and beings not 
human : Ye all, young men of good family, unani- 

1 In the Phoenix myth it is the bird himself that, after his 
resurrection, collects the relics; verses 269-272. Both versions 
come to the same, for the sun of to-day is essentially the same 
as yesterday's. 

2 Exactly the same number of monasteries was erected by A^oka, 
according to the Dtpavazzsa VI, 96. The king was induced to 
build so many monasteries because there were eighty-four or, 
optionally, eighty-four thousand towns in India, a number precisely 
coinciding with that of the sections of the Law. Notwithstanding 
the difference in details, it may be assumed that there is some 
connection between the two tales, especially because Asoka was 
a namesake of Sarvasattvapriyadawana, one of his epithets being 


mously vow to pay worship to the relics of the 
Lord. Immediately after, Nakshatrar^asankusu- 
mitabhifTZa, the Bodhisattva Mahalsattva Sarva- 
sattvapriyadarcana, in presence of those eighty-four 
thousand Stiipas, burnt his own arm which was 
marked by the one hundred auspicious signs, and 
so paid worship to those Stiipas containing the 
relics of the TatMgata, during seventy-two thousand 
years. And while paying worship, he educated 
countless hundred thousands of myriads of ko/is of 
disciples from that assembly, in consequence whereof 
all those Bodhisattvas acquired the Samidhi termed 

Then, Nakshatrari/asankusumitabhi^;/a,the entire 
assembly of Bodhisattvas and all great disciples, 
seeing the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Sarvasattvapri- 
yadarcana deprived of a limb, said, with tears in 
their eyes, weeping, crying, lamenting : The Bodhi- 
sattva MaMsattva Sarvasattvapriyadarcana, our 
master and instructor, is now deprived of a limb, 
deprived of one arm. But the Bodhisattva Mah&- 
sattva Sarvasattvapriyadarrana addressed those 
Bodhisattvas, great disciples, and angels in the fol- 
lowing terms : Do not, young men of good family, 
weep, cry, lament at the sight of my being deprived 
of one arm. All the Lords Buddhas who be, exist, 
live in the endless, limitless worlds in every direction 
of space, have I taken to witness. Before their face 
have I pronounced a vow of truth, and by that 
truth, by that word of truth shall I, after the 
sacrifice of my own arm in honour of the Tathdgata, 
have a body of gold colour. By this truth, by this 
word of truth let this arm of mine become such as 
it was before, and let the great earth shake in six 


different ways, and let the angels in the sky pour 
down a rain of flowers. No sooner, Nakshatrarifa- 
sankusumitibhigvla, had the Bodhisattva Mahisattva 
Sarvasattvapriyadarcana made that vow of truth, 
than the whole triple macrocosm was shaken in 
six different ways, and from the sky aloft fell a 
great rain of flowers. The arm of the Bodhisattva 
Mahsattva Sarvasattvapriyadarsana became again 
as it was before, and that by the power of knowledge 
and by the power of pious merit belonging to that 
Bodhisattva Mahisattva. Perhaps, Nakshatrard^a- 
sankusumitibhi^;2a, thou wilt have some doubt, 
uncertainty or misgiving, (and think) that the Bodhi- 
sattva Mahdsattva Sarvasattvapriyadarcana at that 
time, and that epoch, was another. But do not think 
so ; for the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Bhaisha^yarS^a 
here was at that time, and that epoch, the Bodhisat- 
tva Mah&sattva Sarvasattvapriyadarrana. So many 
hundred thousand myriads of ko^is of difficult things, 
NakshatrarS^asankusumitdbh^a, and sacrifices l of 
his body does this Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Sarva- 
sattvapriyadaryana accomplish. Now, Nakshatra- 
r^asankusumitAbhi^a, the young man or young 
lady of good family striving * in the Bodhisattva 
vehicle towards the goal and longing for supreme, 
perfect enlightenment, who at the Tath&gata-shrines 
shall burn a great toe, a finger, a toe, or a whole 
limb, such a young man or young lady of good 
family, I assure thee, shall produce far more a pious 
merit, far more than results from giving up a king- 

j a. The Phoenix in the poem, 
verse 364 seq., repeatedly, every thousand years, dies in the flames 
to arise anew from his ashes, and to be reborn. 
a BahutaraaB khalv api. 

[] C C 


dom, sons, daughters, and wives, the whole triple 
world with its woods, oceans, mountains, springs, 
streams, tanks, wells, and gardens. And, Naksha- 
trara^asankusumitabhi^a, the young man or young 
lady of good family, striving in the Bodhisattva- 
vehicle for the goal, who after filling with the seven 
precious substances this whole triple world should 
give it in alms to all Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, dis- 
ciples, Pratyekabuddhas, that young man or young 
lady of good family, Nakshatrar^asankusumita- 
bhif/2a, does not produce so much pious merit as 
a young man or young lady of good family who 
shall keep, were it but a single verse from this 
Dharmaparyaya of the Lotus of the True Law. I 
positively declare that the accumulation of merit of 
the latter is greater than if a person, after filling 
the whole triple world with the seven precious 
substances, bestows it in alms on all Buddhas, 
Bodhisattvas, disciples, or Pratyekabuddhas. 

Just as the great ocean, Nakshatrardfasankusu- 
mitabhi^/la, surpasses all springs, streams, and tanks, 
so, Nakshatrari^asankusumitibhi^a, this Dharma- 
paryaya of the Lotus of the True Law surpasses all 
Sutras spoken by the Tathagata 1 . Just as the 
Sumeru, the king of mountains, Nakshatrarifa- 
sankusumitibhi^a, all elevations at the cardinal 
points 2 , horizon circles and great horizons 3 , so, 

1 Or, the Tathagatas. The same alternative in the sequel. All 
Sutras in the world have their source in the TatMgata, of course ; 
just as all Vedas, Itihasas. &c. are the breathing out, the uttering of 
the sentient principle, the dtman; Satapatha-BrhmaaXIV, 5, 4,10. 

2 Kalaparvata, literally, e time mountain/ because the points of 
rising and setting are called parvata, giri, &c., mountain in Sanskrit. 

* The whole horizon is also an apparent elevation and there- 
fore likewise called parvata, &c* 


Nakshatrari^asankusumitdbhi^a, this Dharmapar- 
y&ya of the Lotus of the True Law surpasses as a 
king all the Stitrintas spoken by the Tathagita. 
As the moon, Nakshatrar^asankusumitAbh^a, as 
a luminary, takes the first rank amongst the whole 
of the asterisms, so, NakshatrarlL^asankusumitd- 
bhi^a, this Dharmaparyiya of the Lotus of the 
True Law ranks first amongst all Sutrintas spoken 
by the Tathigata, though it surpasses hundred 
thousands of myriads of ko/is of moons. As the 
orb of the sun, Nakshatrar^asankusumitdbhi^a, 
dispels gloomy darkness, so, Nakshatrari^asankusu- 
mitibhi^a, this Dharmapayiya of the Lotus of the 
True Law dispels all the gloomy darkness of unholy 
works. As Indra, Nakshatrar^asankusumitHbhif^a, 
is the chief of the gods of paradise, so, Nakshatra- 
rS^iasankusumitibhif^a, this Dharmaparyya of the 
Lotus of the True Law is the chief of Sutrintas spoken 
by the Tathdgata. As Brahma Sahimpati, Naksha- 
trar^asankusumitibhi^a, is the king of all Brahma- 
kiyika gods and exercises the function of a father 
in the Brahma world, so, Nakshatrar&fasankusu- 
mit&bhi$a, this Dharmaparydya of the Lotus of 
the True Law exercises the function of a father to 
all beings, whether under training or past it, to all 
disciples, Pratyekabuddhas, and those who in the 
Bodhisattva-vehicle are striving for the goal. As 
the Srotaipanna, Nakshatrar^asankusumitibhi^a, 
as well as the Sak^'digdmin, Angimin, Arhat \ and 
Pratyekabuddha, excels the ignorant people and the 
profanum vulgus, so, Nakshatrar^asankusumit^- 

1 Terms denoting the four degrees of sanctification, answering to 
the Prathamakalpika, Madhubhftmika, Pr^gT^gyotis, and Atikr&nta- 
bhdvaniya in the Yoga system ; YogajSstra III, 50, commentary. 

C C 2 


bhi^vza, the Dharmaparyiya of the Lotus of the True 
Law must be held to excel and surpass all Sutr&ntas 
spoken by the Tathdgata ; and such as shall keep 
this king of Sutras, Nakshatrari^asankusumitibhi- 
gnz., must be held to surpass others (who do not). 
As a Bodhisattva is accounted superior to all 
disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, so, Nakshatrarifa- 
sankusumit^bhi^a, this Dharmaparyiya of the 
Lotus of the True Law is accounted superior to all 
Sutrantas spoken by the TatMgata. Even as the 
Tathagata is the crowned king of the law l of all 
disciples, Pratyekabuddhas, and Bodhisattvas, so, 
Kakshatrara^asankusumitibhi^a, this Dharrnapar- 
yiya is a TathSgata in respect to those who in the 
vehicle of Bodhisattvas are striving to reach 
the goal. This Dharmaparyiya of the Lotus of the 
True Law, Nakshatrara^asankusumitdbh^a, saves 
all beings from all fear, delivers them from all 
pains. It is like a tank for the thirsty, like a fire 
for those who suffer from cold, like a garment for 
the naked, like the caravan leader for the merchants, 
like a mother for her children, like a boat for those 
who ferry over, like a leech for the sick, like a lamp 
for those who are wrapt in darkness, like a jewel for 
those who want wealth, like the ocean for the rivers, 
like a torch for the dispelling of darkness. So, 
Nakshatrari^asankusumitibh^a, this Dharmapar- 
yftya of the Lotus of the True Law delivers from all 
evils, extirpates all diseases, releases from the narrow 
bonds of the mundane whirl 2 . And he who shall 
hear this Dharmaparydya of the Lotus of the True 

1 Dharmara^ pa//abaddha, L e. properly the legitimate 
crowned king. 

3 In other words, this Dhannaparyaya is Death or Nirvfcwu 


Law, who shall write it and cause it to be written, 
will produce an accumulation of pious merit the 
term of which is not to be arrived at even by 
Buddha-knowledge ; so great is the accumulation of 
pious merit that will be produced by a young man 
of good family or a young lady who after teaching 
or learning it, writing it or having it collected into 
a volume, shall honour, respect, venerate, worship 
it with flowers, incense, fragrant garlands, ointment, 
powder, umbrellas, flags, banners, triumphal streamers, 
with music, with joining of hands, with lamps burning 
with ghee, scented oil, ^fampaka oil, jasmine oil, 
trumpet-flower oil,Vdrshik oil or double jasmine oil. 
Great will be the pious merit, Nakshatrari^a- 
sankusumitibhig-$a, to be produced by a young man 
of good family or a young lady striving to reach the 
goal in the Bodhisattva-vehicle, who shall keep this 
chapter of the Ancient Devotion of Bhaisha^ yar&^a, 
who shall read and learn it. And, Nakshatrarigu, 
should a female, after hearing this Dharmaparyiya, 
grasp and keep it, then this existence will be her 
last existence as a woman. Any female, Nakshatra- 
r%-asankusumitibhi^a, who in the last five hundred 
years of the millennium shall hear and penetrate 
this chapter of the Ancient Devotion of Bhaisha- 
^yari/a, will after disappearing from earth be 
(re)born in the world Sukh&vati, where the Lord 
Amitdyus \ the TatMgata, &c., dwells, exists, lives 
surrounded by a host of Bodhisattvas. There will 
he (who formerly was a female) appear seated on 
a throne consisting of the interior of a lotus; 
no affection, no hatred, no infatuation, no pride, no 

1 Another name of Amit&bha. 



envy, no wrath, no malignity will vex him. With 
his birth he will also receive the five transcendent 
faculties, as well as the acquiescence in the eternal 
law, and, once in possession thereof, Nakshatrara*a- 
sankusumitbhi^a, he as a Bodhisattva Mahdsattva 
will see Tathdgatas equal to the sands of seventy- 
two rivers Ganges 1 . So perfect will be his organ 
of sight that by means thereof he shall see those 
Lords Buddhas, which Lords Buddhas will applaud 
him (and say) : Well done, well done, young man 
of good family, that after hearing this Dharma- 
paryaya of the Lotus of the True Law which has 
been promulgated by the spiritual proclamation of 
the Lord .Sakyamuni, the Tathigata, &c., thou hast 
studied, meditated, examined, minded it, and ex- 
pounded it to other beings, other persons. This 
accumulation of thy pious merit, young man of good 
family, cannot be burnt by fire, nor swept away by 
water. Even a thousand Buddhas would not be 
able to determine this accumulation of thy pious 
merit, young man of good family, Thou hast sub- 
dued the opposition of the Evil One, young man of 
good family. Thou, young man of good family, hast 
victoriously emerged 2 from the battle of mundane 
existence, hast crushed the enemies annoying thee 3 . 
Thou, young man of good family, hast been superin- 
tended by thousands of Buddhas ; thine equal, young 
man of good family, is not to be found in the world, 
including the gods 4 , with the only exception of the 

1 Or, to seventy-two times the sands of the river Ganges. 

2 Uttir#abhavasangr2ima. 

3 Marditajatruka/^aka(sic; cf. Pili kanaka). 

* In the margin are added the words, also found in Burnouf s 
translation, 'including Mas, Brahmans, and ascetics/ 


Tathigata; there is no other, be he disciple, 
Pratyekabuddha, or Bodhisattva, able to surpass 
thee in pious merit, knowledge, wisdom or medita- 
tion. Such a power of knowledge, Nakshatrari- 
^sankusumit&bhi/#a, will be acquired by that 

Any one, Nakshatrar^asankusumitslbhi^la, who 
on hearing this chapter of the ancient devotion of 
Bhaisha/yarS^a approves it, will emit from his 
mouth a breath sweet as of the lotus, and from his 
limbs a fragrance as of sandal-wood. Such temporal 
advantages as I have just now indicated will belong 
to him who approves this Dharmapary&ya. On that 
account then, Nakshatrar^asafikusumitibhi^a, I 
transmit to thee this chapter of the Ancient Devotion 
of the Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Sarvasattvapriya- 
darcana, that at the end of time, the last period, in 
the latter half of the millennium it may have course 
here in Gambudvlpa and not be lost ; that neither 
Mira the Fiend, nor the celestial beings called MsLra- 
kyikas, NUgas, goblins, imps may find the oppor- 
tunity of hurting it. Therefore, NakshatrarAfasan- 
kusumitibhi^a, I bequeath this Dharmaparyiya ; 
it is to be like a medicament for sick and suffering 
creatures in Gambudvtpa. No sickness shall over- 
power him who has heard this Dharmaparyiya, no 
decrepitude, no untimely death. Whenever a person 
striving to reach the goal in the vehicle of Bodhi- 
sattvas happens to see such a monk as keeps this 
Stitrinta, then he should strew him with sandal- 
powder and blue lotuses, and reflect thus : This 
young man of good family is going to reach the 
terrace of enlightenment ; he will spread the bundle 


of grass l on the terrace of enlightenment ; he will 
put to flight the party of Mira, blow the conch 
trumpet of the law, beat the drum of the law, cross 
the ocean of existence. Thus, Nakshatrara-asan- 
kusumitabhi^a, should a young man of good family, 
striving to reach the goal in the vehicle of Bodhi- 
sattva, reflect when seeing a monk who keeps this 
Sutra, and he will acquire such advantages as have 
been indicated by the Tathigata. 

While this chapter of the Ancient Devotion of 
Bhaisha^'ara^a was being expounded, eighty-four 
thousand Bodhisattvas attained the spell connected 
with skill in all sounds. And the Lord Prabhftta- 
ratna, the Tathigata, &c., intimated his approval 
(by saying) : Well done, well done, Nakshatrar%-a- 
sankusumit&bhif#a ; thou hast done well in thus 
questioning the Tathdgata, who is endowed with 
such inconceivable qualities and properties. 

1 This is an allusion to the bundles of grass the Bodhisattva 
received from Syastika, the grass-cutter, when he was on his way 
to occupy his seat at the foot of the Bo tree ; see Lalita-vistara, 
P- 357; G3taka I, p. 70 (English translation by Professor Rhys 
Da\ids, p. 95). 




At that moment the Lord .S&kyamuni, the Tathi- 
gata, &c,, darted a flash of light from the circle of 
hair between his eyebrows, one of the characteristic 
signs of a great man, by which flash of light hundred 
thousands of myriads of kotis of Buddha-fields, 
equal to the sands of eighteen rivers Ganges, became 
illuminated. Beyond those Buddha-fields, equal, &c., 
is the world called Vairo>^anara^mipratima;^ita (i.e. 
embellished by the rays of the sun). There dwells, 
lives, exists the Tathigata named Kamaladala- 
vimalanakshatrari^asankusumitibhif^a, who, sur- 
rounded and attended by a large and immense 
assembly of Bodhisattvas, preached the law. Imme- 
diately the ray of light flashing from the circle of 
hair between the eyebrows of the Lord ^ikyamuni, 
the TathSgata, &c., filled the world Vairo^anara- 
^mipratima^flSta with a great lustre. In that world 
Vairo/anaraOTiipratima^ta there was a Bodhisattva 
Mahisattva called Gadgadasvara, who had planted 
roots of goodness, who had before seen similar lumi- 
nous flashes emitted by many Tathigatas, &c., and 
who had acquired many Samidhis, such as the Sa- 
m&ihi Dhva^igrakeytira (i. e. bracelet at the upper 
end of the banner staff), Saddharma-pu^arlka (i.e. 
the Lotus of the True Law), Vimaladatta (Le. given 
by Vimala), Nakshatrar^vikrtafca (i.e. sport of the 


king of asterisms, the moon god), Anilambha 1 , 
;Hnamudrd (i.e. the seal of science), .Sandrapra- 
dipa (i.e. moon-light 2 ), Sarvarutakauralya (i.e. skill 
in all sounds), Sarvapu^yasamu^^aya (i.e. compen- 
dium or collection of all piety), Prasidavati (i.e. the 
favourably-disposed lady), ^'ddhivikrl^ita (i.e. sport 
of magic), Mnolki (i.e. torch of knowledge), VyA- 
harig'a (i.e. king of expansions or speculations), 
Vimalaprabha (i.e. spotless lustre), Vimalagarbha 
(i.e. of spotless interior part), Apkrztsna 8 , Sftry- 
varta (i. e. sun-turn) ; in short, he had acquired many 
hundred thousand myriads of kozfe of Samidhis equal 
to the sands of the river Ganges. Now, the flash of 
light came down upon that Bodhisattva Mahasattva 
Gadgadasvara. Then the Bodhisattva Mahasattva 
Gadgadasvara rose from his seat, put his upper robe 
upon one shoulder, fixed his right knee on the 
ground, stretched his joined hands towards the Lord 
Buddha, and said to the Tathdgata Kamaladalavi- 
malanakshatrar^-asankusumitabh^la : O Lord, I 
would resort to the Saha-world to see, salute, wait 
upon the Lord 6akyamuni, the Tathigata, &c. ; to 
see and salute Ma^ftwrl, the prince royal ; to see the 
Bodhisattvas Bhaishagyarfga, Pradanajrtira, Naksha- 


Then the Lord Kamaladalavimalanakshatrardfa- 
sankusumitabhi*%a, the Tathgata, &c., said to the 
Bodhisattva Mahisattva Gadgadasvara : On coming 
to the Saha-world, young man of good family, thou 

1 Of uncertain meaning. 

* Burnouf has read -Sandraprabha, moon-bright. 
5 Le. belonging to the mystic rite, called Apokasfea in Pali ; for 
which I refer to Spence Hardy, Eastern Monachism, p. 252 seq, 


must not conceive a low opinion of it. That world, 
young man of good family, has ups and downs, con- 
sists of earth, is replete with mountains of Kla, 
filled with gutters 1 . The Lord 6Skyamuni, the 
Tath&gata, &c., is short of stature 2 , and so are the 
Bodhisattvas Mahisattvas, whereas thou, young man 
of good family, hast got a body forty-two hundred 
thousand yo^nas 3 high, and myself have got a 
body sixty-eight hundred thousand yo^ianas high. 
And, young man of good family, thou art lovely, 
handsome, of pleasant appearance, endowed with a 
full bloom of extremely fine colour, and abundantly 
blest with hundred thousands of holy signs. There- 
fore then, young man of good family, when you have 
come to the Saha-world, do not conceive a low 
opinion of the Tathigata, nor of the Bodhisattvas, 
nor of that Buddha-field. 

Thus addressed, the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Gad- 
gadasvara said to the Lord Kamaladalavimalana- 
kshatrari^iasankusumitlLbhi^a, the Tathigata, &c. : 
I shall do, Lord, as the Lord commands ; I shall go to 
that Saha-world by virtue of the Lord's resolution, 
of the Lord's power, of the Lord's might, of the 
Lord's disposal, of the Lord's foresight. Whereon 
the Bodhisattva Mah&sattva Gadgadasvara, without 
leaving that Buddha-field and without leaving his 

1 Gutho<illa or gfttho^igalla; according to Burnouf the word 
means 'ordures;' of. above, p. 142, and Pali oligalla. 

2 Spence Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, p. 364: 'Buddha is some- 
times said to be twelve cubits in height, and sometimes eighteen 

3 That is considerably more than R&hu, the eclipse, was pos- 
sessed of, his body being no more than forty-eight hundred 
yqg r anas high ; Spence Hardy, Lc, 


seat, plunged Into so deep a meditation that imme- 
diately after, on a sudden, there appeared before the 
Tathigata on the Grzdhrakufe-mountains in the 
Saha-world eighty-four hundred thousand myriads 
of ko/is of lotuses on gold stalks with silver leaves 
and with cups of the hue of rosy lotuses and Butea 

On seeing the appearance of this mass of lotuses 
the Bodhisattva MaMsattva Maf^fiisrt, the prince 
royal, asked the Lord ^kyamunl, the TatMgata, &c. : 
By what cause and by whom, O Lord, have been 
produced these eighty-four hundred thousand myriads 
of ko/is of lotuses on gold stalks with silver leaves 
and with cups of the hue of rosy lotuses and Butea 
Frondosa ? Whereon the Lord replied to, 
the prince royal: It is, Ma^fusri, the Bodhisattva 
Mah&sattva Gadgadasvara, who accompanied and 
attended by eighty-four hundred thousand myriads 
of koris of Bodhisattvas arrives from the east, from 
the world Vairo^narasmipratima^afita, the Buddha- 
field of the Lord Kamaladalavimalanakshatrari- 
^asankusumitibhi^a, the Tathagata, &c., at this 
Saha-world to see, salute, wait upon me, and to hear 
this Dharmaparyiya of the Lotus of the True Law. 
Then Ma/gunl, the prince royal, said to the Lord : 
What mass of roots of goodness, O Lord, has that 
young man of good family collected, that he has 
deserved to obtain such a distinction ? And what 
meditation is it, O Lord, that the Bodhisattva 
practises? Let us also learn that meditation, O 
Lord, and practise that meditation. And let us see 
that Bodhisattva, Lord; see how the colour, outward 
shape, character, figure, and behaviour of that Bodhi- 
sattva is. May the Lord deign to produce such a 


token that the Bodhisattva Mahisattva be admo- 
nished by it to come to this Saha-world. 

Then the Lord .SSkyamuni, the TatMgata, Sec., 
said to the Lord Prabhtitaratna, the TathaLgata, &c., 
who was completely extinct : Produce such a token, 
Lord, that the Bodhisattva Mah^sattva Gadgada- 
svara be admonished by it to come to this Saha- 
world, And the Lord Prabhtitaratna, the Tathi- 
gata, Sec., who was completely extinct, instantly 
produced a token in order to admonish the Bodhi- 
sattva Mahdsattva Gadgadasvara (and said) : Come, 
young man of good family, to this Saha-world; 
Ma;2fu*ri, the prince royal, will hail thy coming. 
And the Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Gadgadasvara, 
after humbly saluting the feet of the Lord Ka- 
maladalavimalanakshatrari^asahkusumitdbhi^a, the 
Tathigata, &c., and after three times circumambu- 
lating him from left to right, vanished from the 
world Vairo/fenaraJtnipratimawdSta, along with eighty- 
four hundred thousand myriads of korfs of Bodhi- 
sattvas who surrounded and followed him, and 
arrived at this Saha-world, among a stir of Buddha- 
fields, a rain of lotuses, a noise of hundred thousands 
of myriads of koris of musical instruments. H is face 
showed eyes resembling blue lotuses, his body was 
gold-coloured, his person marked by a hundred 
thousand of holy signs; he sparkled with lustre, 
glowed with radiance, had lirnbs marked by the 
characteristic signs, and a body compact as Niri- 
ya#a's. Mounted on a tower made of seven precious 
substances, he moved through the sky to a height 
of seven T&las 1 , surrounded by a host of Bodhi- 

1 Or spans. There are seven regions of winds. V&yu, the god 
of wind or air, is nearly akiu to Indra and Vistowu 


sattvas, in the direction of this Saha-world, and ap- 
proached the Gmlhraku/a, the king of mountains. 
At his arrival, he alighted from the tower, and went, 
\vith a necklace of pearls worth a hundred thousands, 
to the place where the Lord was sitting. After 
humbly saluting the feet of the Lord, and circum- 
ambulating him seven times from left to right, he 
offered him the necklace of pearls in token of 
homage, whereafter he said to the Lord: The 
Lord Kamaladalavimalanakshatrari/asankusumitd- 
bh^a, the Tathdgata, &a, inquires after the Lord's 
health, welfare, and sprightliness ; whether he feels 
free from affliction and at ease. That Lord has also 
charged me to ask : Is there something thou hast to 
suffer or allow l ? the humours of the body are not 
in an unfavourable state ? thy creatures are decent 
in manners, tractable, and easy to be healed ? their 
bodies are clean ? They are not too passionate, I 
hope, not too irascible, not too unwise in their doings ? 
They are not jealous, Lord, not envious, not un- 
grateful to their father and mother, not impious, not 
heterodox, not unsubdued in mind, not unrestrained 
in sexual desires ? Are the creatures able to resist 
the Evil One ? Has the Lord Prabhutaratna, the 
TathUgata, &c., who is completely extinct, come to 
the Saha-world in order to hear the law, sitting in 
the centre of a Stftpa made of seven precious sub- 
stances ? And as to that, Lord Prabhfttaratna, the 
Tathagata, &c, the Lord Kamaladalavimalanaksha- 
trar4fasankusumit&bhi^/2a, inquires : Is there some- 

1 Yipanira; it is a usual medical term applied to diseases 
which can be alleviated to a certain extent by means of palliatives, 
but can no longer be cured. It is manifest from the sequel that here 
also the term is derived from medical practice. 


thing that the Lord Prabhtitaratna, &c., has to 
suffer or allow? Is the Lord Prabhfttaratna, &c., 
to stay long? We also, O Lord, are desirous of 
seeing the rudimentary frame 1 of that Lord Pra- 
bhfttaratna, the Tathigata, &c. May the Lord there- 
fore please to show us the rudimentary frame of the 
Lord Prabhdtaratna, the Tathigata, &c. 

Then the Lord .SEikyamuni, the Tathigata, &c., 
said to the Lord Prabhfttaratna, the Tath^gata, Sec., 
who was completely extinct : Lord, the Bodhisattva 
Mahisattva Gadgadasvara here wishes to see the 
Lord Prabhfttaratna, the Tathigata, &c., who is com- 
pletely extinct. Whereon the Lord Prabhfttaratna, 
the Tathigata, &c., spoke to the Bodhisattva Mahd- 
sattva Gadgadasvara in this strain : Well done, well 
done, young gentleman, that thou hast come hither in 
the desire to see the Lord ^kyamuni, the Tathgata, 
&c. ; to hear this Dharmaparyya of the Lotus of the 
True Law, and see Ma%unrt, the prince royal. 

Subsequently the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Pad- 
ma^r! said to the Lord : What root of goodness has 
the Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Gadgadasvara formerly 
planted ? And in presence of which TatMgata ? 
And the Lord SS.kyamuni, the Tathigata, &c., 
said to the Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Padmasrt: In 
the days of yore, young man of good family, at a 
past period 2 there appeared in the world a Tath- 
gata called MeghadundubhisvararS^a (i.e. the king of 
the drum-sound of the clouds), perfectly enlightened, 
endowed with science and conduct, a Sugata, &c., in 

1 Dhdtuvigraha, the frame of the elementary parts, of the bone 

8 In the margin is added the common phrase, e at a time more 
incalculable than incalculable 


the world Sarvabuddhasandamna (i. e. sight or dis- 
play of all Buddhas), in the JEon Priyadanrana. To 
that Lord Meghadundubhisvararifa the Bodhisattva 
Mahasattva Gadgadasvara paid homage by making 
resound hundred thousands of musical instruments 
during twelve thousand years. He presented to him 
also eighty-four thousand vessels of seven precious 
substances. Under the preaching 1 of the TatMgata 
Meghadundubhisvarara^a, young man of good family, 
has the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Gadgadasvara ob- 
tained such a beauty as he now displays. Perhaps, 
young man of good family, thou hast some doubt, 
uncertainty or misgiving, (and thinkest) that at that 
time, that epoch, there was another Bodhisattva Mahd- 
sattva called Gadgadasvara, who paid that homage 
to the Lord Meghadundubhisvarar%a,the Tathigata, 
and presented him the eighty-four thousand vessels. 
But, young man of good family, do not think so. For 
it was the very same Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Gad- 
gadasvara, young man of good family, who paid that 
homage to the Lord Meghadundubhisvarar^a, the 
Tathagata, and presented to him the eighty-four 
thousand vessels. So, young man of good family, the 
Bodhisattva Mahisattva Gadgadasvara has waited 
upon many Buddhas, has planted good roots under 
many Buddhas, and prepared the soil under each of 
them. And this Bodhisattva Mahasattva Gadgada- 
svara had previously seen Lords Buddhas similar to the 
sands of the river Ganges. Dost thou see, Padmasrl, 
how the Bodhisattva Mahlsattva Gadgadasvara now 
looks ? Padmajrl replied : I do, Lord ; I do, Sugata. 
The Lord said: Now, PadmaM, this Bodhisattva 

1 Prava^ane. 


Mahdsattva Gadgadasvara preaches this Dharma- 
pary&ya of the Lotus of the True Law under many 
shapes he assumes ; sometimes l under the shape of 
Brahma, sometimes under that of Indra, sometimes 
under that of .Siva, sometimes under that of Kubera, 
sometimes under that of a sovereign, sometimes 
under that of a duke, sometimes under that of a 
chief merchant, sometimes under that of a citizen, 
sometimes under that of a villager, sometimes under 
that of a Brihman 2 . Sometimes again the Bodhi- 
sattva Mahdsattva Gadgadasvara preaches this 
DharmaparySya of the Lotus of the True Law 
under a monk's shape, sometimes under a nun's, 
sometimes under a male lay devotee's, sometimes 
under a female lay devotee's, sometimes under that 
of a chief merchant's wife, sometimes under that of 
a citizen's wife, sometimes under a boy's, sometimes 
under a girl's shape. With so many variations in 
the manner to show himself 8 , the Bodhisattva Mah- 
sattva Gadgadasvara preaches this DharmaparySya 
of the Lotus of the True Law to creatures. He has 
even assumed the shape of a goblin to preach this 
Dharmaparydya to such as were to be converted by 
a goblin. To some he has preached this Dharma- 
paryiya of the Lotus of the True Law under the 
shape of a demon, to some under a Garu^a's, to some 
under a Kinnara's, to some under a great serpent's 
shape. Even to the beings in any of the wretched 

1 Or somewhere. 

a From this one may infer that Gadgadasvara, i.e. he who has 
an interrupted sound, is V&yu, Trvefyuz, inspiration personified. Ma- 
terially, though not mylhologically, Wind is identical with Rudra, 

8 lyadbht rflpasandawanerypathaii, 

[] D d 


states, in the hells, the brute creation, Yama's realm, 
the Bodhisattva Mah&sattva Gadgadasvara is a sup- 
porter. Even to the creatures in the gynseceums 
of this Saha-world has the Bodhisattva Mahsattva 
Gadgadasvara, after metamorphosing himself into 
a woman, preached this DharmaparyHya of the Lotus 
of the True Law. Verily, Padmasrl, the Bodhisattva 
Mahisattva Gadgadasvara is the supporter of the 
creatures living in this Saha-world 1 . Under so 
many shapes, assumed at will, has the Bodhisattva 
MaMsattva Gadgadasvara preached this Dharma- 
paryiya of the Lotus of the True Law to creatures. 
Yet, there is no diminution of wisdom, nor dimi- 
nution of magic power in that good man 2 . So many, 
young man of good family, are the manifestations of 
knowledge by which this Bodhisattva Mah&sattva 
Gadgadasvara has made himself known in this Saha- 
world. In other worlds also, similar to the sands 
of the river Ganges, he preaches the law, under the 
shape of a Bodhisattva to such as must be converted 
by a Bodhisattva ; under the shape of a disciple to 
such as must be converted by a disciple ; under the 
shape of a Pratyekabuddha to such as must be con- 

1 Vyu, prd#a, breath of life, is the supporter of creatures. 

2 Satpurusha; the real meaning is 'the existing spirit/ air, 
breath, life, which shows itself in a diversity of forms. That living 
breath is not only the supporter of creatures, but also a constant 
admonisher of the transitoriness of life, who addresses his call to 
young and old, sages and fools, &c. The important mystic rite of 
inspiration and expiration is described by Spence Hardy, Eastern 
Monachism, p. 267 ; no less value is attached to pr$#y&ma in the 
Yoga system and in Indian mysticism in general; see e,g Yoga- 
jSstrall, 49~S*5 Sarvadawana-Sangraha, p. 175; the term pin- 
ySma not only denotes stopping of the breath, as the Dictionaries 
explain it, but also the regulation and measuring of the breath. 


verted by a Pratyekabuddha ; under the shape of a 
TathSgata to such as must be converted by a Tathl- 
gata. Nay, he will show to those who must be con- 
verted by a relic of the Tath&gata himself such a 
relic, and to those who must be converted by com- 
plete extinction he will show himself completely 
extinct 1 . Such is the powerful knowledge, Padma^r!, 
the Bodhisattva Mahisattva is possessed of. 

Thereafter the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Padma^ri 
said to the Lord : The Bodhisattva Mahclsattva 
Gadgadasvara then has planted good roots, Lord. 
What meditation is it, Lord, whereby the Bodhisattva 
Mahdsattva Gadgadasvara, with unshaken firmness, 
has converted (or educated) so many creatures? 
Whereupon the Lord ,Skyamuni, the Tathlgata, &c., 
replied to the Bodhisattva Mah&sattva Padma^rl : It 
is, young man of good family, the meditation termed 
Sarvartlpasandamna. By steadiness in it has the 
Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Gadgadasvara so immensely 
promoted the weal of creatures. 

While this chapter of Gadgadasvara was being 
expounded 2 , all the eighty-four hundred thousand 
myriads of kotfs of Bodhisattvas Mahisattvas who, 
along with the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Gadgada- 
svara, had come to the Saha-world, obtained the 

1 Gadgadasvara, being both inspiration and expiration, appears 
under the form of a dead corpse, and thereby converts fickle and 
thoughtless men. 

2 It need not be observed that the chapter was not expounded, 
the Buddha being one of the dramatis persons, one of the in- 
terlocutors, but not the narrator. This confusion between epical 
and dramatical exposition is one of the most striking features of 
the Lotus. The Saddharma, the law of nature, may be said to 
have been expounded by the Tathdgata, not, however, the com- 
position which bears that title. 

D d 2 



meditation Sarvartipasandarrana, and as to the num- 
ber of Bodhisattvas MaMsattvas of this Saha-world 
obtaining the meditation Sarvartipasandaryana, it 
was beyond calculation. 

Then the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Gadgadasvara, 
after having paid great and ample worship to the 
Lord Skyamuni, the Tathigata, &c., and at the 
Stftpa of relics of the Lord Prabhfttaratna, the Tathi- 
gata, &c., again mounted the tower made of seven 
precious substances, among the stir of the fields, the 
rain of lotuses, the noise of hundred thousands of 
myriads of ko/is of musical instruments 1 , and with 
the eighty-four hundred thousand myriads of kotfs of 
Bodhisattvas surrounding and following him, returned 
to his own Buddha-field. At his arrival there he said 
to the Lord Kamaladalavimalanakshatrar^asanku- 
sumitdbh^a, the Tath&gata, &c. : O Lord, I have 
in the Saha-world promoted the weal of creatures ; I 
have seen and saluted the Sttipa of relics of the Lord 
Prabhfttaratna, the Tathigata, &c. ; I have seen and 
saluted the Lord .SUkyamuni, the TathSgata, &c. ; I 
have seen Ma^fosrt, the prince royal, as well as the 
Bodhisattva Bhaisha^yar^a, who is possessed of 
mighty knowledge and impetuosity 2 , and the Bodhi- 
sattva Mahdsattva Prad&narflra; and these eighty- 
four hundred thousand myriads of kotfs of Bodhi- 

* After a last effort the storm subsides. 

a This quality stamps Bhaishagyar^a as Rudra; cf. Rig-veda II, 
33, 7. He is essentially the same with Dhanvantari the physician, 
Arcitenens Apollo. He is, moreover, the same with Gadgadasvara, 
who is represented as breath of life. About the system of splitting 
up one natural phenomenon or abstraction into more beings, 
see p. 4, note. 


sattvas MahHsattvas have all obtained the meditation 
termed Sarvarftpasandarcana. 

And while this relation of the going and coming 
of the Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Gadgadasvara was 
being delivered, forty-two thousand Bodhisattvas 
acquired the faculty of acquiescence in future things, 
and the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Padma-nri acquired 
the meditation called the Lotus of the True Law. 




Thereafter the Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Aksha- 
yamati rose from his seat, put his upper robe upon 
one shoulder, stretched his joined hands towards 
the Lord, and said: For what reason, O Lord, is 
the Bodhisattva Mahlsattva Avalokite^vara called 
Avalokitesvara ? So he asked, and the Lord an- 
swered to the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Akshayamati : 
All the hundred thousands of myriads of koris of 
creatures, young man of good family, who in this 
world are suffering troubles will, if they hear the 
name of the Bodhisattva MaMsattva Avalokitesvara, 
be released from that mass of troubles. Those who 
shall keep the name of this Bodhisattva Mahisattva 
AvalokitCsTvara, young man of good family, will, if 
they fall into a great mass of fire, be delivered 
therefrom by virtue of the lustre of the Bodhisattva 
Mahisattva. In case, young man of good family, 
creatures, carried off by the current of rivers, should 
implore the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Avalokitewara, 
all rivers will afford them a ford. In case, young man 
of good family, many hundred thousand myriads of 
ko/is of creatures, sailing in a ship on the ocean, 

1 A translation of this chapter from the Chinese has been 
published by Rev. S. Beal in his Catena, pp. 389-396, 


should see their bullion, gold, gems, pearls, lapis lazuli, 
conch shells, stones (?), corals, emeralds, Mus&ragal- 
vas, read pearls (?), and other goods lost, and the 
ship by a vehement, untimely gale cast on the island 
of Giantesses 1 , and if in that ship a single being 
implores Avalokitewara, all will be saved from that 
island of Giantesses. For that reason, young man 
of good family, the Bodhisattva MaMsattva Avalo- 
kite,rvara is named Avalokitesvara 2 . 

If a man given up to capital punishment 3 im- 
plores Avalokitesvara, young man of good family, 
the swords of the executioners shall snap asunder 4 . 
Further, young man of good family, if the whole 
triple chiliocosm were teeming with goblins and 
giants, they would by virtue of the name of the 
Bodhisattva Mah&sattva Avalokite,svara being pro- 
nounced lose the faculty of sight in their wicked 
designs a . If some creature, young man of good 

1 In the K&ramfa-vyftha, a work entirely devoted to the glorifi- 
cation of Avalokitewara and his sublime achievements, the isle 
of the Giantesses is identified with Ceylon ; see pp. 45 and 53 of 
that work (Calcutta edition), and the extract given by Burnouf, 
Introduction, pp. 221-227. 

2 Avalokita means 'beheld;' it is as such synonymous with 
drzsh/a, seen, visible, and pratyaksha, visible, manifest, present. 
The Bodhisattva is everywhere present, and therefore implored in 
need and danger. If we take avalokita as a substantive in the 
neuter gender, the compound will mean 'the Lord of view, of 
regard, 1 with which one may compare <Siva's epithet Dnsh/iguru, 
the Master of view. 

3 Vadhyotsish/a; I do not feel certain of the rendering of 
u&&ish/a; perhaps we should translate it by ' a reprobate con- 
demned to capital punishment* 

* Vadhyaghdtakanaflz tdni sastrdni (sic) viViryeyu^. 
6 It is well known that those children of darkness are unable to 
stand the sun's light 


family, shall be bound in wooden or iron manacles, 
chains or fetters, be he guilty or innocent, then 
those manacles, chains or fetters shall give way as 
soon as the name of the Bodhisattva Mahisattva 
Avalokite^vara is pronounced. Such, young man of 
good family, is the power of the Bodhisattva Mahi- 
sattva Avalokite^vara. If this whole triple chilio- 
cosm, young man of good family, were teeming with 
knaves, enemies, and robbers armed with swords, 
and if a merchant leader of a caravan marched with 
a caravan rich in jewels; if then they perceived 
those robbers, knaves, and enemies armed with 
swords, and in their anxiety and fright thought 
themselves helpless ; if, further, that leading mer- 
chant spoke to the caravan in this strain : Be not 
afraid, young gentlemen, be not frightened ; invoke, 
all of you, with one voice the Bodhisattva Mah- 
sattva Avalokite^vara, the giver of safety; then you 
shall be delivered from this danger by which you 
are threatened at the hands of robbers and enemies ; 
if then the whole caravan with one voice invoked 
A valokite^vara with the words : Adoration, adoration 
be to the giver of safety, to A valokitesvara Bodhisattva 
Mahasattva I then, by the mere act of pronouncing 
that name, the caravan would be released from all 
danger. Such, young man of good family, is the 
power of the Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Avalokite- 
^vara. In case creatures act under the impulse 
of impure passion, young man of good family, they 
will, after adoring the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Ava- 
lokitervara, be freed from passion. Those who act 
under the impulse of hatred will, after adoring the 
Bodhisattva Mahisattva Avalokitervara, be freed 
from hatred. Those who act under the impulse of 


infatuation will, after adoring the Bodhisattva Mahd- 
sattva Avalokitesvara, be freed from infatuation. So 
mighty, young man of good family, is the Bodhisattva 
MaMsattva Avalokitewara. If a woman, desirous 
of male offspring, young man of good family, adores 
the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, she shall get a son, 
nice, handsome, and beautiful ; one possessed of the 
characteristics of a male child, generally beloved and 
winning, who has planted good roots 1 . If a woman 
is desirous of getting a daughter, a nice, handsome, 
beautiful girl shall be born to her ; one possessed of 
the (good) characteristics of a girl 2 , generally beloved 
and winning, who has planted good roots. Such, 
young man of good family, is the power of the Bodhi- 
sattva Mahdsattva Avalokite^vara. 

Those who adore the Bodhisattva Mah&sattva 
Avalokitervara will derive from it an unfailing profit. 
Suppose, young man of good family, (on one hand) 
some one adoring the Bodhisattva Mah&sattva Ava- 
lokitervara and cherishing his name ; (on the other 
hand) another adoring a number of Lords Buddhas 
equal to sixty-two times the sands of the river 
Ganges 3 , cherishing their names and worshipping so 
many Lords Buddhas during their stay, existence, 
and life, by giving robes, alms-bowls, couches, medi- 
caments for the sick; how great is then in thine 
opinion, young man of good family, the accumulation 
of pious merit which that young gentleman or young 
lady will produce in consequence of it ? So asked, 

1 We should rather say : in whom a good natural disposition is 

2 In the margin added paramay mbhavar apushkalatayfi, 
(and) of an egregiously blooming complexion. 



the Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Akshayamati said to the 
Lord : Great, O Lord, great, O Sugata, is the pious 
merit which that young gentleman or young lady 
will produce in consequence of it. The Lord pro- 
ceeded : Now, young man of good family, the accu- 
mulation of pious merit produced by that young 
gentleman paying homage to so many Lords Bud- 
dhas, and the accumulation of pious merit produced 
by him who performs were it but a single act of 
adoration to the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Avaloki- 
tesvara and cherishes his name, are equal. He 
who adores a number of Lords Buddhas equal to 
sixty-two times the sands of the river Ganges and 
cherishes their names, and he who adores the Bodhi- 
sattva Mahisattva Avalokitesvara and cherishes his 
name, have an equal accumulation of pious merit 1 ; 
both masses of pious merit are not easy to be de- 
stroyed even in hundred thousands of myriads of 
kofiB of JEons. So immense, young man of good 
family, is the pious merit resulting from cherishing 
the name of the Bodhisattva MahSsattva Avalo- 

Again the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Akshayamati 
said to the Lord : How, O Lord, is it that the Bodhi- 
sattva Mahasattva Avalokitesvarafrequents this Saha- 
world? And how does he preach the law ? And which 
is the range of the skilfulness of the Bodhisattva 
Mahasattva Avalokite^vara ? So asked, the Lord re- 
plied to the Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Akshayamati : 
In some worlds, young man of good family, the 
Bodhisattva Mahasattva Avalokite^vara preaches 
the law to creatures in the shape of a Buddha; 

1 Burnouf has followed a text of greater length. 


in others he does so in the shape of a Bodhi- 
sattva. To some beings he shows the law in the 
shape of a Pratyekabuddha ; to others he does 
so in the shape of a disciple; to others again 
under that of Brahma, Indra, or a Gandharva. To 
those who are to be converted by a goblin, he 
preaches the law assuming the shape of a goblin; to 
those who are to be converted by l^vara, he preaches 
the law in the shape of tsvara ; to those who are to 
be converted by Mahe^vara, he preaches assuming 
the shape of Mahesvara. To those who are to be 
converted by a ^Takravartin 1 , he shows the law 
after assuming the shape of a jSTakravartin ; to 
those who are to be converted by an imp, he shows 
the law under the shape of an imp ; to those who 
are to be converted by Kubera, he shows the law by 
appearing in the shape of Kubera ; to those who are 
to be converted by Senipati 2 , he preaches in the 
shape of Senfipati ; to those who are to be con- 
verted by assuming a Brahman 3 , he preaches in 
the shape of a Brahman; to those who are 
to be converted by Va^rapA^i 4 , he preaches in 
the shape of Vagrapi^i 5 . With such inconceivable 
qualities, young man of good family, is the Bodhi- 

1 This term is ambiguous ; it means both ' the mover of the 
wheel,' i.e. Vish#u, and 'an emperor.' 

2 Ambiguous; the word denotes both 'the commander-in-chief 
of the army of the gods, Skanda/ and ' a commander-in-chief in 

8 The Brahman may be Bnhaspati. 

* Vg^rapa^i is the name of one of the Dhy&iibuddhas, and of 
certain geniuses, and an epithet of Indra. 

5 The functions of Avalokite^vara, as it appears from these pas- 
sages, agree with those of Gadgadasvara mentioned in the fore- 
going chapter. Both beings have many qualities in common, just 
as *$iva and Vishmi have. 


sattva Mahasattva Avalokite^vara endowed 1 . There- 
fore then, young man of good family, honour the 
Bodhisattva Mahasattva Avalokite^vara. The Bodhi- 
sattva Mahasattva Avalokite^vara, young man of 
good family, affords safety to those who are in 
anxiety. On that account one calls him in this 
Saha-world Abhayandada (L e. Giver of Safety). 

Further, the Bodhisattva Mah^sattva Akshaya- 
mati said to the Lord : Shall we give a gift of piety, 
a decoration of piety, O Lord, to the Bodhisattva 
Mahasattva Avalokitesvara ? The Lord replied : Do 
so, if thou thinkest it opportune- Then the Bodhi- 
sattva Mahisattva Akshayamati took from his neck 
a pearl necklace, worth a hundred thousand (gold 
pieces), and presented it to the Bodhisattva Mahi- 
sattva Avalokite5vara as a decoration of piety, with 
the words : Receive from me this decoration of piety, 
good man. But he would not accept it. Then the 
Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Akshayamati said to the 
Bodhisattva Mahisattva Avalokiterrara ; Out of 
compassion to us, young man of good family, accept 
this pearl necklace. Then the Bodhisattva Mahd- 
sattva Avalokite^vara accepted the pearl necklace 
from the Bodhisattva MaMsattva Akshayamati, 
out of compassion to the Bodhisattva Mahisattva 
Akshayamati and the four classes, and out of com- 
passion to the gods, Nigas, goblins, Gandharvas, 
demons, Garu^as, Kinnaras, great serpents, men, 
and beings not human. Thereafter he divided (the 
necklace) into two parts, and offered one part to 
the Lord 6kyamuni, and the other to the jewel 
Sttipa of the Lord Prabhtltaratna, the TatMgata, &c., 
who had become completely extinct. 

1 Burnouf has followed another reading. 


With such a faculty of transformation, young man 
of good family, the Bodhisattva Mah&sattva Avalo- 
kitervara is moving in this Saha-world. 

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the follow- 
ing stanzas : 

1. -STitradhva^ia asked Akshayamati the following 
question : For what reason, son of Gina, is Avaloki- 
te.rvara (so) called l ? 

2. And Akshayamati, that ocean of profound in- 
sight, after considering how the matter stood 2 , spoke 
to ufifitradhva^u : Listen to the conduct of Avaloki- 

3. Hear from my indication how for numerous, 
inconceivable JEons he has accomplished his vote 
under many thousand ko/is of Buddhas. 

4. Hearing, seeing, regularly and constantly 
thinking 8 will infallibly destroy all suffering, (mun- 
dane) existence, and grief of living beings here on 

5. If one be thrown into a pit of fire, by a wicked 
enemy with the object of killing him, he has but 
to think of Avalokite^vara, and the fire shall be 
quenched as if sprinkled with water, 

6. If one happens to fall into the dreadful ocean, 
the abode of NSgas, marine monsters, and demons, 
he has but to think of Avalokitesvara, and he shall 
never sink down in the king of waters *. 

1 It will be observed that this poetical version here entirely 
differs from the preceding prose introduction. As to the name of 
JTitradhva^a, I have not met with it elsewhere. 

2 TdnVata vilokiyft. 

8 Of whom or what? is not expressed. From the sequel one 
might be tempted to infer that Avalokite^vara, or the exposition of 
his power, is the object of hearing, &c. 

4 Smarato (for smaratu), Avalobtemrawgular^e na kad&Ji sidati. 


7. If a man happens to be hurled down from the 
brink of the Meru, by some wicked person with the 
object of killing him, he has but to think of Ava- 
lokitesvara, and he shall, sunlike, stand firm in 

the sky 1 . 

8. If rocks of thunderstone and thunderbolts are 
thrown at a mans head to kill him, he has but to 
think of Avalokitervara, and they shall not be able 
to hurt one hair of the body. 

9. If a man be surrounded by a host of enemies 
armed with swords, who have the intention of killing 
him, he has but to think of Avalokite^vara, and they 
shall instantaneously become kind-hearted. 

10. If a man, delivered to the power of the execu- 
tioners, is already standing at the place of execution, 
he has but to think of Avalokitesvara, and their 
swords shall go to pieces. 

n. If a person happens to be fettered in shackles 
of wood or iron, he has but to think of Avalokite- 
svara, and the bonds shall be speedily loosened. 

12. Mighty spells, witchcraft, herbs, ghosts, and 
spectres, pernicious to life, revert thither whence 
they come, when one thinks of Avalokitesvara. 

13. If a man is surrounded by goblins, Ndgas, 
demons, ghosts, or giants, who are in the habit of 
taking away bodily vigour, he has but to think of 
Avalokitesvara, and they shall not be able to hurt 
one hair of his body 2 . 

1 Smarato Avalokite^varo (r.rajw) sftryabhfttaz (r. to) va nabhe 
pratisfatfati. I have taken the liberty of translating pratish/^ati 
as if the text had pr atitish/Aati. The version of Beal has * stand 
in space, fixed as the sun.' 

8 Here I have followed the marginal reading, which agrees with 
Burnouf s. The older text has instead of thirteen and fourteea 
bat one stanza, the translation of which runs thus : ' If, &c, sur- 


14. If a man is surrounded by fearful beasts with 
sharp teeth and claws, he has burto think of Avalo- 
kitervara, and they shall quickly fly in all directions. 

15. If a man is surrounded by snakes malicious 
and frightful on account of the flames and fires (they 
emit), he has but to think of Avalokite^vara, and 
they shall quickly lose their poison. 

1 6. If a heavy thunderbolt shoots from a cloud 
pregnant with lightning and thunder, one has but 
to think of Avalokitesvara, and the fire of heaven 
shall quickly, instantaneously be quenched. 

17. He (Avalokitesvara) with his powerful know- 
ledge beholds all creatures who are beset with 
many hundreds of troubles and afflicted by many 
sorrows, and thereby is a saviour in the world, in- 
cluding the gods. 

1 8. As he is thoroughly practised in the power 
of magic, and possessed of vast knowledge and skil- 
fulness, he shows himself 1 in all directions and in 
all regions of the world. 

19. Birth, decrepitude, and disease will come to 
an end for those who are in the wretched states of 
existence, in hell, in brute creation, in the kingdom 
of Yama, for all beings (in general 2 ). 

[Then Akshayamati in the joy of his heart uttered 
the following stanzas 3 :] 

20. thou whose eyes are clear, whose eyes are 

rounded by Ngas, marine monsters, demons, ghosts, or giants he 
has, &c., and they shall quickly fly in all directions/ 

1 Drzsyate. 

2 We have to understand: in consequence of the conduct of the 
great Avalokite^vara. 

8 The words in brackets have been added in the margin by a 
later hand. 


kind, distinguished by wisdom and knowledge, whose 
eyes are full of pity and benevolence ; thou so lovely 
by thy beautiful face and beautiful eyes ! 

2 1 . Pure one, whose shine is spotless bright, whose 
knowledge is free from darkness, thou shining as the 
sun, not to be beaten away, radiant as the blaze of 
fire, thou spreadest in thy flying course thy lustre in 
the world 1 . 

22. O thou who rejoicest in kindness having its 
source in compassion, thou great cloud of good 
qualities and of benevolent mind 2 , thou quenchest 
the fire that vexes living beings, thou pourest out 
nectar, the rain of the law. 

23. In quarrel 3 , dispute, war, battle, in any great 
danger one has to think of Avalokitesvara, who shall 
quell the wicked troop of foes. 

24. One should think of Avalokitervara, whose 
sound is as the cloud's and the drum's, who thunders 
like a rain-cloud, possesses a good voice like Brahma, 
(a voice) going through the whole gamut of tones. 

25. Think, O think with tranquil mood of Avalo- 
kitervara, that pure being ; he is a protector, a refuge, 
a recourse in death, disaster, and calamity. 

26. He who possesses the perfection of all virtues, 
and beholds all beings with compassion and bene- 
volence, he, an ocean of virtues, Virtue itself, he, 
Avalokite^vara, is worthy of adoration. 

1 AparShata anils^alaprabM (voc. case) prapatento ugatf viro- 
asi. For anila^ala I read anala^ala (Sansk. anala^vala). Cf. 
Kara^a-vyuha, p. 43: Athfoydvalokitesvaro ^valad iv%nipi<7am 

mahdghansl (voc.) 
3 Kalahe. 


27. He, so compassionate for the world, shall once 
become a Buddha, destroying all dangers and sor- 
rows 1 ; I humbly bow to Avalokite^vara. 

28. This universal Lord, chief of kings, who is a 
(rich) mine of monastic virtues, he, universally wor- 
shipped, has reached pure, supreme enlightenment, 
after plying his course (of duty) during many hun- 
dreds of ^Eons, 

29. At one time standing to the right, at another 
to the left of the Chief Amit&bha, whom he is fan- 
ning, he, by dint of meditation, like a phantom, in all 
regions honours the ina. 

30. In the west, where the pure world Sukhdkara 2 
is situated, there the Chief Amitabha, the tamer of 
men 8 , has his fixed abode. 

31. There no women are to be found; there 
sexual intercourse is absolutely unknown ; there the 
sons of 6ina, on springing into existence by appari- 
tional birth, are sitting in the undefiled cups of 

32. And the Chief Amit&bha himself is seated on 
a throne in the pure and nice cup of a lotus, and 
shines as the ^la-king 4 . 

1 The present will make room for the future, life will end in 
death , the living Avalokite^vara will pass into the state of Buddha, 
al. Dharmara^a, Le. Death, the great physician. 

2 I. e. procuring bliss or tranquillity; the more common name is 
Sukh^vatt. In Greek and Roman mythology we find the Insulae 
Fortunatae and the gardens of the Hespendae lying in the same 

8 From this it appears that Amitdbha or Amityus is but another 
name of Yama, and just as Yama also governs the planet Saturn, 
it may be held that Amitibha, as one of the five Dhyini-Buddhas, 
among his other offices, is invested with the dignity of being the 
ruler of Saturn. 

* I do not understand the meaning of this compound. In the 
fail E e 


33. The Leader of the world, whose store of merit 
has been praised, has no equal in the triple world. 
O supreme of men, let us soon become like thee ! 

Thereupon the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Dhara- 
#indhara rose from his seat, put his upper robe upon 
one shoulder, fixed his right knee against the earth, 
stretched his joined hands towards the Lord and 
said : They must be possessed of not a few good 
roots, O Lord, who are to hear this chapter from 
the Dharmaparyiya about the Bodhisattva MahU- 
sattva Avalokitesvara and this miraculous power of 
transformation of the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Ava- 

And while this chapter of the All-sided One was 
being expounded by the Lord, eighty-four thousand 
living beings from that assembly felt their minds 
drawn to that supreme and perfect enlightenment, 
with which nothing else can be compared ! . 

next following chapter we shall meet with a TatMgata named 
alendrai%a, i.e. king of the *Sala-chiefs. 

1 Asamasama, Burnouf takes it as e qui est 6gal a ce qui n'a 
pas dVgal/ The term also occurs Lalita-vistara, p. 114, 1. 9. 




Thereupon the Lord addressed the entire assem- 
blage of Bodhisattvas : Of yore, young men of good 
family, at a past epoch, incalculable, more than in- 
calculable JEons ago, at that time there appeared 
in the world a Tathigata named ^aladharagar^ta- 
ghoshasusvaranakshatrar^asankusumitdbhif^a, an 
Arhat, &c., endowed with science and conduct, &c. 
&c., in the JEon Priyadarsana, in the world Vairo&i- 
naraOTiipratima^rfita. Now, there was, young men of 
good family, under the spiritual rule of the TatM- 
gata (^aladharagarfitaghoshasusvaranakshatrar^ia- 
sankusumitbhi72a a king called Subhavyflha. That 
king .Subhavytiha, young men of good family, had 
a wife called Vimaladattd, and two sons, one called 
Vimalagarbha, the other Vimalanetra. These two 
boys, who possessed magical power and wisdom 2 , 
applied themselves to the course of duty of 
Bodhisattvas, viz. to the perfect virtues (P&rami- 
ts) of almsgiving, morality, forbearance, energy, 
meditation, wisdom, and skilfulness; they were 
accomplished in benevolence, compassion, joyful 
sympathy and indifference, and in all the thirty- 

1 PArvayoga; rather, ancient history; cf. p. 153. 
a In the margin sundry epithets have been added, which here 
are omitted. 

E e 2 


seven constituents of true knowledge l . They had 
perfectly mastered the meditation Vimala (i.e. spot- 
less), the meditation Nakshatrar^aditya 2 ,the medita- 
tion Vimalanirbhasa, the meditation Vimalabhdsa, the 
meditation Alankdrasura 3 , the meditation Mah^te^o- 
garbha 4 . Now at that time, that period the said 
Lord preached the Dharmaparyiya of the Lotus of 
the True Law out of compassion for the beings then 
living and for the king Subhavyuha. Then, young 
men of good family, the two young princes Vimala- 
garbha and Vimalanetra went to their mother, to 
whom they said, after stretching their joined hands : 
We should like to go, mother, to the Lord aladha- 
ragarf it aghoshasus varanakshatrari/a s a n k u sumitd - 
bhi7la, the TatMgata, &c., and that, mother, because 
the Lord Caladharagar/itaghoshasusvaranakshatra- 
ra^asahkusumitabhi^la, the Tathdgata, &c., ex- 
pounds, in great extension, before the world, In- 
cluding the gods, the DharmaparyAya of the Lotus of 
the True Law. We should like to hear it. Whereupon 
the queen VimaladattA said to the two young princes 
Vimalagarbha and Vimalanetra: Your father, young 
gentlemen, the king .Subhavytiha, favours the Brah- 

1 Bodhipakshika or Bodhapakshika (dharms). They foim part 
of the 108 Dharmalokamukhas in Lalita-vistara, p. 36, 1. if-p 38, 
1.6; an enumeration of them is found in Spence Hardy's Manual 
of Buddhism, p. 497. 

2 Burnouf s reading is Nakshatrat&Htr&^aditya, i.e. the Sun, 
king of stars and asterisms. 

5 So Burnouf; my MS. has Alankdrajubha, i.e. splendid with 

* I.e. having great lustre in the interior, or womb of great lustre. 
Nirmalanirbh&sa may mean both 'spotless radiance * and 'having 
a spotless radiance;* Vimalabh^sa, 'spotless shine/ or 'having a 
spotless shine/ 


mans. Therefore you will not obtain the permission 
to go and see the TathSgata. Then the two young 
princes Vimalagarbha and Vimalanetra, stretching 
their joined hands, said to their mother: Though 
born in a family that adheres to a false doctrine, we 
feel as sons to the king of the law. Then, young 
men of good family, the queen Vimaladattl said to 
the young princes : Well, young gentlemen, out of 
compassion for your father, the king .Subhavyftha, 
display some miracle, that he may become favourably 
inclined to you, and on that account grant you the 
permission of going to the Lord (^aladharagar^ita- 
ghoshasusvaranakshatrard^asankusumitdbhi^a, the 
TathaLgata, &c. 

Immediately the young princes Vimalagarbha and 
Vimalanetra rose into the atmosphere to a height of 
seven Til trees l and performed miracles such as are 
allowed by the Buddha, out of compassion for their 
father, the king .Subhavytiha. They prepared in the 
sky a couch and raised dust ; there they also emitted 
from the lower part of their body a shower of rain, 
and from the upper part a mass of fire ; then again 
they emitted from the upper part of their body a 
shower of rain, and from the lower part a mass of 
fire 2 . While in -the firmament they became now big, 
then small ; and now small, then big. Then they 
vanished from the sky to come up again from the 
earth and reappear in the air. Such, young men of 
good family, were the miracles produced by the 

3 Or seven spans, whatever may be meant by it, 
8 A similar miracle was performed by the Buddha, according to 
the traditions of the Southern Buddhists, when he had to show his 
superiority to the six heretical doctors; see Bigancfet, Life of 
Gaudama, vol. i, p. 218. 


magical power of the two young princes, whereby 
their father, the king .Subhavytiha, was converted. 
At the sight of the miracle produced by the magical 
power of the two young princes, the king vSubha- 
vyftha was content, in high spirits, ravished, rejoiced, 
joyful, and happy, and, the joined hands raised, 
he said to the boys : Who is your master, young 
gentlemen ? whose pupils are you ? And the two 
young princes answered the king .Subhavytiha : 
There is, noble king, there exists and lives 
a Lord Galadharagar^itaghoshasusvaranakshatrari- 
^asankusumitlbhi/#a, a Tathdgata, &c.; seated on 
the stool of law at the foot of the tree of enlighten- 
ment ; he extensively reveals the Dharmaparyaya 
of the Lotus of the True Law to the world, 
including the gods. That Lord is our Master, O 
noble king ; we are his pupils. Then, young gentle- 
men of good family, the king 5ubhavyftha said to 
the young princes : I will see your Master, young 
gentlemen ; I am to go myself to the presence of 
that Lord, 

After the two young princes had descended from 
the sky, young gentlemen, they went to their mother 
and with joined hands stretched forward said to 
her: Mother, we have converted our father to 
supreme and perfect knowledge ; we have performed 
the office of masters towards him; therefore let us go 
now ; we wish to enter upon the ecclesiastical life in 
the face of the Lord. And on that occasion, young 
men of good family, the young princes Vimalagarbha 
and Vimalanetra addressed their mother in the 
following two stanzas: 

i. Allow us, O mother, to go forth from home 
and to embrace the houseless life; ay, we will 


become ascetics, for rare to be met with (or precious) 
is a Tathigata. 

2. As the blossom of the glomerated fig-tree, nay, 
more rare is the <ina. Let us depart ; we will 
renounce the world; the favourable moment is 
precious (or not often to be met with). 

Vimaladatti said : 

3, Now I grant you leave; go, my children, I 
give my consent. I myself will likewise renounce 
the world, for rare to be met with (or precious) is 
a Tath&gata. 

Having uttered these stanzas, young men of good 
family, the two young princes said to their parents : 
Pray, father and mother, you also go together with 
us to the Lord ^aladharagar^itaghoshasusvarana- 
kshatrari^asankusumitibhi^;1a,the Tathigata, &c., in 
order to see, humbly salute and wait upon him, and to 
hear the law. For, father and mother, the appearance 
of a Buddha is rare to be met with as the blossom 
of the glomerated fig-tree, as the entering of the tor- 
toise's neck into the hole of the yoke formed by the 
great ocean l . The appearance of Lords Buddhas, 
father and mother, is rare. Hence, father and 
mother, it is a happy lot we have been blessed with, 
to have been born at the time of such a prophet. 
Therefore, father and mother, give us leave; we 
would go and become ascetics in presence 2 of the 
Lord Galadharagar^taghoshasusvaranakshatrari^- 
sankusumitclbhif^a, the Tathigata, &c., for the 

1 I am as unable to elucidate this comparison as Burnouf was. 
Not unlikely the mythological tortoise in its quality of supporter of 
the earth is alluded to. 

* SakS^e; Burnouf has ' sous 1'enseignement' (si sane), which 
is the more usual phrase. 


seeing of a TatMgata is something rare. Such a 
king of the law is rarely met with ; such a favourable 
occasion 1 is rarely met with. 

Now at that juncture, young men of good family, 
the eighty-four thousand women of the harem of the 
king^ubhavytiha became worthy of being receptacles 
of this Dharmaparyiyaofthe Lotus of the True Law. 
The young prince Vimalanetra exercised himself in 
this Dharmaparyiya, whereas the young prince Vi- 
malagarbha for many hundred thousand myriads of 
ko/is of JEons practised the meditation Sarvasattva- 
p&pafahana 2 , with the object that all beings should 
abandon all evils. And the mother of the two 
young princes, the queen Vimaladattd, acknowledged 
the harmony between all Buddhas and all topics 
treated by them 3 . Then, young men of good family, 
the king .Subhavytiha, having been converted to the 
law of the Tathdgata by the instrumentality of the 
two young princes, having been initiated and brought 
to full maturity in it, along with all his relations and 
retinue; the queen Vimaladattd with the whole 
crowd of women in her suite, and the two young 
princes, the sons of the king -Subhavyftha, accom- 
panied by forty-two thousand living beings, along 
with the women of the harem and the ministers, 
went all together and unanimously to the Lord (Jala- 
tbhi#a, the Tathdgatha, &c. On arriving at the 
place where the Lord was, they humbly saluted his 

1 Idr/Vf ksha#asampad. 

8 Le. means whereby (all) evfls are abandoned by all creatures. 
8 SarvabuddhasthdnSni; in the margin added the word for 


feet, circumambulated him three times from left to 
right and took their stand at some distance. 

Then, young men of good family, the Lord (rala- 
tfibhi^/Za, the Tathdgata, &c., perceiving the king 
.Subhavyftha, who had arrived with his retinue, in- 
structed, roused, excited, and comforted him with a 
sermon. And the king .Subhavyftha, young .men of 
good family, after he had been well and duly in- 
structed, roused, excited, and comforted by the sermon 
of the Lord, was so content, glad, ravished, joyful, 
rejoiced, and delighted, that he put his diadem on 
the head of his younger brother and established him 
in the government, whereafter he himself with his 
sons, kinsmen, and retinue, as well as the queen Vima- 
ladatti and her numerous train of women, the two 
young princes accompanied by forty-two * thousand 
living beings went all together and unanimously 
forth from home to embrace the houseless life, 
prompted as they were by their faith in the preach- 
ing of the Lord C^aladharagar^itaghoshasusvarana- 
kshatrard^asankusumitdbhi^a, the TatMgata, &c. 
Having become an ascetic, the king .Subhavyftha, 
with his retinue, remained for eighty-four thousand 
years applying himself to studying, meditating, and 
thoroughly penetrating this Dharmaparyya of the 
Lotus of the True Law. At the end of those eighty- 
four thousand years, young men of good family, the 
king .Stibhavyftha acquired the meditation termed 
Sarvagu^dlankdravyftha 2 , No sooner had he ao 

1 Burnouf has eighty-four, but this must be a faulty reading, 
because the number of forty-two agrees with that given above, 

* L e. collocation (or disposition) of the ornaments of all 
good qualities. 


quired that meditation, than he rose seven Tils up 
to the sky, and while staying in the air, young men 
of good family, the king .Siibhavytiha said to the 
Lord Caladharagar^itaghoshasusvaranakshatrard^a- 
sankusumitibhi^/Za, the Tathigata, &c. : My two 
sons, O Lord, are my masters, since it is owing to the 
miracle produced by their magical power that I have 
been diverted from that great heap of false doc- 
trines, been established in the command of the Lord, 
brought to full ripeness in it, introduced to it, and 
exhorted to see the Lord. They have acted as 
true friends to me, O Lord, those two young princes 
who as sons were born in my house, certainly to 
remind me of my former roots of goodness. 

At these words the Lord ^aladharagarjdtagho- 
shasusvaranakshatrara^asankusumitdbh^-;1a, the Ta- 
thigata, &c., spoke to the king .Subhavyftha : It is 
as thou sayest, noble king. Indeed, noble king, such 
young men or young ladies of good family as possess 
roots of goodness, will in any existence, state, descent, 
rebirth or place l easily find true friends, who with 
them shall perform the task of a master 2 , who shall 
admonish, introduce, fully prepare them to obtain 
supreme and perfect enlightenment. It is an exalted 
position, noble king, the office of a true friend who 
rouses (another) to see the Tathigata. Dost thou 
see these two young princes, noble king? I do, 
Lord; I do, Sugata, said the king. The Lord 

1 BhavagatMyutyupapattyftyataneshu. Burnouf must have 
read bhagava^yu or something like it, for he translates- <qui 
sont n& dans les lieux o4 se sont accomplies la naissance et la 
mort d'un Bienheureux.' 

2 Lc. of a teacher, jftstr/kntycna. 


proceeded : Now, these two young gentlemen, noble 
king, will pay worship to sixty-five (times the 
number of) Tathdgatas, &c., equal to the sands of 
the Ganges ; they will keep this Dharmaparyya of 
the Lotus of the True Law, out of compassion for 
beings who hold false doctrines, and with the aim to 
produce in those beings an earnest striving after the 
right doctrine. 

Thereupon, young men of good family, the king 
6ubhavytiha came down from die sky, and, having 
raised his joined hands, said to the Lord Gala- 
tibhif #a, the Tathgata, Sec. : Please, Lord, deign to 
tell me, what knowledge the Tathfigata is possessed 
of, so that the protuberance on his head is shining ; 
that the Lord's eyes are so clear ; that between his 
brows the Or#& (circle of hair) is shining, resembling 
in whiteness the moon ; that in his mouth a row 
of equal and close-standing teeth is glittering ; that 
the Lord has lips red as the Bimba and such beau- 
tiful eyes. 

As the king .Subhavytiha, young men of good 
family, had celebrated the Lord (Jaladharagar^ita- 
ghoshasusvaranakshatrar^asankusumitdbhi^wa, the 
Tath&gata,&c., by enumerating so many good qualities 
and hundred thousands of myriads of koris of other 
good qualities besides, he said to the Lord ^aladhara- 
^$a, the TatMgata, &c. : It is wonderful, O Lord, how 
valuable the Tath&gata's teaching is, and with how 
many inconceivable virtues the religious discipline 
proclaimed by the Tathigata is attended ; how bene- 
ficial the moral precepts proclaimed by the Tath&- 
gata are* From henceforward, Lord, we will no 



more be slaves to our own mind ; no more be 
slaves to false doctrine ; no more slaves to rashness; 
no more slaves to the sinful thoughts arising in us. 
Being possessed of so many good qualities, O Lord, 
I do not wish to go away from the presence of the 
Lord 1 . 

After humbly saluting the feet of the Lord Cala- 
tdbhi^a, the Tath&gata, &c., the king rose up to the 
sky and there stood. Thereupon the king .Subha- 
vyuha and the queen Vimaladatti from the sky, threw 
a pearl necklace worth a hundred thousand (gold 
pieces) upon the Lord ; and that pearl necklace no 
sooner came down upon the head of the Lord than it 
assumed the shape of a tower with four columns, 
regular, well-constructed, and beautiful. On the sum- 
mit of the tower appeared a couch covered with many 
hundred thousand pieces of fine cloth, and on the 
couch was seen the image of a Tathdgata sitting 
cross-legged. Then the following thought presented 
itself to the kingSubhavyfiha : The Buddha-knowledge 
must be very powerful, and the Tathigata endowed 
with inconceivable good qualities that this Tathslgata- 
image shows itself on the summit of the tower, (an 
image) so nice, beautiful, possessed of an extreme 
abundance of good colours. Then the Lord ^aladhara- 
, the Tathigata, &C M addressed the four classes 

1 Here I have followed Burnouf's reading; the Cambridge MS. 
has : ebhir ahaz Bhagavann iyadbhir akusalair dharmai/5 samanvS- 
gato ne^ami Bhagavato 'ntikaaz (sic) upasawkramitu^ i.e. being 
possessed of so many unholy qualities, O Lord, I do (or did) not 
vish to approach the Lord. 


(and asked) : Do you see, monks, the king .Subha- 
vyftha who, standing in the sky, is emitting a lion's 
roar ? They answered : We do, Lord. The Lord 
proceeded: This king .Subhavyftha, monks, after 
having become a monk under my rule shall become 
a Tathigata in the world, by the name of .S&lendra- 
r^a 1 , endowed with science and conduct, &c. Sec., 
in the world Vistlraavati; his epoch shall be called 
^bhyudgatari^a. That Tathigata 6alendrar&/a, 
monks, the Arhat, &c., shall have an immense congre- 
gation of Bodhisattvas, an immense congregation of 
disciples. The said world Vistlnzavat! shall be level 
as the palm of the hand, and consist of lapis lazuli. 
So he shall be an inconceivably great Tathdgata, &c. 
Perhaps, young men of good family, you will have 
some doubt, uncertainty or misgiving (and think) 
that the king .Subhavyftha at that time, that juncture 
was another. But you must not think so ; for it is 
the very same Bodhisattva MaMsattva Padma^ri 
here present, who at that time, that juncture was the 
king 6ubhavyfiha. Perhaps, young men of good 
family, you will have some doubt, uncertainty or 
misgiving (and think) that the queen Vimaladattd 
at that time, that juncture was another. But you 
must not think so ; for it is the very same Bodhi- 
sattva Mahisattva called Vairo/Sanarattnipratima^dfi- 
tarclgu 2 , who at that time, that juncture was the 
queen Vimaladattd, and who out of compassion for 
the king 6ubhavyftha and the creatures had assumed 

1 Also written Sdlendrard^a. In the Calcutta edition of the 
Lalita-vistara, p. 201, 1. 12, he occms as Srendrar^a, but Hodgson, 
Essays, p. 33, in a list drawn from the same work, has Salendrara^a, 

8 Burnouf s reading has dhva^a for 


the state of being the wife of king .Subhavyllha. 
Perhaps, young men of good family, you will 
have some doubt, uncertainty or misgiving (and 
think) that the two young princes were others. But 
you must not think so ; for it was Bhaishagyard^a 
and Bhaisha^yard^nsamudgata, who at that time, 
that juncture were sons to the king 6ubhavyftha. 
With such inconceivable qualities, young men of 
good family, were the Bodhisattvas Mahdsattvas 
Bhaishagyard^a. and Bhaisha^yar^asamudgata en- 
dowed, they, the two good men, having planted 
good roots under many hundred thousand myriads 
of ko/is of Buddhas. Those that shall cherish the 
name of these two good men shall all become 
worthy of receiving homage from the world, includ- 
ing the gods. 

While this chapter on Ancient Devotion was being 
expounded, the spiritual insight of eighty-four thou- 
sand living beings in respect to the law was purified 
so as to become unclouded and spotless. 




Thereupon the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Saman- 
tabhadra, in the east, surrounded and followed by 
Bodhisattvas Mahdsattvas surpassing all calculation, 
amid the stirring of fields, a rain of lotuses, the play- 
ing of hundred thousands of myriads of korfs of 
musical instruments, proceeded with the great pomp 
of a Bodhisattva, the great display of transformations 
proper to a Bodhisattva, the great magnificence of a 
Bodhisattva, the great power of a Bodhisattva, the 
great lustre of a glorious Bodhisattva, the great 
stately march of a Bodhisattva, the great miraculous 
display of a Bodhisattva, a great phantasmagorical 
sight of gods, Nigas, goblins, Gandharvas, demons, 
Garudas, Kinnaras, great serpents, men, and beings 
not human, who, produced by his magic, surrounded 
and followed him ; Samantabhadra, then, the Bodhi- 
sattva, amid such inconceivable miracles worked by 
magic, arrived at this Saha-world. He went up to 
the place of the Lord on the Gn'dhrakftfe, the king 
of mountains, and on approaching he humbly saluted 
the Lord's feet, made seven circumambulations from 
left to right, and said to the Lord : I have come 
hither, O Lord, from the field of the Lord Ratna- 

1 Utshana. 


te^obhyudgata, the Tathagata, &c., as I am aware, 
Lord, that here in the Saha-world is taught the 
Dharmapary^ya of the Lotus of the True Law, to 
hear which from the mouth of the Lord K$akyamuni 
I have come accompanied by these hundred thou- 
sands of Bodhisattvas Mahdsattvas. May the Lord 
deign to expound, in extension, this Dharmaparyya 
of the Lotus of the True Law to these Bodhisattvas 
Mahdsattvas. So addressed, the Lord said to the 
Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Samantabhadra : These 
Bodhisattvas, young man of good family, are, indeed, 
quick of understanding, but this is the Dharmaparyiya 
of the Lotus of the True Law, that is to say, an un- 
mixed truth 1 . The Bodhisattvas exclaimed : Indeed 
Lord ; indeed, Sugata. Then in order to confirm, 
in the Dharmaparyya of the Lotus of the True 
Law, the females 2 among the monks, nuns, and lay 
devotees assembled at the gathering, the Lord again 
spoke to the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Samantabha- 
dra : This Dharmaparyiya of the Lotus of the True 
Law, young man of good family, shall be entrusted 
to a female if she be possessed of four requisites, 
to wit : she shall stand under the superintendence of 
the Lords Buddhas ; she shall have planted good 
roots 3 ;*she shall keep steadily to the mass of disci- 

1 Yad utisambhinnatathatS. 

2 Tasam. I am not able to discover the connection between 
this confirming of the females in the gathering, and the foregoing 
remark on the character of the Saddharma. The explanation is 
probably to be sought in the term asambhinna, unallayed, un- 
mixed. The meaning of the passage may be that the Saddharma- 
puWarika, as a general rule, is fit for males only, but under certain 
conditions may be entrusted to females also. 

* We would say : she must have a good antecedent behaviour. 


plinary regulations ; she shall, in order to save crea- 
tures, have the thoughts fixed on supreme and perfect 
enlightenment. These are the four requisites, young 
man of good family, a female must be possessed of, 
to whom this Dharmaparyiya of the Lotus of the 
True Law is to be entrusted. 

Then the Bodhisattva MaMsattva Samantabhadra 
said to the Lord : At the end of time, at the end of 
the period, in the second half of the millennium, I 
will protect the monks who keep this SfttrAnta ; 
I will take care of their safety, avert blows 1 , and 
destroy poison, so that no one laying snares for 
those preachers may surprise them, neither Mira the 
Evil One, nor the sons of Mira, the angels called 
Mrakyikas, the daughters of Mclra, the followers 
of M&ra, and all other servitors to Mira ; that no 
gods, goblins, ghosts, imps, wizards, spectres laying 
snares for those preachers may surprise them. In- 
cessantly and constantly, O Lord, will I protect such 
a preacher. And when a preacher who applies him- 
self to this Dharmaparyiya shall take a walk, then, 
O Lord, will I mount a white elephant with six 
tusks, and with a train of Bodhisattvas betake my- 
self to the place where that preacher is walking, in 
order to protect this Dharmaparyya. And when 
-^hat preacher, applying himself to this Dharmapar- 
yiya, forgets, be it but a single word or syllable, then 
will I mount the white elephant with six tusks, show 
my face to that preacher, and repeat this entire 
Dharmaparyiya 2 . And when the preacher has 

1 Or punishment. 

2 Samantabhadra renders the same service to pious and studious 
preachers as the Buddha himself; see chapter X, especially stanzas 
29-31. As to the elephant on which he is mounted, one knows 

[21] F f 


seen my proper body and heard from me this en- 
tire Dharmapary&ya, he, content, in high spirits, 
ravished, rejoiced, joyful, and delighted, will the 
more do his utmost to study this Dharmapary&ya, 
and immediately after beholding me he will acquire 
meditation and obtain spells, termed the talisman I 
of preservation, the talisman of hundred thousand 
ko#s, and the talisman of skill in all sounds. 

Again, Lord, the monks, nuns, male or female 
lay devotees, who at the end of time, at the end of 
the period, in the second half of the millennium, shall 
study this Dharmaparydya, when walking for three 
weeks, (or) twenty-one days, to them will I show my 
body, at the sight of which all beings rejoice. 
Mounted on that same white elephant with six 
tusks, and surrounded by a troop of Bodhisattvas, 
I shall on the twenty-first day betake myself to the 
place where the preachers are walking ; there I shall 
rouse, excite, and stimulate them, and give them spells 
whereby those preachers shall become inviolable, so 
that no being, either human or not human, shall be 
able to surprise them, and no women able to beguile 
them. I will protect them, take care of their safety, 
avert blows 2 , and destroy poison. I will, besides, 
O Lord, give those preachers words of talismanic 
spells, such as, Ada^^e da;z^apati, da^^dvartani 
dawdaku^ale da^asudhiri dhdri sudh&rapati, bud- 
dhapajyani dMra?zi, vartani sa^vartani sarigha- 
parlkshite sanghanirghitani dharmaparikshite sarva- 

that the Bodhisattva entered the womb of his mother M&ya 4 Devi 
in the shape of an elephant with six tusks; see Lalita-vistara, p. 63. 
According to the description of the elephant, it must, originally, be 
a name of lightning, 
1 Avarta, s Or punishment. 


sattvarutakaimlynugate si^havikrlaTite 1 . The Bo- 
dhisattva MaMsattva, whose organ of hearing is 
struck by these talismanic words, Lord, shall be 
aware that the Bodhisattva MaMsattva Samanta- 
bhadra is their ruling power 2 . 

Further, Lord, the Bodhisattvas MahHsattvas to 
whom this Dharmapary&ya of the Lotus of the True 
Law shall be entrusted, as long as it continues 
having course in ^ambudvlpa, those preachers, 
Lord, should take this view: It is owing to the 
power and grandeur of the Bodhisattva Mahsattva 
Samantabhadra that this Dharmaparydya has been 
entrusted to us. Those creatures who shall write 
and keep this Stitra, O Lord, are to partake of 
the course of duty of the Bodhisattva Mahisattva 
Samantabhadra ; they will belong to those who have 
planted good roots under many Buddhas, O Lord, 
and whose heads are caressed by the hands of the 
Tathigata. Those who shall write and keep this 
Sfttra, O Lord, will afford me pleasure. Those who 
shall write this SAtra, O Lord, and comprehend it, 
shall, when they disappear from this world, after 
having written it, be reborn in the company of the 

1 In Burnouf s translation we find added : anuvarte vartani vartili 
sv&h. All terms are, or ought to be, vocatives of feminine words in the 
singular. Pati,as in P&U pa^pati, Buddhistic Sansk. pra^ipati, 
interchanges with the ending vatt; not only in pra^&vatl (e. g. in 
Lalita-vistaia), but in some of the words occuning in the spell; so 
for da<?apati the Tibetan text has dawd^vati. As -Siva in Mahd- 
bh&rata XII, 10361 is represented as the personified Dadk, we 
may hold that all the names above belong to -Siva's female counter- 
part, Durg. The epithet of Sizhavikri<fitl is but a variation of 
Si*0hik, one of the names of Dkshyai or Durg& in her quality 
of mother to Klhu. Cf. the remarks on the spells in chap. XXI. 

8 As the presiding deity of lightning he is also the lord of flame, 
of Svha, identified with 

F f 2 


gods of paradise, and at that birth shall eighty-four 
thousand heavenly nymphs immediately come near 
them. Adorned with a high crown, they shall as 
angels dwell amongst those nymphs* Such is the mass 
of merit resulting from writing this Dharmapary&ya; 
how much greater will be the mass of merit reaped 
by those who recite, study, meditate, remember it ! 
Therefore, young men of good family 1 , one ought 
to honour this Dharmapary&ya of the Lotus of the 
True Law, and write it with the utmost attention. 
He who writes it with undistracted attention shall 
be supported by the hands of a thousand Buddhas, 
and at the moment of his death he shall see another 
thousand of Buddhas from face to face. He shall 
not sink down into a state of wretchedness, and 
after disappearing from this world he shall enter 
the company of the Tushita-gods, where the Bodhi- 
sattva Mahisattva Maitreya is residing, and where, 
marked by the thirty-two sublime characteristics, 
surrounded by a host of Bodhisattvas, and waited 
upon by hundred thousands of myriads of koris of 
heavenly nymphs he is preaching the law. Therefore, 
then, young men of good family, a wise young man or 
young lady of good family should respectfully write 
this Dharmapary&ya of the Lotus of the True Law, 
respectfully recite it, respectfully study it, respect- 
fully treasure it up in his (or her) mind. By writing, 
reciting, studying this Dharmapary^ya, and by trea- 
suring it up in one's mind, young men of good 
family, one is to acquire innumerable good qualities. 
Hence a wise young man or young lady of good 

1 Burnoufs reading has, Lord. The reading of the Cambridge 
MS. is no mere mistake, for we find it repeated in the sequel. 


family ought to keep this Dharmaparyiya of the 
Lotus of the True Law- I myself, O Lord, will super- 
intend this Dharmapary^ya, that through my super- 
intendence it may here spread in ^ambudvlpa. 

Then the Lord -SUkyamuni, the TatMgata, &c., 
expressed his approval to the Bodhisattva Mahi- 
sattva Samantabhadra : Very well, very well, Saman- 
tabhadra. It is happy that thou art so well disposed 
to promote the weal and happiness of the people 
at large, out of compassion for the people, for the 
benefit, weal, and happiness of the great body of 
men ; that thou art endowed with such inconceivable 
qualities, with a mind so full of compassion, with 
intentions so inconceivably kind, so that of thine 
own accord thou wilt take those preachers under 
thy protection. The young men of good family 
who shall cherish the name of the Bodhisattva 
Mahisattva Samantabhadra may be convinced that 
they have seen .S&kyamuni, the Tathigata, &c. ; 
that they have heard this Dharmaparyya of the 
Lotus of the True Law from the Lord -Sikyamuni ; 
that they have paid homage to the Tathdgata S- 
kyamuni ; that they have applauded the preaching 
of the Tathdgata Sikyamuni. They will have joy- 
fully accepted this Dharmapary&ya j the Tathigata 
S&kyamuni will have laid his hand upon their head, 
and they will have decked the Lord S&kyamuni with 
their robes. Those young men or young ladies of 
good family, Samantabhadra, must be held to have 
accepted the command of the TatMgata 1 . They 

1 If I rightly understand these cautious and veiled words, the 
meaning is that such persons, though no Buddhists, must be held 
in equal esteem as if they were. The persons alluded to are, not 
unlikely, Saiva monks or devotees, who, if leading a pious life, have 


will have no pleasure in worldly philosophy 1 ; no per- 
sons fondly addicted to poetry will please them ; no 
dancers, athletes, vendors of meat, mutton butchers, 
poulterers, pork butchers, or profligates will please 
them. After having heard, written, kept, or read such 
Sutrslntas as this, they will find no delight in those 
persons. They must be held to be possessed of 
natural righteousness 2 ; they will be right-minded 
from themselves, possess a power to do good of their 
own accord, and make an agreeable impression on 
others. Such will be the monks who keep this Su- 
tranta. No passionate attachment will hinder them, 
no hatred, no infatuation, no jealousy, no envy, no 
hypocrisy, no pride, no conceitedness, no menda- 
ciousness. Those preachers, Samantabhadra, will be 
content with what they receive. He, Samanta- 
bhadra, who at the end of time, at the end of the 
period, in the second half of the millennium, sees a 
monk keeping this Dharmaparyiya of the Lotus of 
the True Law, must think thus : This young man 
of good family will reach the terrace of enlighten- 
ment ; this young man will conquer the troop of the 

for protector or patron Samantabhadra, who, as we have seen above, 
is the lord of Svahd or D^ksMyafli, consequently Ava-Kala. 

1 Na Lok&yate ru&r bhavishyati. The Lokdyatikas are the 
Indian Epicureans. 

2 Svabhavadharmasamanv^gat^, which may also be len- 
dered by, possessed of the religion of Svabh^va (Nature), This 
I think to be the recondite and real meaning of the term, whether 
it alludes to the Svdbhdvika sect of Buddhism or to materialistic 
schools among the *Saivas. Though the philosophical tenets of all 
Svabhavikas are identical with those of the Lokdyatikas, their 
opinions on morals are exactly the reverse. Hence it may have 
been deemed necessary to inculcate on devotees of more or less 
strong ascetic habits the precept that they should have no inter- 
course with the immoral vulgar materialists. 


wicked Mira 1 , move forward the wheel of the law, 
strike the drum of the law, blow the conch trumpet 
of the law, spread the rain of the law, and ascend the 
royal throne of the law. The monks who at the end 
of time, at the end of the period, in the second half 
of the millennium, keep this Dharmaparyiya, will not 
be covetous, nor greedy of robes or vehicles 2 . Those 
preachers will be honest, and possessed of three eman- 
cipations ; they will refrain from worldly business. 
Such persons as lead into error monks who know 
this S&trinta, shall be born blind ; and such as openly 
defame them, shall have a spotted body in this very 
world. Those who scoff and hoot at the monks who 
copy this Stitr&nta, shall have the teeth broken and 
separated far from each other; disgusting lips, a 
flat nose, contorted hands and feet, squinting eyes; 
a putrid body, a body covered with stinking boils, 
eruptions, scabs, and itch. If one speaks an unkind 
word, true or not true, to such writers, readers, and 
keepers of this Sitainta, it must be considered a very 
heinous sin. Therefore then, Samantabhadra, people 
should, even from afar, rise from their seats before 
the monks who keep this DharmaparyHya and show 
them the same reverence as to the TathSgata. 

While this chapter of the Encouragement of 
Samantabhadra was being expounded, hundred 
thousands of kotfs of Bodhisattvas Mahsattvas, 
equal to the sands of the river Ganges, acquired 
the talismanic spell Avarta. 

1 Marakali^akram. 

a Yna j Buraouf has read p na, drink. It is, indeed, generally 
impossible to distinguish between pa and y a in the Nepalese MSS. 




Thereupon the Lord 5&kyamuni, the TathSgata, 
&c., rose from his pulpit, collected the Bodhisattvas, 
took their right hands with his own right hand, 
which had become strong by the exercise of magic, 
and spoke on that occasion as follows : Into your 
hands, young men of good family, I transfer and 
transmit, entrust and deposit this supreme and per- 
fect enlightenment arrived at by me after hundred 
thousands of myriads of ko^is of incalculable ^Eons. 
Ye, young men of good family, do your best that it 
may grow and spread. 

A second time, a third time the Lord spoke to the 
host of Bodhisattvas after taking them by the right 
hands : Into your hands, young men of good family, 
I transfer and transmit, entrust and deposit this 
supreme and perfect enlightenment arrived at by me 
after hundred thousands of myriads of ko/is of in- 
calculable JEons. Receive it, young men of good 
family, keep, read, fathom, teach, promulgate, and 
preach it to all beings. I am not avaricious, young men 
of good family, nor narrow-minded; I am confident 
and willing to impart Buddha-knowledge, to impart 
the knowledge of the Tathdgata, the knowledge 
of the Self-born. I am a bountiful giver, young 

, the period of the law. 


men of good family, and ye, young men of good 
family, follow my example ; imitate me in liberally 
showing this knowledge of the TathSgata, and in 
skilfulness, and preach this DharmaparySya to the 
young men and young ladies of good family who 
successively shall gather round you. And as to 
unbelieving persons, rouse them to accept this law. 
By so doing, young men of good family, you will 
acquit your debt to th'e Tath&gatas. 

So addressed by the Lord Sakyamuni, the Tathi- 
gata, &c., the Bodhisattvas filled with delight and 
joy, and with a feeling of great respect they lowered, 
bent, and bowed their body towards the Lord, and, 
the head inclined and the joined hands stretched out, 
they spoke in one voice to the Lord Sikyamuni, 
the Tathdgata, &a, the following words : We shall 
do, O Lord, what the Tathfigata commands; we 
shall fulfil the command of all TatMgatas. Let the 
Lord be at ease as to this, and perfectly quiet. A 
second time, a third time the entire host of Bodhi- 
sattvas spoke in one voice the same words : Let the 
Lord be at ease as to this, and perfectly quiet. We 
shall do, O Lord, what the Tathdgata commands us ; 
we shall fulfil the command of all Tathdgatas. 

Thereupon the Lord 6S,kyamum, the Tath&gata, 
&c., dismissed all those Tathgatas,&c., who had come 
to the gathering from other worlds, and wished them 
a happy existence, with the words : May the Tath&- 
gatas, &c., live happy. Then he restored the Stdpa 
of precious substances of the Lord Prabhfttaratna, 
the Tathdgata, &c., to its place, and wished him also 
a happy existence. 

Thus spoke the Lord. The incalculable, innume- 
rable Tathigatas, &c., who had come from other 


worlds and were sitting on their thrones at the foot 
of jewel trees, as well as Prabh&taratna, the Tathi- 
gata, &c., and the whole host of Bodhisattvas headed 
by Vmsh/a^iritra, the innumerable, incalculable 
Bodhisattvas Mahisattvas who had issued from 
the gaps of the earth, the great disciples, the four 
classes, the world, including gods, men, demons, 
and Gandharvas, in ecstasy applauded the words 
of the Lord. * 


AbSn Yasht, page 253. 
Abbhutadhamma, 45. 
AbhUsvaras (pi.), 340, 346. 
Abhayandada, 412. 

a, i, 89,131, 242. 


Abhirati, 177. 

Abhisa#zskara, 317* 

Abhyudgatar%a, 429. 

Adbhutadharma, 45. 

Aditi, 124, 371. 

Aditta-pan>aya, 79. 

Ag-atajatru, 6. 

A^ita, 18 seq., 290 seqq., 311, 316 

seq., 320 seqq. 
, 263. 
aumAnya, 2, 34, 56, 198, 


Agra^ravaka, 2. 
A*aia, 374. 

AkamshA&as (pi.), 340. 
Aka.rapratish*ita, 178. 
Akshayamati, 4, 406, 412 seq. 
Akshobhya, 177. 
Alankarajubha, 420. 
Alankarasftra, 420. 
Amitabha, 178, 389, 417. 
Amitayus, 178, 389, 417. 
Amoghadarvin, 4. 
An^bhibhfi, 183. 
An^gamm, 315, 33, 387. 
Ananda, 3, 205 seqq. 
Ananda-Bhadra, 207. 
Ananta>fearitra, 284. 
Anantamati. 19. 
Anantavikramm, 4. 
Anavanamitavaigayanta, 206. 
Anavanata Vaij-ayantf; 206. 
Anavatapta, 5. 
Anikshiptadhura, 4. 
Anilambha, 394. 
^nisawsa, 336. 
Anrwawsa, 336. 
Anupadhuesha, 139. 
Auupadisesa, 139. 

Anupamamati, 4. 

Anutpattikadharmakshanti, 134, 254. 

Anuvya/^ana, 246. 

Anya, 371. 

Apastamba, 48. 

Apkrftsna, 394. 

Apokasia, 394. 

Appama^a, 140. 

Apra^ihita, 99. 

Apratyanika, 94. 

Apratyaniya, 94. 

Ara^Tlakanga, 293. 

AraTzyadhuta, 293. 

Ardvf Sfira, 253. 

Arhat (of the Buddhists), i, 8, 35, 

and further passim. 
Arhat (of the Gainas), 265. 
Arfipabrahmaloka, 241. 
Arya, 13, 79, 8i>275, 338- 
Aryasatytni. See Truths. 
Ajaiksha, 71. 
Asamasama, 418. 
Asankhyeya, 284, 329, 331. 
Ajaya, 317. 

Asekha. See Ajaiksha. 
Ajoka, 385. 
Ajvag-it, 2. 
A-rvins, 67 seq. 
Atikrantabhavan!ya, 387. 
Aupapaduka, 160. 
Avabhasa, 142. 
Avalokitejvara, 4, 406 seqq. 
Avarta, 439- 
Aveika-dharma, 31. 
AvUi, 7, 1, 92, 337, 34> 35, 3&o. 

Bala, 79. 

Beal (S.), 228, 406, 414. 
Benares, 56, 70. 
Bhadra (a world), 258. 
Bhadrakalpa, 193. 
Bhadrapaia, 4, 360. 
Bhadravargiya, 2. 
Bhadnka, 2. 
BhSgavata-Pura^a, ixd. 



Bhaisha^yara^a, 4, 213 seqq., 255* 
371 seqq., 385, 392, 394, 44i 

Bhaishagyaragasamudgata, 394, 43* 

Bharadva^a, 19. 

BHrad\%a, 2. 

Bharhut (Stupa of), 345. 

Bh^vani, 140. 

Bhavzhtf, 371. 

Bhishmagar^itasvararaja, 354 seqq. 

Bhfehmasvara, 360. 

Bigandet(P.) 3 55, 431. A , 
Birth Stones, 2. See eltahu 
Bodhapakshika. SeeBodhipakshika. 
Bodhi (constituents of). See Bodh- 


Bodhima^a, 155. 
Bodhipakshika, 420. 
Bodhisattva, 4, and further passim. 
Bodhi tree, 300. 
Bodhyanga, 31. 
Brahma (Sah&npati), 5, 553 69, 252, 

347, 349, 387, 4i6. 
Brahmadhvag-a, 178. 
Brahma&kra, 134. 
Brahmakaya ( - Brahmak^yika), 345. 
Brahmakayika, 5,156, 342, 347, 387. 
Brahmaloka. See Brahma-world. 
Brahmas (pi., divine beings), 21, 64, 

H5, 345- 

Brahmasawzstha, 63. 

Brahma-Sutra, 63, 322 seq. 

Brahmavidint, 336. 

Brahmavihara, 140. 

Brahma-world, 160, 241, 315, 322 
seq., 340, 364, 387. 

Br/haspati, 411. 

Br/hat-SawhitS, 76, 179. 

Buddha, 16, and further passim. 

Buddhadharma, 31. 

Buddha-field, 7 seqq., 145, 194, 211, 

Buddhaghosha, 241. 

Buddha-vehicle, n, 42 seq., 89, 129, 

Buhler (G.), 48. 

Burnout (Eug.), 2, and further pas- 

Childers (R. C), 31, 71, 132, 241, 

Cunningham (A.), 345. 

Dakshaya*!, 435. 
Da*Ja, 435. 
Da^apati, 435. 

Dajabala, 31. 
Dajajila, 269. 
Devadatta, 246 seq. 
DevamkSya, 342. 
Devara^-a, 247. 
Devasopzina, 247. 
Dhammakkhandha. See Dharma- 


Dhammapada, 58, 99, 
Dhanvantari, 404. 
Dharawi, 311, 314* 
Dharaidhara, 4 
Dharawmdhara, 4, 418. 
Dharma, 56, 245 seq. 
Dharmabha^zaka, 336. 
Dharmadhara, 5. 

DharmagahanEbhyudgatara^a, 208. 
DharmSlokamukha, 420. 
Dharmamati, 19. 
Dharmaparyaya, 6, 17, 20 seqq., 65, 

120, &c. 

DharmaprabhSsa, 195 seqq. 
Dharmara^a, 58, 91, 115, 122, 307. 
Dharmasa%-iti, 272. 
Dharmaskandha, 241. 
Dharmika, 245. 
Dhatu, 251, 399. 
DhntarSshft-a, 4. 
Dhntipanptirwa, 67. 
Dhutagiwa, 132. 
Dhutanga, 132, 193. 
Dhva^grakeyura, 393. 
Dhyim-bodhisattva, 134. 
Dhy am-buddha, 134, 411,417. 
DSpankara, 22, 28, 300. 
D!pavazsa, 241, 260, 281, 383. 
Dr/sh/iguru, 407. 
Druma, 5. 

Dundubhijvarara^, 358. 
256, 371, 435. 

Eka^akra, 81. 
Ekapid, 8 1. 

Fausboll (V.), 45, 48. 

Gadgadasvara, 393 seqq 
Gandharva, 5, 7, 20, 23, 69, and 

further passim. 
Gandharvakayika, 5. 
Garu^a, 6 se<j., 20, 69, 162, and 

further passim. 
Gatha", 45. 
Gaurf, 373. 
Gautamf, 3, 356 seqq, 



Gavampati, 2. 
GayS, 294, 296, 299. 
Gaysbirsha, 79. 
Geya, 45. 
Ghoshamati, 19. 
Giantesses (island of), 407. 
Goldstucker (Th.), 134. 
Gr&hrakfaa, i, 235, 248 seq., 307 

seq., 321, 396, 398, 431. 
Guhagupta, 4. 


419 seqq. 
Gambudtfpa, 214 seq., 329, 391, 435, 

Gambtinadaprabhasa, 148 seq. 

(?ataka, 45, 48, 393- 

Gma, 8, 12 seqq., 23, and further 


Givamnukta, 135. 
GSvanmukti, 138. 
G^anakara, 157. 
G^anamudra, 394. 
Ganolka, 394. 
Gyotishprabha, 5. 

Haradatta, 48. 

Hardy (R. Spence), 2, 31, 79, 246, 

348, 394 seq., 402,420. 
HSrftf, 374. 

Himalaya, 130, 137, 351. 
Hiouen Thsang, 59, 260. 
Hodgson (B. H.), 30, 186, 241, 269, 


Indra, 55, 252, 342, 38?, &c. 
Indradatta, 4. 
Indradhvaga, 178. 
Indras (pi.), 315, 347- 
Indriya, 79- 

Lrvara, 4,55, 116,349, 411. 
Itivnttika, 45. 
Itivuttaka, 45. 
Ityukta, 45. 

Julien (Stanislas), 62. 

Kala, 198* 

Kaia-mountain, 233 seq., 386. 

Kaiodaym,i 9 8. 

Kalpa (al. JEon), 89, 284; interme- 
diate kalpa, 27,67 seq., 148, &c. 

kusumitlbh^a, 393 seq. 

Kawphilla. See Kapphuza. 

Kapilavastu, 294, 296. 
Kapina, 2, 198. 
Kapphilla, 2, 198. 
Kapphiwa, 2, 198. 
KEra^^a-vydha, 407, 416. 
Karketana, 50. 
KarmaVaya, 317. 
Kashayas (the five), 58. 
KashphiTza. See Kapphi^a. 
Kasphma. See Kapphi^a. 
K^jyapa. See MaM-K|jyapa. 
KSjyapa of Gaya, 2, 198". 
KaVyapa of Nadt, 2, 198. 
Kajyapa of Uruvilva, 2, 198. 
Ka^asi, 48. 
Ka^asiva^ano, 48. 
Ka^a Upamshad, 122. 
Katyayana. See Maha-Katyayana. 
Kau^mya. SeeA^ata-KauWinya. 
Kaush^ila. See Maha-Kaus^ila. 
Kejint, 374. 
Ketu, 21 1 seq. 

Kharaskandha (al. Suraskandha), 6. 
Kinnara, 7, 20, 33, 69, and further 

Kmnara king, 5. 

Kl&ra, 58. 

Kleiakashaya, 42. 

Ko;i, 3, and further passim. 

KottMa. See Maha-Ko^^ita. 

Knttikas (the Pleiads), 256 seq. 

Kubera, 411. 

Kumara, 256. 

Kuraarabhfita, 4. 

Kumlragfoa, 62. 

Kumbhaw^a, 373. 

Kuw/ma (family), 199. 

Kuntt, 374 seq* 

Kfeadantf, 374. 

KO/agara, 321. 

jSTailaka, 186. 
JTailakabhUta, 186. 
^Takravala, 233. 

Takravartin, 157, 174, 252, 332,4"- 
KztH&li, ^a^alika, 373. 
jfiTandra, 4. 
JTandraprabha, 394. 
^Tandraprabhisvarara^a, 358. 
JSTandraprad^pa ( * J&ndrasuryapra- 
dfpa), 26 ; name of a Sama'dhi, 


^Tandrlrkadipa, 25 seq. 
ITandrasfiryapradtpa, 18 seq. 
andravimalasiiryaprabhlsarri, 376 




/iTaraka, 263. 

tfellakabhfita. See^Tailaka. 
tfelukabhuta. See tfailaka. 
JTMndogya Upamshad, 320. 
^itradhva|a, 413. 
jfiTittavimukti, 31. 
J&illavagga, 2, 47 seq., 198, 268. 

Lakshnfl, 251, 

Lahta-vistara, 3, 17, 55, 58, 70, 79, 

no, 140,156, 191, 316, 348, 392, 

Lamba, 373- 
Layana, 222. 
Lohitamukti, 147, 
Lokabandhu, 166, 210. 
Lokayatamantradharaka, 263. 
Lokayatika, 263, 438. 
Lotus of the True Law, 21 seq., 65, 

174 seq., J77, 228 seqq., 357, 

366, 370, 377, 386 seqq., 432 


Madhubhumika, 387. 

Madhura, 5. 

Madhurasvara, 5. 

Magadha, 6. 

Mahabhirata,i7o, 256, 435. 

Mahabhi?%;7lnabhibhfi, 153 seqq., 


Mah&brahmas (pi.), 342. 
Mahldbanna, 5. 
Mahakalpa, 381. 
Maha-Kiryapa, 2, 98, 108, 113, 118 

seqq., 142 seqq. 

Mahl-Katyayana, 2, 98, 144, 147 seq. 
Maha-Kaush^Oa, 2. 
Mahakaya, 6. 
Mahi-Ko/^ita, 2. 
Maha-ATunda, 198. 
Maha-Maudgaly^yana, 2, 98, 144, 

Mahl-MIyi, 5, 124. Gf. 


Maha-Muhlinda, 233. 
Mahanaman, 2. 
Mahinanda, 2. 
MahSpra^apati, 3. 
Mahapratibhina, 4, 228 seqq., 255 
Mahapurwa, 6. 
MahSratnapratima^ita, 66. 
MaharddhiprSpta, 6. 
MaMrfipa, 153. 
Mahasambhava, 354. 

Mahasanghika, 228. 

MahSsattva, 4, and further passim. 

MahisthSmaprS-pta, 4, 354 seq. 

Mahateg-as, 6. 

Mahite^ogarbha, 420. 

MahSvagga, 2 seq., 55, 70, 79, 156, 


Mahavastu, 5. 
Mabavikr^mm, 4. 
Mahavyuba, 142. 
Mahejvara, 4, 55, 116, 349, 411. 
Maitryalputra. See Pfira. 
Maitreya, 4 seq., 28, 286 seq., 290 

seqq., 311, 314, 316, 328 seqq., 


Makufadantf, 374. 
Mllldhart, 374. 
Manasvin, 5. 
Mandara, 308. 
Mandarava, 6, 9, 20, 24, 69, 228, 

234 3I3 342, 345, 378. 
Ma^ughosha ( = Ma^ujrJ), n, 15, 


Ma%Qsha, 6, 9, 20, 342, 345. 
Mafishaka, 6, 9, 20, 342, 345. 
Ma^g-ujri, 4, 8 seqq., 23, 248 seqq., 

262 seqq., 363, 394 seqq. 
Ma%usvara (=Ma%iurf), 16. 
Manobhir&ma, 150. 
Mano^wa, 5. 

Mano^wajabdabhigar^ita, 206. 
Mano/7asvara, 5. 
Manu (law book), 191, 317. 
Manus (pi.), 193. 
Marmshi-Buddha, 193. 
Mira, 63 seq., 143, 155, 275, 391 
seq., 433, 439. 

Miiakiyika, 391,433- 
Maras (pi. divine beings), 2 1, 64, 1 15, 
Marut, 55. 
M&angi, 373. 
Mati, 22. 

Matres (the seven), 256, 
Mamtaandf, 374. 

Maudgalyyana. See MahS-Maud- 

399 seq, 


Meghasvara, 179. 
Meghasvarapradipa, 179. 
Meghasvarara^a, 179, 358. 
JJeru, 5, 337, 350 seq., 414 
Merukalpa, 178. 
MeruktLfa, 178. 
Milmda Paho, 132, 153. 
Mithra, 17 seq., 28. 



MuMnda, 233. 
Muller (Max), 59, 317. 
Mwftfcka Upamshad, 131. 
Mus&ragalva, 147. 

5, 20, 24, 69, 162, 213, 223, 
253, 338 seq., 347, 349, 363, 376, 
391, 4" seq., 415, 431- 

Naga king, 5, 248, 251 seq. 

Na&ketas, 122. 

Nakshatrara^a, 4. 

Nakshatrara^iditya, 420. 

37, 376 seqq., 394. 

Nakshatrara^avikrtaita, 393. 

NakshatrataYara^-aditya, 420. 

Nanda (a Naga king), 5 ; (an Arhat), 2. 

Naradatta, 4. 

NSrayawa, 397. 

Nayuta, 3. 

Niramisha, 191. 

Nirgrantha, 263. 

Nirvana, 18, 21, and further passim. 

Nityapanvnta, 178. 

Nityodyukta, 4. 

Oldenberg (H.), 2, 241. 
Opapatika, 160. 

Padmaprabha, 65 seqq. 

Padmajrt, 4, 399 seq , 405. 

Padmavr/shabhavikramuij 67. 

Pa/wto, 209, 318. 

Paini, 25, 53,113,144, 153. 

Padavaggtya, 2. 

Paramita, 18,140, 243, 246, 249, 252, 

3i6, 355, 419. 
Par^anya, 119. 
Pari^araka, 209. 
Parimrmita Vajavartin, 225. 
Panvra^, Panvra^aka, 63, 263. 
Paryaya (=Dharmaparylya), 255, 


Parisallina, 175. 
Pa/isambhida, 192. 
Perfections (the six). See Para- 


Phoenix, 378 seqq. 
Pilindavatsa, 2. 
Pin^ola (Bharadvag-a), 2. 
Pitr*- worship, 115. 
Prabhasa ( = SamantaprabhSsa), 199. 
Prabhiitaratna, 229 seqq., 283, 313, 

364 seqq., 392, 397 seqq., 412, 

Pradanarfira, 4, 372, 394, 404. 

Pra^apatf, 435- 
Pra^vatt, 4 35- 
Pra^a, 30, 307, 37i. 
Pra^a^yotis, 387. 
Pra#akfra, 248 seqq. 
Pra^lika, 30. 
Praknti, 124. 
Pralamba, 373. 
Praayama, 402. 
Prawidhana, 203, 208. 
Prasadavatf, 394. 
Prathamakalpika, 387. 
Pratirfipaka, 68. 
Pratisa*layana, 175. 
Pratisawvid, 192. 
Pratttyasamutpada, 133 ; cf. 172. 
Pratyekabuddha, zo, 30, 33, 36, &c. 
Pratyeka^-ina, 137. 
Priyadarjana ( an JEon), 400, 419. 
Puyabhisa2skara, 317. 
P(5ra (Maitraya!putra), 3, 191 


Pfiraa^andra, 4. 
Purushottama, 44, 46. 

PArva-yoga, 153, 376,419. 
Pushpadant!, 374. 

Rahu, 6, 210 seq., 395. 
Rahula, 3, 205, 209 seq., 257. 
Rahula-Bhadra ( Rahula), 209. 
Rajraiprabhasa, 142 seq. 


Ratipratiptirca, 150. 
Ratna (a term applied to Bodhisat- 

tvas), 66. 
Ratnadatta, 4. 
Ratnaandra, 4. 
Ratnakara, 4. 
Ratnaketura^a, 211. 
Ratnamati, 19. 
Ratnapa^i, 4. 
Ratnaprabha, 4. 
Ratnaprabhasa (al. Ratna vabhasa), 


Ratnas (the seven), 227, 
Ratnasambhava, 145. 
Ratnate^obhyudgata, 432. 
Ratnvabhasa. See Ratnaprabhasa. 
Ratnavimddha, 229. 

R 6 V9.t3. 2 

Rhys Davids (T. W.), 2, 45, 392. 
Rig-veda, 66, 81, 309, 404. 
Rudra, 401, 404. 
RQpabrahmaloka, 241. 



&'ddhi, 19, 273. 

/shipatana, 70. 

Sadapanbhfita, 356 seqq. 
Saddharma-piw^artka. See Lotus. 

Name of a Samadhi, 393. 
Sagara, 5, 248, 251 seqq.; his 

daughter, 251 seqq. 
SagarabuddhidhSrin Abhi^aprSpta, 


gna., 206, 209 seqq. 
Sagata. See Svigata, 
SahSmpati. See Brahma. 
Saha- world, 230 seqq., 256, and 

further passim. 
Samantabhadra, 431 seqq. 
Samantagandha, 4. 
Samantamukha, 406. 
Samantaprabha (=Samantaprabht- 

sa), 200. 

Samantaprabhasa, 198 seqq. 
Sambhava, 153. 
Sawskara, 107, 133. 
Sandhabhasmta, 30, 59 ; cf. 6s, 121, 

261, 273, 320. 
Sandhabhlshya, 30, 59 ; cf. 62, 121, 

261, 273, 320- 
Sandhayabbashita, 30, 59; cf. 62, 

121,261,273, 320. 
Sangame-fvara, 309. 
Sangha, 56. 

Sangraha(-vastuni), 140. 
Saptaratnapadmavikramin (al. Sapta- 

ratnapadmavikrantagamin), 209. 
Sarvabuddhasandawana, 400. 
Sarvadarrana-Sangraha, 402. 
SarvaguwalankaravyHha, 425. 

dhvamsanakara, 179. 

dhvamsanakara, 179. 

uttira, 178. 

SarvapunyasamiUylaya, 394. 
Sarvarthanaman, 4. 
Sarvarupasandarjana, 378, 384, 404. 
Sarvarutakaiualya, 394. 
San-asattvapapa^ahana, 424. 
Sarvasattvapnyadarjana, 257, 377 


Sarvasattvafaitri, 161. 
Samsattvoohar!, 374. 
Satatasamitabhiyukta, 4, 336 seqq. 
Satpurusha, 402. 

Schiefner (A.), 89. 

Sekho, 71. 

Senapati, 411. 

Senart (E.), 5, 227, 230, 348. 

Siozha, 4. 

Siwhadhvaca, 178. 


Siwha^andra, 360. 

Si^havikrL/itl, 435. 

Siwhika, 435. 

Skanda, 256, 411. 

Sopadhuesha, 138. 

SrotaSpanna, 315, 33o> 387. 

Stfipa, 8, 15, 277 seqq., &c. 

Subhfiti, 2, 98, 144 seqq. 

Sudhanna (a king of the Kmnaras), 

5 ; an angel, 169. 
Sudharma', 167, 342, 345. 
Sugata, 10, and further passim. 
Su^ata, 296. 
Sugataetan3, 360. 
Sukhakara, 417. 
Sukhivatt,i78, 389, 417. 
Sukhivati-vyuha, 317. 
Sumati, 19. 
Sumeru, 5, 162, 169, 233, 267, 337, 

350 seq., 386. 
Sunanda, 3. 
Sundara-Nanda, 3. 
Supratish/Mta/^aritraj 284. 
Suraskandha, 6 ; cf. Kharaskandha. 
Suryagarbha, 4. 
Siiryavarta, 394. 
Susa0zsthita, 4. 
Susarthavaha, 4. 
Stea, 24, 29, 46, and further pas- 


Sfitrinta, 65, 144, 176, 218, &c. 
Sutta, 45. 

Suvikrantavikramin, 4. 
Suvlruddha. 195, 197. 
Svibhavika, 438- 
Svagata, 198. 
Svlhl, 435. 
Svastika, 392. 
SvayambM, 310. 
Svayambh%wana, 217. 


^kyamuni, 179, 228, 232, 234 seqq, 
283 seq., 298, and further pas 

iSakyaputra, 3. 
Sakyasitfzha, 28. 
5Ila king, 417. 



SaWilyavidya*, 320. 

Ankara (the philosopher), 63, 134. 

Sankhajila, ii. 

SaYi (son of)=5Snputra, 47 seq., 56, 


.SSriputra, 2, 30 seqq., 252 seqq. 
Sajiketu, 145. 
Satapatha-Brahmawa, 386. 
iSayySsana, 308. 
Sikhin (name of Brahma), 5, 179 ; 

name of an angel, 167. 
Siva, 5, 81,115, 4<>7> 435- 
rama#era, 292. 
Sravaka, 129. 
jSravaka-yana, 269, 
Srtgarbha, 22, 27. 
iStabhavyuha, 419 seqq. 
Sftnyati, 127 ; cf. 99. 
iSvetirvatara Upamshad, 134. 

Ta-dt (tadin), 25. 
Taittiriya Arawyaka, 314. 
Tamalapatra^andanagandha, 150 seq. 

Upayakaujalya, 30, 59. 
Url, 427- 
Utpalaka, 5. 
Uttaramati, 4. 

Va^puttaka, 260. 
Va^ra-A^irya, 269. 
Va^ra^^edikl, 59. 
Vap-rapai, 411. 
Vaidehi, 6. 
Vafeayanta, 342, 345- 
Vaihayasa, 227. 
Vaipulya, 45. 

, 25. 

Tathlgata, 9, 12, 17, and further 


Tathigatas (the sixteen), 178. 
TSyin, 25, 45, 57, "3, H4, 1^9? ^99^ 

207, 209, 287, 315. 
Tfotha-doctrme, 260. 
Ttrthika, 63, 259 seq., 265. 
Tishter Yasht, 253. 
Tishtrya, 253. 
Tishya (=Upatishya), 89. 
Trailokavikrimin, 4, 
Tra*yastriwa (gods), 156. 
Trenckner (Vj, 132. 
Trinabhi, 81. 
Tripid, 81. 
Trivartman, 134. 
Tnvnt, 134. 
Truths (the four great), 18, 90, 158, 

Tushita gods, 436. 

Udlna, 45. 

Upadana, 172. 

Upidisesa, 138. 

Upananda (an Arhat), 3; a Na*ga, 5. 

Upanisi, 317. 

Upasthiyaka, 209. 

Upatishya, 89. 

Upiya, 30; cf. 307. 

[21] G g 

39<5 seq-, 419,429. 
VauaTadya, 246. 
Vaijravaa, 4, 373- 
Varvasvata, 309. 
Vaiya"karaa, 45. 
Vakkula, 2, 198. 
Vakula, 2, 198. 
Vandya, 318. 
Vartha-Mihira, 76. 
Varaprabha, 21 seq , 26 seq. 
VardhamcLnamati, 4. 
Vanmdatta, 4. 
Vashpa, 2. 
Vajlbhfita, i. 
VSsuki, 5. 


Vedanta, 322. 

Vehicles (the three), 78 seqq., 213. 

Vema^itn, 6. 

Vepa&tti, 6. 


Vikurvl, 406. 
Vimala, 253 seq. ; name of a Sama- 

dhi, 420. 

Vimalibhasa, 420. 
Vimaladatta, 380 ; name of a Sama- 

dhi, 393. 

Vimaladatta, 419 seqq. 
Vimalagarbha (a prince), 419 seqq.; 

name of a Saina'dhi, 394. 
Vimallgranetra, 27. 
Vimalanetra, 22, 419 seqq. 
Vimalanirbhasa, 420. 
Vimalaprabha, 394. 
Vimatisamudghitin, 19. 
Vimoksha, 31. 
Vimukti, 31. 
Vinirbhoga, 355. 
Vipa/yin, 193. 
Vipratftti, 6. 



Vipratyanfka, vipratyanfyaka, 17. 
Virata, 66, 68. 

irupiksha, 4. 
Vijeshamati, 4, 19. 
Vishnu, 5, 44 , 81, 173, 301, 397, 411. 
v inshte&intra, 284, 364, 367, 394, 


Vistfozavati, 429. 
Vuuddha^ritra, 284. 
Vuvanatha, 309. 
Vyfiha, 173. 

Vyuhara^a (a Bodhisattva), 394; 
name of a Samadhi, 394. 

Westergaard (N. L.), 253. 


Yama, 65 seq., 91, 115 seq., 167, 
178, 233, 248, 309, 402, 415, 

* 4I7 ' 
Yana, 34, 53. 

Yaraskama, 23, 28. 

YajodharS, 3, 257 seq. 

Yoga, 7. 

Yogajastra, 31, 71, 140* 3^7, 402- 

Yogasystem, 31, 71,387. 

Yogaya*tra*, 170. 

Yogm, 7, 92, 319. 








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* # * Tliis Seties is published with the sanction and co-opei atton of the Secretary of 
State for India in Council. 

REPORT presented to the ACADEMIC DBS INSCRIPTION'S, Hay 11, 
1883, toy M. ERNEST BENAZT. 

*M. Renan pre'sente trois nouveaux une seconde, dont 1'int^iet historique et 
volumes de la grande collection des religieux ne seia pas momdie M. Max 
"Livies sacres de TOnent" (Sacred Muller a su se proem er la collaboiation 
Books of the East), que dmge a Oxford, des savans les plus emmens d'Europe et 
avec une si vaste Erudition et tine critique d'Asie, L'Umveisite" d'Oxfoid, qne cette 
si siire, le savant associe* de 1'Acadeinie grande publication honore an plus hant 
des Inscriptions, M. Max Muller ... La degre*, doit tenir a contmuer dans les plus 
premieie sene de ce beau recueil, com- larges proportions une ceuvie aussi philo- 
posee de 24 volumes, est presque achevee. sophiquement congue que savamment 
M. Max Muller se propose d'en pnbher executee.* 


' We rejoice to notice that a second great edition of the Rig- Veda, can corn- 
series of these translations has been an- pare in importance 01 in usefulness with 
nounced and has actually begun to appear, this English translation of the Sacred 
The stones, at least, oul of which a stately Books of the East, which has been devised 
edifice may heieaftei arise, are heie being by his foresight, successfully hi ought <>o 
bi ought together Prof. Max Muller has far by his persuashe and organising 
deserved well of scientific hibtory Not power, and will, we trust, by the assist- 
a few minds owe to his enticing words ance of the distinguished scholars he has 
their first attraction to this branch of gathered round him, be carried in due 
study. But no woik of his, not even the time to a happy completion. 1 

Professor E. HARDY, Inaugural Lecture in the University of Frettrarg-, 1887. 

'Die allgememe vergleichende Reli- internationalen Onentalistencongress in 
gionswissenschaft datnt von jenem gioss- London der Giundstein gelegt worden 
aitigen, in seiner Ait einzig dastehenden war, die tfbeisetzung dei heihgen Bucher 
Unternehmen, zu welchem auf Anregung des Oslens* (the Sacred Books of the. 
Max Mullers im Jahre 1874 auf detn East}. 

Tne Hon. ALBERT S. G. CAXrariXTCt, ' Words on Existing 1 Religions.' 

* The recent publication of the " Sacred a great event in the annals of theological 
Works of the East" in English is surely literature.' 






VOL. I. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. MAX MULLER. Part I. The -EMndogya- 
upanishad, The TalavakSra-upanishad, The AiLaieya-diawyaka, 
The Kaushitaki-brdhmawa-upanishad, and The Vd^asaneyi- 
sawhita-upanishad. 8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 

The Upanishads contain the philosophy of the Veda. They have 
become the foundation of the later Veddnta doctrines, and indirectly 
of Buddhism* Schopenhauer ', speaking of the Upanishads, says: 
In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating 
as that of the Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life, it will 
be the solace of my death' 

[See also Vol. XV.] 

VOL. n. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vsish//5a, 
and BaudMyana. Translated by GEORG BUHLER. PartL 
Apastamba and Gautama. 8vo, cloth, IQJ. 6d. 

The Sacred Laws of the Aryas contain the original treatises on 
which the Laws of Mann and other lawgivers were founded. 
[See also Vol. XIV.] 

VOL. in. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by JAMES LEGGE. 
Part I. The Shfl King, The Religious Portions of the Slnh 
LJng, and The HsMo King. 8vo, cloth, i2j. 6& 

Confucius was a collector of ancient traditions, not the founder of 
a new religion. As he lived in the sixth and fifth centimes B.C. 
his works are of unique interest for the study of Ethology. 
[See also Vols. XVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXXIX, and XL ] 

VOL. rv. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by JAMES DARMESTETER. PartL The Vendtdad 
Svo, cloth, los. 6d. 

The Zend-Avesta contains the relics of what was the religion of 
Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes, and, but for the battle of Marathon, 


might have become the religion of Europe: It forms to the presmt 
day the sacred book of the Farm, the so-called fire-worshippers. 
Two more volumes will complete the translation of all that is left us 
of Zoroaster's religion. 

[See also Vols XXIII and XXXL] 

VOL. V. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W, WEST. Part I. The Bundahto, Bahnian 
Yart, and ShAyast 14-shdyast. 8vo, cloth, 12*. 6d. 

The Pahlam Texts comprise the theological literature of the revival 
of Zoroaster's religion, beginning with the Sassaman dynasty. They 
are important for a study of Gnosticism. 

VOLS. VI AND IX. The Qur'n. 

Parts I and II. Tianslated by E. H. PALMER. 8vo, cloth, 2U. 

This translation, carried out according to his own peculiar views 
of the origin of the Qur'dn, was the last great work ofJE. H, Palmer, 
before he was murdered in Egypt. 

VOL. VII. The Institutes of Vishmi. 

Translated by JULIUS JOLLY. 8vo, cloth, IQJ, 6d. 

A collection of legal aphorisms \ closely connected with one of the 
oldest Vedic schools, the Ka//5as, but considerably added to in later 
time. Of importance for a critical study of the Laws of Menu, 

VOL. vill. The Bhagavadgit&,with The Sanatsu$ttya, 
and The Anugltl 

Translated by KASHINATH TRIMBAK TELANG. 8vo, cloth, 
roj. 6d. 

The earliest philosophical and religious poem of India, It has been 
paraphrased in Arnold's 'Song Celestial? 

VOL. X. The Dhammapada, 

Translated from Hli by F. MAX MULLER; and 

The Sutta-Nipdta, 

Translated from PSli by V. FAUSBOLL ; being Canonical Books 
of the Buddhists. 8vo, cloth, ios, 6d. 

The Dhammapada contains the quintessMce of Buddhist morality. 
TAe Sutta-Nipdta gives the authentic teaching of Bitddlw on some 
of the fundamental principles of religion, 


VOL. XI. Buddhist Suttas. 

Translated from Pili by T, W. RHYS DAVIDS, i. The 
parmibbSna Suttanta; 2. The Dhamma-Mka-ppavatlana 
Sutta. 3. The Tevi^aSuttanta; 4. The Akahkheyya Sulla ; 
5. The ^Tetokhila Sutta; 6. The MaM-sudassana Suttanta; 
7. The Sabbisava Sutta. 8vo, cloth, xoj. 6d. 
A collection of {he most important religious^ moral, and philosophical 
discourses taken from the sacred canon of the Buddhists. 

VOL. XII. The .Satapatha-Brihmawa, according to the 
Text of the M&dhyandina School 

Translated by JULIUS EGGELING. Part L Books I and II 
8vo, cloth, i2j. 6 d. 

A minute account of the sacrificial ceremonies of the Vcdic age. 
It contains the earliest account of the Deluge in India. 
[See also Vols. XXVI, XLI] 

VOL, XIII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the PSIi by T. W. RHYS DAVIDS and HERMANN 
OLDENBERG. Parti. The PStimokkha. The MaMvagga, I-1V. 
8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 

The Vinaya Texts give for the first time a translation of the moral 
code of the Buddhist religion as settled in the third century B. C. 
[See also Vols. XVII and XX.] 

VOL. XIV. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vdsish/^a, 
and Baudhayana. Translated by GEORG BUHLER. Part II, 
VSsish/Aa and Baudhdyana. 8vo, cloth, los. 6d. 

VOL. XV. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. MAX MULLER. Rut II. The Ka/Sa-upanishad, 
The Miwrfaka-upamshad, The Taitthiyaka-upamshad, The 
BrzhadS-rawyaka-upanibhad, The ASVetSjvataia-upanishad, The 
Prajwa-upamshad, and The MaMyawa-br&hmay/a-upamshad. 
8vo, cloth, 10^. 6d. 

VOL. xvi. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Tests of Confucianism. Tianslated by JAMES LEGGE, 
Part II. The YJ King. 8vo, cloth, 10*. 6ct. 
[See also Vols. XXVII, XXVIIL] 

VOL. XVII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the P&I by T. W. RHYS DAVIDS and HERMANN 
OLDENBERG. Part II. The Mahfcvagga, V-X. The tfullavagga, 
I-IIL 8vo, cloth, ios. 6d. 


VOL. XVIII. Pahlavi Texts, 

Translated by E. W. WEST. Part II. The Dfcbtfin-f Dintk 
and The Epistles of Mfinfidfhar. 8vo, cloth, 1 2 s. 6d. 

VOL. xix. The Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king. 

A Life of Buddha by Amghosha Bodhisattva, translated from 
Sanskrit into Chinese by Dharmaiaksha, A.D. 420, and from 
Chinese into English by SAMUEL BEAL, 8vo, cloth, IQS. 6d. 

This life of Buddha was translated from Sanskrit into Chinese, 
A.D. 420. // contains many legends, some of which shew a certain 
similarity to the Evangelism wfantiae } $c. 

VOL. XX. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pli by T. W. RHYS DAVIDS and HERMANN 
OLDENBERG. Part III. The -STullavagga, I V-XII. 8vo, cloth, 
IGS. 6d. 

VOL. XXI. The Saddharma-pu^darlka ; or, The Lotus 
of the True Law. 

Translated by H. KERN, 8vo, cloth, 12$, 6d. 
{ The Lotus of the true Law' a canonical look of the Northern 
Buddhists, translated from Sanskrit. There is a Chinese transla- 
tion of this look which was finished as early as the year 286 A.D. 

VOL. XXII, Gaina-Stitras. 

Translated from Mkrit by HERMANN JACOBI. Pait I. The 
A^Mnga-Stoa and The Kalpa-Sfltra, 8vo, cloth, IQS. 6d. 

The religion of the Gainas was founded ly a contemporary of Buddha. 
It still counts numerous adhermts in India^ while there are no 
Buddhists left in India proper. 
Part II, in preparation. 

VOL. xxm. The Zend-Avesta, 

Translated by JAMES DARMESTETER. Part II. The Sfi6zahs, 
Yarts, and Ny^yij, 8vo, cloth, 10$, 6d. 

VOL. XXIV, Pahlavi Texts, 

Translated by E. W. WEST. Part III. Dfnd-J Matn6g- 
Khharf, 5ikand-gftmanlk V^r ; and Sad Dar, 8vo, cloth, 
los. 6d. 



xxv. Manu. 

Translated by GEORG BUHLER. 8vo, cloth, 2is. 
This translation is founded on that of Sir William Jones, which has been 
carefully revised and corrected with the help of seven native Commentaries. 
An Appendix contains all the quotations from Manu which are found in the 
Hindu Law-books, translated for the use of the Law Courts in India. 
Another Appendix gives a synopsis of parallel passages from the six 
Dharxna-stitras, the other Smntis, the Upanishads, the Mah^bhirata, &c. 

VOL. XXVI. The 6atapatha-Brihmawa. 

Translated by JULIUS EGGELING. Part II. Books III and IV. 
8vo, cloth, m. 6d. 

VoiiS. xxvii AND xxvin. The Sacred Books of China. 
The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by JAMES LEGGE. Parts 
III and IV. The LI Ki, or Collection of Treatises on the Rules 
of Propriety, or Ceremonial Usages. 8vo, cloth, m. 6 d. each. 

VOL. xxix. The GnTiya-SAtras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part I. *$anlMyana, Ajvattyana, PSraskara, Khddira. Trans- 
lated by HERMANN OLDENBERG. 8vo, cloth, m. 6d. 
These rules of Domestic Ceremonies describe the home life of the ancient 
Aryas with a completeness and accuracy unmatched in any other literature. 
Some of these rules ha\e been incorporated in the ancient Law-books. 

VOL. xxx. The Gn'hya-Sfttras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies, 

Part II. Gobhila, Hirawyakerin, Apastamba. Translated by 
HERMANN OLDENBERG. Apastamba, Yag#a-paribMsha-sfitras 
Translated by F. MAX MULLER. 8vo, cloth, m. 6d. 

VOL. XTTXT. The Zend-Avesta. 

Part HI. The Yasna, Visparad, AfrfnagSn, Ghs, and 
Miscellaneous Fragments, Translated by L, H. MILLS. 8vo 
cloth, izs. 6d. 

xxxii. Vedic Hymns. 

Translated by F. MAX MULLER. Part L 8vo, cloth, iBs. 6d. 


VOL. xxxni. The Minor Law-books. 

Translated by JULIUS JOLLY. Part L Nftrada, Bnhaspati, 
8vo, cloth, IDJ. 6d. 

VOL. XXXIV. The Vednta-Sfttras, with the Com- 
mentary by .Sankar^rya, Part I. 

Translated by G. THIBAUT. 8vo, cloth, 12*. 6d. 

VOL. xxxv. The Questions of King Milinda. Part I. 
Translated from the Hli by T. W. RHYS DAMDS. 
8vo, cloth, xoj. 6d. 

VOL. XXXVL The Questions of King Milinda. Part II. 

[In the Press.] 

VOL. xxxvn. The Contents of the Nasks, as stated 
in the Eighth and Ninth Books of the Dfnkard. 
Pait L Translated by E. W. WEST. 8vo, cloth, 15^. 

VOL. xxxvni. The Vedinta-Sfttras. Part II. [In 
the Press.] 

VOLS. xxxix AND XL. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Tdoism. Translated by JAMES LEGGE. 8vo, 
cloth, 2is. 

VOL. XLI. The ^atapatha-Biihma^a. Part III. 
Translated by JULIUS EGGELING. 8vo, cloth, m. 6 d. 

VOL, XLII. Hymns of the Atharva-veda. 
Translated by M. BLOOMFIELD. [In preparation} 

VOLS. XLIII AND XLIV. The ^atapatha-Brihma^a. 
Parts IV and V. [In preparation} 

VOL. XLV, The Gaina-Sfttras. Part II. [In ffo Press.] 
VOL. XLVI. The Vedinta-Sfttras. Part III. [In 


VOL. XLVII. The Contents of the Nasks. Part II. 

[In preparation.] 
VOL. XLVIII. Vedic Hymns. Part 1 1. \Inpreparation} 

VOL. XLIX. Buddhist MahiyAna Texts. Buddha- 
fenta, translated by E. B. Co WELL. Sukh|va 
diH, &c.j translated by F. MAX MULLER. 
Sflira, translated by J* TAKAKUSU. [Now ready} 


ftnecfcota xonienate* 


Btiddhist Texts from Japan. I. Vafra/^edika ; 
Diamond- Cutter. 

Edited by F. MAX MULLER, M.A. Small 410, 3^. 6d. 
One of the most famous metaphysical treatises of the MahdyaTia Buddhists. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. II. Sukhivatl-Vyftha : 
Description of ' Sukh&vatt, the Land of Bliss. 

Edited by F. MAX MULLER, M A., and BUNYIU NANJIO. With 
two Appendices : (i) Text and Translation of Sanghavarman's 
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The tditio frincsps of the Sacred Book of one of the largest and most 
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Leaves containing the Pra^;M-Pramitd-Hndaya- 
Sutra and tJu Ush^lsha-Vi^ya-Dhira^t. 

Edited by F. MAX MULLER, M.A., and BUNYIU NANJIO, M.A. 
With an Appendix by G. BUHLER, C.I.E. With many Plates. 
Small 4 to, 10^. 
Contains facsimiles of the oldest Sanskrit MS. at present known. 

Dharma-Sa^graha, an Ancient Collection of Buddhist 
Technical Terms. 

Prepared for publication by KENJIU KASAWARA, a Buddhist 
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Kitydyana's SarvS,nukrama^t of the jfogveda. 

With Extracts from Sha</gunmshya's Commentary entitled 
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